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  • Fig 4.1
  • Table 4.1
  • Table 4.1 con’t
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  • Chapter4

    1. 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 4: A Geographic Profile of Europe
    2. 2. <ul><li>Traditionally, Europe is classified as one of the world’s seven continents, but it is not a distinct landmass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually an appendage or a subcontinent of Eurasia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe is the culture region made up of the countries of Eurasia lying west of Turkey, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional physical dividing line between Europe and Asia is drawn from the Ural Mountains down to the Caucasus, which technically places the majority of the above-mentioned countries within Europe </li></ul>4 Delineating Europe
    3. 3. Political Geography of Europe
    4. 4. <ul><li>Subregions of Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul>4.1.1 Europe’s Subregions
    5. 7. <ul><li>Area of Europe is half that of conterminous U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe contains one of the world’s great clusters of human population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population of 532 million (2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 out of every 12 people in the world is a European </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population density varies widely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,020 persons per square mile in the Netherlands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 7 persons per square mile in Iceland </li></ul></ul></ul>4.1.2 The Europeans
    6. 8. Population Distribution of Europe
    7. 9. Population Cartogram of Europe
    8. 10. <ul><li>Greatest population densities found in 2 belts of industrialization and urbanization near historical sources of coal and hydroelectric power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the United Kingdom to Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain to southern Poland and out into Ukraine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These belts contain large cities and generate greater value of industrial output than rest of Europe combined </li></ul><ul><li>Europe’s overall population is 74% urban </li></ul>4.1.3 Industrialization & Development
    9. 11. <ul><li>Europe has transitioned from preindustrial high birth and death rates to postindustrial low birth and death rates </li></ul><ul><li>Population of Europe peaked in 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Birth Dearth” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Birth Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employed and educated women choosing not to devote time and money necessary to raise children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility rate below population replacement level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No European country maintaining its population through births </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe’s population aging faster than all other world regions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash incentives to parents who have multiple children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering welfare benefits to immigrants </li></ul></ul>4.1.4 Why Is Europe’s Population Declining?
    10. 12. <ul><li>Physical Characteristics of Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jagged coastal outline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estuaries and harbors offer protection for shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Much of Europe’s history has focused on seaborne trade, sea fisheries, and sea power </li></ul><ul><li>Much of Europe lies north of the conterminous U.S., resulting in long summer days and short winter days </li></ul>4.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
    11. 13. Physical Geography of Europe
    12. 14. Comparison of Latitude and Area: Europe vs. North America
    13. 15. <ul><li>Europe has mild climates despite its high latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm Ocean Currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Atlantic Drift </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerly Winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter winds absorb heat from ocean and transport to land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In summer, the ocean is cooler than land, so the winds have a cooling effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winds also bring abundant moisture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average annual precipitation in European lowlands is 20-40 inches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>4.2.1 Why Is Europe So Warm?
    14. 16. <ul><li>North European Plain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from French-Spanish border far into Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the greater part of Europe’s cultivated land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlain by deposits of coal, iron ore, and other minerals important in the region’s industrial development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to many of the largest European cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile loess soils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glaciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created favorable sites for hydroelectric installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial deposition left fertile deposits on most of the North European Plain that are productively farmed today </li></ul></ul>4.2.2 Human-Environmental Relationship
    15. 17. The Swiss Alps from Space
    16. 18. Maximum Extent of Pleistocene Glaciation
    17. 19. <ul><li>Despite its relatively small size, Europe has remarkable climatic and biotic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine West Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Continental Short-Summer (Cold) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Continental Long-Summer (Warm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subarctic and Tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undifferentiated Highland </li></ul></ul>4.2.3 Diversity of Climate & Vegetation
    18. 20. Climate Types of Europe
    19. 21. Biomes of Europe
    20. 22. Land Use in Europe
    21. 23. Mediterranean Landscape in Greece
    22. 24. <ul><li>Uses of River Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romans used rivers for transport and today, rivers still make it possible to move cargo at low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch developed the pound lock for canals </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhine and Danube traverse many countries and are important arteries for the flow of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Important Seaports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>London on the Thames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antwerp on the Scheldt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotterdam in the delta of the Rhine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamburg on the Elbe </li></ul></ul>4.2.4 Rivers and Waterways
    23. 25. The Busy Rhine River
    24. 26. <ul><li>Europe is a region marked by extraordinary cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So many countries crowded into a relatively small land area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This richness can be experienced through a brief train ride through Europe </li></ul></ul>4.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
    25. 27. <ul><li>Europe emerged from prehistory as the homeland of many different peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great expansion of the Greek and Celtic peoples in the first millennium B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe’s Greek and Celtic languages expanded at roughly the same time, but are represented today only by remnants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Language Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romance (Evolved from Latin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Italian, French, Spanish & Portuguese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: German, English, Dutch, Danish & Swedish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak & Serbian </li></ul></ul></ul>4.3.1 Linguistic & Ethnic Groups of Europe
    26. 28. Languages of Europe
    27. 29. <ul><li>Dominance of Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embraced by Emperor Constantine in the 4 th Century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europe’s largest religious group (280 million followers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Orthodox Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in Constantinople during Middle Ages as rival to Rome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sects Emerging from Protestant Reformation (16 th Century) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Church of England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calvinism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lutheran Protestantism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe has become increasingly secularized </li></ul><ul><li>Islam is fastest growing religion in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Only one million Jews in Europe today </li></ul>4.3.2 Europeans’ Religious Roots
    28. 30. Religions of Europe
