World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd  Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox,  & Diana M...
Southeast Asia <ul><li>Mainland and Island Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical monsoon climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Landforms <ul><li>Tectonically Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eurasian Plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Plate </li><...
Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Southeast Asia Figure 13.1
Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.3 Environmental Issues – Overview
Deforestation in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Export-oriented logging </li></ul><ul><li>Denuded landscapes, damaged watersheds, ...
Deforestation (cont’d) Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.0 Figure 1...
Landforms <ul><li>Mainland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geologically older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountainous </li></ul></ul>...
The Spratly Islands <ul><li>Highly Contested Territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral reef outcrops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
2004 Tsunami <ul><li>7.3 Earthquake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 cubic miles of water displaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 m...
Natural Hazards Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Mud Volcano in Indonesia Ts...
Mekong Basin <ul><li>From Tibet to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th  longest river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2600 ...
Volcanic Activity <ul><li>Risk to Humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pacific Ring of Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1883 – ...
Climate <ul><li>Tropical Monsoon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm year round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal rainfall </li><...
Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Climate Figure 13.7
Environmental History <ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s 2 nd  highest in biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Environmental History <ul><li>Human Land Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestication of rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We...
Environmental History <ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearing for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trop...
Early Civilizations <ul><li>Land Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Migrants </li></ul><ul><li>Two Main Types of Cities </li...
European Colonialism <ul><li>Mercantile Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spice trade <...
European Colonialism <ul><li>Industrial Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British East I...
European Colonialism <ul><li>Integration of Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade established with Europe </li></ul></ul><ul...
Independence <ul><li>Japanese Occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens Europe’s ho...
The Vietnam War <ul><li>Communists Fight for Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese then French </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Geopolitical  Framework Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.24
Regional Tensions <ul><li>East Timor </li></ul><ul><li>Kalimantan (Borneo) </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul><ul><li...
Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.29 Ethnic Conflict in Burma Figur...
Economic Development <ul><li>Import Substitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage domestic industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Economic Development <ul><li>The Little Tigers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly Industrializing Economies (NIC’s) </li></ul></u...
Complex Economies Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure  13.32 Figure  13....
Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Global  Linkages Figure 13.37 Indonesian Sw...
Southeast Asia’s “Sin Cities” Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Poipet, Cambo...
Population <ul><li>540 million – 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia – 220 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settlement </li...
Population and  Settlement Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.10 <ul...
Demographic Contrasts Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff
Migration <ul><li>Transmigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From urban to rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government program <...
Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Transmigration Figure 13.14 Internal Reloca...
Urbanization <ul><li>50 % Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Large Cities – 10 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangkok </li></ul></ul><...
Ethnicity <ul><li>500 Ethnic and Language Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingua Franca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Versio...
Linguistic  Diversity Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.20 Figure 1...
Cultural Coherence and Diversity <ul><li>South Asian </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic </li></ul>Diversi...
Religious  Diversity Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.18
Ethnicity <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism – mainland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam – island region </li...
Social & Economic Equality <ul><li>Large Variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High GDP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singap...
Political Instability <ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East Timor – Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gains inde...
Opium Trade <ul><li>The Golden Triangle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of heroin supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 tons o...
Economy <ul><li>Regional Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) </li></ul></ul><...
Agriculture Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Harvesting Tea in Indonesia Fig...
Singapore <ul><li>Economic Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British influence </li...
Singapore <ul><li>Government Attracts Foreign Investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost, efficient labor </li></ul></ul><u...
Singapore – Regional  Hub  Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.34 Fro...
Java, Indonesia <ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most populous island at 125 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Bali <ul><li>International Tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million tourists yearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical par...
Contrasting  Settlement Patterns Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Rural Indo...
Primate Cities – Manila  Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.3.2 Figu...
Global Context of Southeast Asian Culture Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff F...
