Chapter8

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  • Table 8.1
  • Fig 8.1
  • Fig 8.2
  • Fig 8.3
  • Fig 8.3
  • Fig 8.4
  • Fig 8.5
  • Fig 8.5
  • Fig 8.6a
  • Fig 8.6b
  • Fig 8.7
  • Fig 8.8
  • Fig 8.9
  • Fig 8.10
  • Fig 8.11
  • Fig 8.12
  • Table 8.2
  • Fig 8.13
  • Chapter8

    1. 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 8: A Geographic Profile of Oceania
    2. 2. <ul><li>Oceania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Region covers one-third of the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by the world’s largest ocean, the Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subregions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islands of the Mid-Pacific </li></ul></ul>Introduction to the Region
    3. 4. <ul><li>Pacific Island Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanesia “Black Islands” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micronesia “Tiny Islands” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polynesia “Many Islands” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical Traits for a Pacific Island Country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population of 100,000 to 150,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area of 250 to 1,000 square miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of a number of islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor economically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-colony of Britain, New Zealand, or Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on foreign economic aid </li></ul></ul>8.1.1 Major Divisions of the Region
    4. 5. Principal Features of Oceania
    5. 6. Comparison of Area Oceania vs. Conterminous U.S.
    6. 7. <ul><li>Regional population is 34.4 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia has 21 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea has 6.3 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuvalu only has 12,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Growth Rates Vary Widely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia (0.6%) and New Zealand (0.7%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3% in Marshall Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People Overpopulation in Polynesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant Emigration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postindustrial Fear in Australia / New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Might not have enough people to support the countries’ economies and aging populations </li></ul></ul>8.1.2 The People and Where They Live
    7. 8. Population Distribution of Oceania
    8. 9. Population Cartogram of Oceania
    9. 10. 8.2 Physical Geography
    10. 11. <ul><li>Most of the region is tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Cool mid-latitude westerly winds bring New Zealand and coastal southern Australia a marine west coast climate </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal southern Australia has some Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal northern Australia has tropical savanna </li></ul><ul><li>Interior of Australia has desert climate and vegetation </li></ul>8.2.1 Climates and Biomes
    11. 12. Climates of Oceania
    12. 13. Biomes of Oceania
    13. 14. <ul><li>Continental Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continents or were attached to continents before sea level changes and tectonic activities isolated them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Australia, New Guinea, New Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often the result of volcanic eruptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Hawaii, Samoa, Society Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of coral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most take the shape of an irregular ring surrounding a lagoon (called an atoll) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack resources to support dense populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Kiribati, Caroline and Marshall Islands </li></ul></ul>8.2.2 Island Types
    14. 15. High Island Bora Bora, Tahiti
    15. 16. Low Island
    16. 17. Land Use in Oceania
    17. 18. Geologic Hot Spot: Hawaii Some of the volcanic high islands of the Pacific comprise island chains. These are formed when the oceanic crust slides over a stationary geologic hot spot in the earth’s mantle where molten magma is relatively close to the crust. As the crust slides over the geologic hot spot, magma rises through the crust to form new volcanic islands.
    18. 19. Development of An Atoll
    19. 20. Coconut Harvesting by Hand
    20. 21. <ul><li>Factors Threatening Endemic Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-Induced Extinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat Destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate Hunting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of Exotic Species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic Eruptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoons (Hurricanes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rises in Sea Level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hawaii as “Extinction Capital of the World” </li></ul>8.2.3 Vulnerability of Oceania’s Ecosystems
    21. 22. New Guinea’s Forests Are Rich in Biodiversity
    22. 23. <ul><li>Australia & New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly European in culture and ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiji, New Caledonia & Guam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half Indigenous & Half Foreign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rest of Oceania’s Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% Indigenous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% Asian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% European </li></ul></ul>8.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    23. 24. <ul><li>Settlement began in Pacific region 60,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers came across land bridge that linked New Guinea and Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestors of today’s Aborigines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aboriginal • Austronesian • Papuan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea is home to 860 languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vanuatu has 105 identified languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingua Franca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English and French reflect colonial past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pidgin is official language of Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul></ul>8.3.1 The Indigenous Peoples of Oceania
    24. 25. Languages and Settlement Routes
    25. 26. <ul><li>First Europeans in region were voyagers </li></ul><ul><li>European legacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created new settlement patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupted old political systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rearranged demographic and natural landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of exotic crops </li></ul></ul>8.3.2 Europeans in Oceania
    26. 28. <ul><li>Aside from Australia and New Zealand, the region is characterized by a lack of industrial development </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty typical of LDCs prevails in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrannies of size and distance </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries must import more than they can export </li></ul>8.4 Economic Geography
    27. 29. <ul><li>6 Major Economic Enterprises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports of Plantation Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports of Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports of Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services for Western Military Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul>8.4.1 Making a Living in Oceania
    28. 30. Nauru The 10 square miles of land that is Nauru have been devastated by phosphate mining that once made Nauruans among the wealthiest people per capita on earth.
    29. 31. <ul><li>Recent unrest over region’s mineral wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Caledonia and Nickel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bougainville and Copper </li></ul></ul>8.4.2 Mining Brings Strife
    30. 32. <ul><li>Oceania was once entirely colonial </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S., Britain, Australia, and New Zealand have abandoned most of their colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Only France has held on to all of its colonies </li></ul>8.5 Geopolitical Issues
    31. 33. <ul><li>Importance of islands to governing powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Advantages </li></ul></ul>8.5.1 Interest of Foreign Powers in the Pacific
    32. 34. <ul><li>Rise in sea level due to global warming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea levels have risen in recent years at a rate of 0.1” / yr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprecedented tidal surges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiribati, Marshall Islands, and Tuvalu could be completely submerged, while other island nations would lose territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alliance of Small Island States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politicked unsuccessfully at 1997 Kyoto Conference for lowering of global greenhouse gas emissions to 20 percent below their 1990 levels by 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took legal recourse against U.S. and Australia for failing to ratify the Kyoto Protocol </li></ul></ul>8.5.2 Oceania’s Environmental Future

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