    29. 32. <ul><li>The Silk Road was an important global trade route, connecting China and Venice </li></ul><ul><li>The balance of world affairs started shifting to Europe with the beginning of the Age of Discovery in the 15th century </li></ul><ul><li>The process of exploration and discovery began with Portuguese expeditions down the west coast of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Explorers were the vanguards of a global European invasion that would bring the missionaries, soldiers, traders, settlers, and administrators </li></ul><ul><li>The Columbian Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in reshaping the world’s biogeography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The transfer of plants and animals from one place to another following Europe’s conquest of the Americas </li></ul></ul>4.3.3 European Colonialism & Consequences
    30. 34. <ul><li>Europe had significant material and cultural riches, which the colonial system built on to make it the world’s wealthiest region for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Achievements in shipbuilding, navigation, and the manufacture and handling of weapons gave Europe decided advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of modern science primarily came out of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>First world region to evolve from an agricultural to an industrial society </li></ul>4.4 Economic Geography
    31. 35. <ul><li>By 1900, European cities created about 90% of world’s manufacturing output </li></ul><ul><li>In 20th century, Europe’s preeminence in world trade and industry diminished to about 25% of the world’s manufacturing output. This happened for several reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising economic and political stature of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A major shift in global manufacturing patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on outside sources of energy </li></ul></ul>4.4 Economic Geography con’t
    32. 36. Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 1945
    33. 37. <ul><li>Western Europe is wealthier than Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend dates to at least the 1870s, when per capita incomes in the west were twice those in the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After World War II, eastern European countries were in effect colonized by the Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Served as vassal states that gave up human and material resources to service the motherland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope for Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admission of eastern European countries to the EU </li></ul></ul></ul>4.4.1 An Imbalance of Wealth
    34. 38. <ul><li>Europe’s Postindustrial Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from energy-hungry, labor-costly, and polluting industries toward an economy based on services and production of high-tech goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These industries do not employ as many people as the old manufacturing sector, so there are unemployment problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many European nations fit model of welfare state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use resources collected through high taxation rates to provide generous social services to citizens </li></ul></ul>4.4.2 Postindustrialization
    35. 39. <ul><li>Agriculture was the original foundation of Europe’s economy and is still very important </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural advances after about 1500: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of new crops, such as the potato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New systems of crop rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific advancements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial cities provided growing markets for farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers protected through tariffs or direct subsidies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fishing an important part of the European food economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of fishing grounds as commercial / political objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overfishing of cod </li></ul></ul>4.4.3 Land and Sea
    36. 40. Fishing Boats in Harbor of Skagen, Denmark
    37. 41. <ul><li>Europe’s geopolitical situation has changed more profoundly and violently in the past 100 years than any other world region </li></ul><ul><li>Europe experienced two world wars that wrought unprecedented devastation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World War I (1914-1918) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World War II (1939-1945) </li></ul></ul>4.5 Geopolitical Issues
    38. 42. <ul><li>European Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federation of nations similar to the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest post-war European supranational organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member countries are united beyond the authority of any single national government and are planned and controlled by a group of nations </li></ul></ul>4.5.1 Postwar Europe
    39. 43. <ul><li>North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military alliance founded in 1949 between the U.S., Canada, most European countries west of the Iron Curtain & Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NATO faced off against the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War ended with collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact was dissolved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear arsenals of the respective alliances were reduced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plans made to turn the path of the Iron Curtain into the European Greenbelt, a mosaic of national parks and other protected areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NATO remains today with a membership of 26 </li></ul></ul>4.5.2 The Cold War & Its Aftermath
    40. 44. European Membership of NATO
    41. 45. <ul><li>Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Most important of Europe’s supranational organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Began as the European Economic Community, 1957 </li></ul><ul><li>Initially designed to secure the benefits of large-scale production by pooling resources & markets of its members </li></ul><ul><li>Maastricht Treaty of European Union, 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of nontariff trade barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of the euro, a single EU currency, in 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European Economic & Monetary Union (EMU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2007, the number of official euro-using nations was 13 </li></ul></ul></ul>4.5.3 The European Union
    42. 46. Members of the European Union
    43. 47. <ul><li>The “Big Bang” of 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 eastern European nations joined the EU all at once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a mega-Europe of 450 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU economy is valued at almost $10 trillion, nearly as strong as the U.S. economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schengen Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt at integration, allowing free circulation of people among 15 nations that signed the agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To maintain internal security within this greater Schengenland, member states are supposed to exercise common visa, asylum, and other policies at their external borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truly open borders probably far in the future </li></ul></ul>4.5.4 Size and Diversity of the EU
    44. 48. <ul><li>Ongoing issues facing the EU: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many member states retreating to nationalist interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle to craft and ratify a constitution in which all members can agree on matters such as defense and foreign affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict over distribution of power between big and small states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debate over whether God should be mentioned in preamble </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French and Dutch voters rejected the constitution in 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New draft of constitution could be ratified in 2008 or 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns with how to articulate a defense policy that does not conflict with NATO </li></ul></ul>4.5.5 The Future
    45. 49. <ul><li>A rift developed between U.S. & Europe over the Iraq War </li></ul><ul><li>Questions raised on what we do or don’t have in common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many instinctively equate the U.S. with Europe when speaking about global patterns, as we share: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many common cultural roots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A great deal of the world’s wealth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the same measures of quality of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences between Europeans and Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of Social Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of and Spending on Public Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes on Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views on U.S. “Cultural Industries” (e.g., Hollywood films) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowance of questions of spirituality into political debates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of Death Penalty (outlawed in EU countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences on the Geopolitical Front </li></ul></ul>4.5.6 Comparing Europeans & Americans