Chapter 2

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  • What landform regions do these two photographs belong to?
  • Chapter 2

    1. 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 2: Europe Robert M. Arthur
    2. 2. Europe <ul><li>Highest Population Densities in the Developed World </li></ul><ul><li>Urals – Traditional Western Boundary </li></ul><ul><li>The “Iron Curtain” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Union </li></ul>
    3. 3. Setting the Boundaries <ul><li>40 countries ranging from large states (e.g., Germany) to microstates (e.g., Andorra) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively small region; Densely settled </li></ul><ul><li>Shared history amidst cultural diversity </li></ul>Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff
    4. 4. Europe
    5. 5. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Europe Figure 8.1 Arctic Norway Under the midnight sun of arctic Norway, the many troublesome issues facing Europe seem far away, at least for the moment. (Les Rowntree)
    6. 6. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Europe is about two-thirds the size of North America, as shown in this cartographic comparison. Another important characteristic is the northerly location of the region, which affects its climate, vegetation, and agriculture. Much of Europe lies at the same latitude as Canada; even the Mediterranean lands are farther north than the United States– Mexico border.
    7. 7. Landforms & Landscapes <ul><li>Importance of the sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsulas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiographic Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northwestern uplands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpine system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North European lowlands </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Physiographic Regions <ul><li>Northwestern Uplands </li></ul><ul><li>Alpine Europe </li></ul>
    9. 9. Physiographic Regions <ul><li>Central Plateaus </li></ul><ul><li>North European Lowlands </li></ul>
    10. 10. Landform Regions <ul><li>European Lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>Alpine Mountain System </li></ul><ul><li>Central Uplands </li></ul><ul><li>Western Highlands </li></ul>Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff
    11. 11. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Climate Although along the same line of latitude as northern Canada, Europe has much milder climates. What accounts for this difference?
    12. 12. Global Climate Regions Climograph A standard scheme, called the Köppen system after the Austrian geographer who devised it in the early twentieth century, is used to describe the world's diverse climates. A combination of letters refers to the general climate type, along with its precipitation and temperature characteristics. More specifically, the A climates are tropical, the B climates are dry, the C climates are generally moderate and are found in the middle latitudes, and the D climates are associated with continental and high- latitude locations.
    13. 13. Mediterranean Europe <ul><li>From Southern Spain to Eastern Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Land Tenure Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centuration, latifundia & minifundia </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Europe in the World-System <ul><li>Greek Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Athens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corinth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feudal Systems </li></ul>
    15. 15. Trade and the Age of Discovery <ul><li>Merchant Capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venice, Pisa, Genoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hanseatic League </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Age of Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ship building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Industrialization & Imperialism <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1790-1859 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Localized, steam, textiles, iron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1850-1870 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion, steel, machine tools, railways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1870-1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core-periphery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Industrial Revolution and Beyond Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 8.36
    18. 18. Imperialism <ul><li>Economic and Military Domination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World War I </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Marshall Plan </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Eastern Europe <ul><li>Iron Curtain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer zone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Socialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command economies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agglomeration economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egalitarian society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1989 - Collapse </li></ul>
    20. 20. Peoples of Europe <ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparse periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Diaspora </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Migrant Workers </li></ul>
    21. 21. Demographic Trends Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff - Slow or Negative RNI - High Densities
    22. 22. Population Pyramid <ul><li>Age-Sex Pyramid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremendous information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males – left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females – Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the population structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used for forecasting </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Migration Within Europe <ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers to industrial areas near coal fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural to urban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War and political upheaval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural to urban continues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrant workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East to west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balkan conflict </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Guest Workers and “Fortress Europe” Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Illegal Migration to Europe Czech Republic Border Station
    25. 25. European Cultural Traditions <ul><li>Greeks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judeo-Christian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Radicalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existentialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postmodernism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender and Inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feminism </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Culture & Ethnicity <ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romance languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1648 The Treaty of Westphalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nation-state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Xenophobia </li></ul>
    27. 27. Linguistic Diversity Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Removing Cyrillic Letters in Pristina, Kosovo
    28. 28. Religious Diversity Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Tensions in Northern Ireland
    29. 29. Contemporary Religious Landscapes <ul><li>Expanding diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trends toward secularization </li></ul>Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Jewish Synagogue in Berlin Turkish Store in Germany
    30. 30. Ethnicity and National Identity <ul><li>Many Local Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regionalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balkanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclaves and exclaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic cleansing </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Geopolitical Framework Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Figure 8.29 Terrorism in Madrid