End of Chapter 9: Southeast Asia World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd  Ed.) Sallie A. ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 9

3,068 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Travel, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,068
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
46
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
59
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Figure 13.32: Bank Closings during economic crisis of 1997-1998 Figure 13.33: Filipina Migrant Workers in Kuwait Figure 13.36: Capitalism in Vietnam
  • Chapter 9

    1. 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 9: Southeast Asia Robert M. Arthur
    2. 2. Southeast Asia <ul><li>Mainland and Island Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical monsoon climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsulas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archipelagos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population - 557 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia most populous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossroads of maritime trade routes </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Landforms <ul><li>Tectonically Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eurasian Plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine Plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mariana Trench </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Southeast Asia Figure 13.1
    5. 5. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.3 Environmental Issues – Overview
    6. 6. Deforestation in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Export-oriented logging </li></ul><ul><li>Denuded landscapes, damaged watersheds, reduced biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>National parks and protected areas </li></ul>Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.4
    7. 7. Deforestation (cont’d) Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.0 Figure 13.2.1 Luzon, Philippines Oil Palm Plantations
    8. 8. Landforms <ul><li>Mainland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geologically older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountainous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deltas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River Valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mekong River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrawaddy River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chao Phraya River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red River </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Spratly Islands <ul><li>Highly Contested Territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral reef outcrops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undersea oil and gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 2004 Tsunami <ul><li>7.3 Earthquake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 cubic miles of water displaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 meter (80 feet) high waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ million displaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$13 billion in relief aid promised </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Natural Hazards Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Mud Volcano in Indonesia Tsunami Damage in Banda Aceh Figure 13.8 Figure 13.9
    12. 12. Mekong Basin <ul><li>From Tibet to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th longest river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2600 miles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laos, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation corridor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mekong River Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International cooperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formerly Saigon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population – 8 million </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special economic zone </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Volcanic Activity <ul><li>Risk to Humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pacific Ring of Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1883 – Krakatoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcano collapses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide climatic effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tsunami (tidal wave) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1991 – Mt. Pinatubo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces rich soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High populations </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Climate <ul><li>Tropical Monsoon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm year round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80 inches yearly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITZ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoons </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Climate Figure 13.7
    16. 16. Environmental History <ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s 2 nd highest in biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land bridge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wallace’s and Weber’s Line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marsupials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily forested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Mangrove forests </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Environmental History <ul><li>Human Land Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestication of rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet rice – sawah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terraces and paddies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting Cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slash and Burn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swidden </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House garden </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Environmental History <ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearing for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical hardwoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp and paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endangering animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orangutans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil erosion </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Early Civilizations <ul><li>Land Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Migrants </li></ul><ul><li>Two Main Types of Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Port Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious/ceremonial centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hinduism – God Kings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angkor Wat – Khmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Srivajaya – Sumatra </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. European Colonialism <ul><li>Mercantile Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spice trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malacca – Indonesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manila – the Philippines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malucca Islands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch East India Company </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. European Colonialism <ul><li>Industrial Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British East India company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burma, Malaya and Borneo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tin, rubber, hardwoods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Indochina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines – 1898 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish American War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remained independent </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. European Colonialism <ul><li>Integration of Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade established with Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the West creates demand in the East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants smuggled from Brazil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch ‘Culture System’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice, coffee, and Sugar </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Independence <ul><li>Japanese Occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens Europe’s hold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peaceful Turnovers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines – 1946 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burma – 1948 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia – 1963 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore separates – 1965 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent opposition to Dutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wins independence in 1949 </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Vietnam War <ul><li>Communists Fight for Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese then French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dien Bien Phu – 1954 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.N. Divides Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communists fight to reunite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. enter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War politics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domino Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1973 – U.S. pulls out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boat people </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Geopolitical Framework Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.24
    26. 26. Regional Tensions <ul><li>East Timor </li></ul><ul><li>Kalimantan (Borneo) </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul>Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff East Timorese Demonstration in Jakarta Figure 13.28
    27. 27. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.29 Ethnic Conflict in Burma Figure 13.30 Aung San Suu Kyi
