Chapter7

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  • Chapter7

    1. 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 7: A Geographic Profile of Monsoon Asia
    2. 2. <ul><li>Regional Profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-quarter of the earth’s landmass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half the world’s population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.6 billion people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subregions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia </li></ul></ul>7 Monsoon Asia at a Glance
    3. 3. Monsoon Asia
    4. 4. Monsoon Asia vs. Conterminous U.S.
    5. 5. <ul><li>Region is home to 54% of world’s population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China and India together have 2.4 billion people, or 37% of the world’s total </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Places with high urban densities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul></ul>7.1.1 Demographic Heavyweights
    6. 6. Population Distribution of Monsoon Asia
    7. 7. Population Cartogram of Monsoon Asia
    8. 8. <ul><li>Not possible to generalize about population growth in Monsoon Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide Range from 0% (Japan) to 3.3% (Timor-Leste) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily LDCs in the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postindustrial Japan worries about its declining population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China’s “one-child policy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India should overtake China as world’s most populous country in 2040 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wildcard is HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul></ul>7.1.2 Population Growth Patterns
    9. 9. <ul><li>Inner Arc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s highest mountain ranges, plateaus, and basins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Arc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower mountains, hill lands, river plains, and basins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outer Eastern Arc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islands and seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archipelagoes (clusters of islands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>East Indies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul></ul>7.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    10. 10. Physical Geography of Monsoon Asia
    11. 11. <ul><li>Monsoon Asia is characterized generally by a warm, well-watered climate </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Types in Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Subtropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm Humid Continental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Humid Continental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subarctic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undifferentiated Highland </li></ul></ul>7.2.1 Climate and Vegetation
    12. 12. Climate Types of Monsoon Asia
    13. 13. Biome Types of Monsoon Asia
    14. 14. <ul><li>Monsoons are the prevailing sea-to-land and land-to-sea winds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet Summer Monsoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High humidity, moist air, predictable rains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even more precipitation where there is elevation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Winter Monsoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land loses relative warmth while the sea and coastal waters stay warm longer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind shifts and air masses flow from inland areas to sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long dry season, except for Japan </li></ul></ul></ul>7.2.2 The Monsoons
    15. 15. South Asia Monsoons
    16. 16. Torrential Monsoon Rains in Sri Lanka
    17. 17. Land Use in Monsoon Asia
    18. 18. <ul><li>Many soils are infertile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperatures and heavy rains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid leaching of mineral nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposition of organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many soils will not support more than one or two poor harvests </li></ul></ul>7.2.3 Agricultural Adaptations
    19. 19. <ul><li>Intensive Subsistence Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built around growing of cereals, especially rice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shifting Cultivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of sustaining only small populations for brief periods of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wet Rice Cultivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of producing 2-3 crops per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can sustain large populations over long periods of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowland Floodplains and Upland Terraces </li></ul></ul>7.2.4 The Importance of Rice
    20. 20. Terraced Rice Fields in Vietnam
    21. 21. <ul><li>Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People overpopulation in Nepal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No room left in the Terai, so people clear and cultivate steep lands on which it is impossible to build terraces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy monsoon rains cause relentless erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eroded plots cannot be cultivated again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landslides occur downslope, causing loss of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased sediment load causes rivers to swell out of banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding downstream in Bangladesh </li></ul></ul>7.2.5 Agriculture and Culture
    22. 22. <ul><li>38% of region’s population is urban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokyo is the world’s largest city (37 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>62% of region’s population is rural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main unit of Asian settlement is the village </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowland villages tend to be situated on natural levees, dikes, or raised mounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronounced Rural-to-Urban Migration </li></ul>7.2.6 Where Asians Live
    23. 23. Satellite Dish on Traditional Dwelling
    24. 24. <ul><li>Cultural Developments from Monsoon Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First movable printing type (Korea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder, paper, silk, and porcelain (China) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faiths of Hinduism and Buddhism (India) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domesticated plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cabbage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chickens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Buffalo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zebu Cattle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul></ul></ul>7.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    25. 25. <ul><li>Ethnic and linguistic composition is rich and complex </li></ul><ul><li>Language Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-European </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sino-Tibetan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dravidian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papuan </li></ul></ul>7.3.1 Ethnic and Linguistic Patterns
    26. 26. Languages of Monsoon Asia
    27. 27. <ul><li>Two Great Hearths of Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monsoon Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief systems practiced by 25 percent of the world’s population originated in this region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daoism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shintoism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestor Veneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animism </li></ul></ul>7.3.2 Religions & Philosophical Movements
    28. 28. Religions of Monsoon Asia
    29. 29. Ancestor Veneration