    32. 32. Conflict in the Balkans <ul><li>Balkanization </li></ul><ul><li>Enclaves and Exclaves </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Cleansing </li></ul>
    33. 33. Europe—The Balkans Kosovar Refugees The diverse and complicated mosaic of ethnic diversity in the Balkans has led to geopolitical fragmentation in recent decades. Not only is the area a meeting ground for Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Islam, but complex linguistic boundaries complicate ethnic and national identity. Further, a long history of discrimination and retaliation between ethnic groups is embedded in ethnic consciousness. Thousands of Muslim Kosovars were forced to flee the Yugoslavian province of Kosovo during a period of ethnic cleansing by Serbian forces in the late 1990s. This violence led to aerial bombardment of former Yugoslavia by NATO planes to force Serbian leaders to accept UN peacekeepers in the province. Currently, Kosovo is administered by the UN while the possibility of independence from Serbia is discussed
    34. 34. Geopolitical Change Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff At the outset of the twentieth century, central Europe was dominated by the German, Austro-Hungarian (or Hapsburg), and Russian empires. Following World War I, these empires were largely replaced by a mosaic of nation-states. More border changes followed World War II, largely as a result of the Soviet Union's turning that area into a buffer zone between itself and western Europe. With the demise of Soviet hegemony in 1989, further political change took place.
    35. 35. Contemporary Challenges <ul><li>13% World’s Population </li></ul><ul><li>35% World’s Exports </li></ul><ul><li>43% World’s Imports </li></ul><ul><li>33% Aggregate World GNP </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare States </li></ul><ul><li>Disinvestment </li></ul><ul><li>Deindustrialization </li></ul>
    36. 36. Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Environmental Issues – Overview
    37. 37. Environmental Issues (cont’d) Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Acid Rain in Bohemia Toxic Landscape in Romania
    38. 38. Changing Environments Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Wind Farm in Denmark Restoring Oxshott Heath in England
    39. 39. The European Union <ul><li>EU Agricultural Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidizing income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surplus production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EU and Regional Interdependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of economic policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribution of wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common external policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits the core at the expense of the periphery </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. The European Union
    41. 41. The European Union <ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-European Networks (TENs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rail lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>High-Speed Rail </li></ul>
    42. 42. The EU and Economic Integration Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff
    43. 43. Reintegration of Eastern Europe <ul><li>1989 – 1992 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakup of Soviet satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restructuring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove price and wage controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create financial infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create government fiscal systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Legacies of a Command Economy Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Bulgaria Poland
    45. 45. Core Regions <ul><li>The Golden Triangle </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waterways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial heartlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled labor force and affluent consumer market </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. The Golden Triangle <ul><li>EU Headquarters (Brussels, Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin, London and Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Producer Services </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Urbanized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by elaborate network of infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highways </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Randstaad, Holland <ul><li>Urban Agglomoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dordrecht </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotterdam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leiden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haarlem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amsterdam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilversum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utrecht </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 million inhabitants </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Berlin <ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waterways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation hub </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Berlin Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Reunification </li></ul>
    49. 49. Urban Change in Berlin Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff In August 1961, the East German and Soviet armies built a concrete and barbed-wire structure, known simply as &quot;the Wall,&quot; to stem the flow of East Germans leaving the Soviet zone. It was the most visible symbol of the Cold War until November 1989, when Berliners physically dismantled it after the Soviet Union renounced its control over eastern Europe.
    50. 50. Berlin Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff
    51. 51. London <ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep water port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to continental Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal and financial institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dockyards </li></ul><ul><li>Greenbelt </li></ul><ul><li>7 Million Inhabitants </li></ul>
    52. 52. Paris <ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River Seine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seat Of Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monumental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haussmanization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Center </li></ul><ul><li>Social Housing </li></ul><ul><li>La Defense </li></ul>
    53. 53. Historical Cityscapes <ul><li>Medieval </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance-Baroque </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul>Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Aerial View of Central Paris
    54. 54. Historic Preservation Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff Preserving Paris and Regensburg
    55. 55. The Southern Crescent <ul><li>Secondary Core </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Germany Across Northern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper Land and Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deindustrialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible production regions </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Milan <ul><li>Leading City of Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automobile, aircraft, motorcycles, chemicals, electrical products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finance, design, fashion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28% of Italy’s national income </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Social and Economic Development Diversity Amid Globalization, 4th edition: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, and Wyckoff
    58. 58. End of Chapter 2: Europe World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman

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