    28. 28. Economic Development <ul><li>Import Substitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage domestic industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift to export Orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative advantage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct foreign investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move from resource extraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in consumer goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free trade zones </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Economic Development <ul><li>The Little Tigers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly Industrializing Economies (NIC’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980’s saw 8% yearly growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High rates of savings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced budgets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low inflation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Asian Economic Crises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese yen drops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand raises interest rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currency drops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$12 billion in foreign investment withdrawn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Massive job layoffs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia worst hit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currency drops by 80% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40% unemployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economies improving </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Complex Economies Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.32 Figure 13.33 Figure 13.36
    31. 31. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Global Linkages Figure 13.37 Indonesian Sweatshop Figure 13.38
    32. 32. Southeast Asia’s “Sin Cities” Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Poipet, Cambodia: “Las Vegas of Southeast Asia” Figure 13.6.1 Sex Tourism in Thailand Figure 13.35
    33. 33. Population <ul><li>540 million – 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia – 220 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along coasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow in wealthy countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High in poor countries </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Population and Settlement Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.10 <ul><li>Deltas </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Zones of fertile volcanic soil </li></ul>
    35. 35. Demographic Contrasts Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff
    36. 36. Migration <ul><li>Transmigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From urban to rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Refugees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War, ethnic conflict, and poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseas Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Dominance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closed society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrant workers </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Transmigration Figure 13.14 Internal Relocation of Population
    38. 38. Urbanization <ul><li>50 % Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Large Cities – 10 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangkok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manila </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jakarta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual Centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandalay – Rangoon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hanoi – Ho Chi Minh City </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Ethnicity <ul><li>500 Ethnic and Language Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingua Franca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Versions of Malay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherent cultural nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand (Thai) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burma (Burmese) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia (Khmer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam (Vietnamese) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laos (Lao) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia (Malay) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Linguistic Diversity Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.20 Figure 13.21 Burmese Script
    41. 41. Cultural Coherence and Diversity <ul><li>South Asian </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic </li></ul>Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Influences Indonesia’s Largest Mosque Figure 13.19
    42. 42. Religious Diversity Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.18
    43. 43. Ethnicity <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism – mainland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam – island region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bali </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines – 85% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional local beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women’s Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More power in southeast Asian families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still earn less </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Social & Economic Equality <ul><li>Large Variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High GDP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore and Brunei </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over $20,000 yearly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal income distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low GDP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia – less than $280 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban better off than Rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crony capitalism and kleptocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweatshops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarchal societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bangkok </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women, girls sold into bondage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Political Instability <ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East Timor – Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gains independence – 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irian Jaya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aceh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Philippines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic Moro liberation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist insurgents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Burma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Karen </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Opium Trade <ul><li>The Golden Triangle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of heroin supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 tons of opium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd to Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 million addicts worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased opium crop by 90% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still a center for smugglers </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Economy <ul><li>Regional Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interregional trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian Free Trade Association (AFTA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce tariffs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement with military and socialistic governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land reform </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Agriculture Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Harvesting Tea in Indonesia Figure 13.11 Swidden Agriculture and the “Golden Triangle” Figure 13.12
    49. 49. Singapore <ul><li>Economic Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World class port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Container shipping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major oil refining center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Banking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consulting </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Singapore <ul><li>Government Attracts Foreign Investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost, efficient labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor intensive industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switched to High-Tech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversified service sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strict Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social engineering </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Singapore – Regional Hub Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.34 From entrepôt city to prosperous, modernized state Figure 13.17
    52. 52. Java, Indonesia <ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most populous island at 125 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% of Indonesians or 25% of Southeast Asians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terraced rice paddies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Volcanoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Semeru & Mount Bromo </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Bali <ul><li>International Tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million tourists yearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical paradise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 th C. Hindu temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% of Bali’s GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxed water supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural impacts </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Contrasting Settlement Patterns Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Rural Indonesia Bangkok Figure 13.16 Figure 13.15
    55. 55. Primate Cities – Manila Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.3.2 Figure 13.3.1 Intramuros
    56. 56. Global Context of Southeast Asian Culture Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 13.22 Figure 13.23 Buddhist Monks in a Burmese Market Filipina Musician in Hong Kong
    57. 57. End of Chapter 9: Southeast Asia World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman

    ×