    30. 30. <ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks a definite creed or theology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social hierarchy of the caste system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice rituals to honor deities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brahman the Creator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vishnu the Preserver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shiva the Destroyer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe in reincarnation and transmigration of souls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganges is a sacred river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that it springs from the matted hair of the god Shiva </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many elderly go to die in this city and be cremated where ashes can be strewn in holy waters </li></ul></ul></ul>7.3.2 Religions & Philosophical Movements
    31. 31. Hinduism: Vishnu and Lakshmi
    32. 32. <ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha was born a prince in 563 B.C.E. in northern India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected precepts of Hinduism, including caste system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life is suffering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All suffering is caused by ignorance of the nature of reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End suffering by overcoming ignorance and attachment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression of suffering through the Noble Eightfold Path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma (person’s acts and consequences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to attain nirvana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transcendent state in which one is able to escape the cycle of birth and rebirth and all the suffering it brings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theravada and Mahayana Branches </li></ul></ul>7.3.2 Religions & Philosophical Movements
    33. 33. Buddhist Temple in Thailand
    34. 34. Daoist Temple in Shanghai, China
    35. 35. <ul><li>Portugal and Spain were first to extend economic and political control over South and Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, Borneo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch East Indies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Indochina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese Goa and Diu in India, Macau & Timor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western domination of Asia ended in 20 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After WWII, colonial possessions gained independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hong Kong returned by Britain to China in 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macau returned by Portugal to China in 1999 </li></ul></ul>7.3.3 Effects of European Colonization
    36. 36. Colonial Monsoon Asia - Early 20 th Century
    37. 37. <ul><li>World’s Fastest-Growing Economies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China is ranked #2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan is ranked #4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many hundreds of millions of people remain poor </li></ul><ul><li>Growing gap between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Tigers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong, industrialized export-oriented economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Asian Tigers in Southeast Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan leads Asia in value-added manufacturing </li></ul>7.4 Economic Geography
    38. 38. <ul><li>4th-largest economy in terms of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>2nd-largest economy in terms of GDP PPP </li></ul><ul><li>Average annual growth rate of 10% since 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>China is making a little bit of everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-quarters of all toys sold in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd largest manufacturer of personal computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joined the World Trade Organization in 2001 </li></ul>7.4.1 China’s Surging Economy
    39. 39. Silk Production in China
    40. 40. <ul><li>Surging investment in China is linked to disinvestment elsewhere, especially in SE Asia </li></ul><ul><li>China has eclipsed the United States as Asia’s most essential trading partner </li></ul><ul><li>China is the epicenter of prolific Asian trade in pirated products </li></ul>7.4.2 China’s Economic Impact
    41. 41. Counterfeit CD / DVD Vendor in Laos
    42. 42. <ul><li>Use science to increase food yields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stave off hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate export income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia’s Biovalley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia’s Bioisland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial obstacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic dislocations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large infusions of agricultural chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of genetic variability of crops </li></ul></ul>7.4.3 The Green Revolution
    43. 43. Palm Oil Tree in Malaysia
    44. 44. <ul><li>Principal Geopolitical Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamist Terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of Shipping Lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia is emerging as center of gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge century-long primacy of the U.S. in world affairs </li></ul></ul></ul>7.5 Geopolitical Issues
    45. 45. <ul><li>Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition of all nuclear testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed by 149 nations and went into effect in 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>India and Pakistan did not sign the treaty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>India and Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1998, India conducted 3 underground nuclear tests in the Thar Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan followed with six nuclear tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of Mutually Assured Destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pivotal Countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse would cause international migration, war, pollution, disease epidemics, or other problems </li></ul></ul></ul>7.5.1 Nationalism & Nuclear Weapons
    46. 46. <ul><li>Pakistani president dropped support for Taliban and allowed the U.S. to use the country to prepare for the assault on the Taliban and al-Qa’ida in Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>The United States forgave much of Pakistan’s debt and lifted its sanctions against Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. also lifted its post-nuclear test sanctions against India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semiautonomous federally administered tribal areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pashtun are sympathetic to the causes of their Taliban ethnic kin and their al-Qa’ida spiritual kin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition to American interests </li></ul></ul>7.5.2 U.S.-Pakistan Relations Since 9/11
    47. 47. Pashtun Man of Western Pakistan
    48. 48. <ul><li>A Reunited Korea? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would remove other countries’ justifications for building up their defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antimissile defensive shield over the United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Korea included in George W. Bush’s “Axis of Evil” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only leverage North Korea has had to coax desperately needed supplies from abroad </li></ul></ul>7.5.3 What Does North Korea Want?
    49. 49. No-Man’s-Land Separating North & South Korea
    50. 50. <ul><li>Indonesia as potential new hearth for al-Qa’ida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominantly Muslim population, including extremists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islamist organizations like Laskar Jihad and Jemaah Islamiah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote locales suitable for making weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions the government is unwilling or unable to control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American interests in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and Natural Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Shipping Lanes </li></ul></ul>7.5.4 Islands, Sea Lanes, and Islamists

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