Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 11: Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific Robert M. Arthur
  2. 2. Australia, New Zealand & The South Pacific <ul><li>Oceania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented towards the Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>31 million people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Island Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micronesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polynesia </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Landforms <ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Shield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little orogenic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three major regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Dividing Range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Interior Lowlands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murray River </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Darling River </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Western Plateau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simpson Desert </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Sandy Desert </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Antarctica <ul><li>5.5 Million Sq. Miles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of world’s fresh water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of world’s ice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antarctic Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>44 nations signed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear ban </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful uses only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 year ban on oil and mineral exploration added </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Landforms <ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonically active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Southern Alps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Cook (12,316 ft.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Canterbury Plain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Ruapehu </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Outback <ul><li>Remote, Dry, Inland Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outstations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Road trains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice Springs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ayer’s Rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tourist site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred to Aboriginals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildfires </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Landforms <ul><li>New Guinea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd largest island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain spine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13,000 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High rainfall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atolls </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Climate <ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East coast – wet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South west – Mediterranean climate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North island – warmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East coasts dryer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical climate </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Environmental History <ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 different plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>650 species of birds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>380 different reptiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marsupials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monotremes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Great Barrier Reef <ul><li>World Heritage Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,250 miles long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3,400 individual reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300 species of coral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,500 species of fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4,000 types of mollusks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1 billion yearly </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ecosystems <ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of island biogeography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant species dispersed by birds or ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher islands have rain forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mangroves in coastal regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger islands have middle-elevation grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low islands – coral, dry, little vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds and marine animals predominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few native mammals </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Early Inhabitants <ul><li>40,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration from southeast Asia to Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3,500 years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersal to more distant islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Australia – Aborigines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreamtime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Zealand - Maoris </li></ul>
  13. 13. Introduction of Exotics <ul><li>Ecological Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Exotics”: they come from elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaped domestic animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and camels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1859 the European rabbit was introduced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread quickly destroying pastureland </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting, diseases, and rabbit proof fences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prickly pear cactus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cane toad </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Environmental Concerns <ul><li>Marine Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major source of food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common property resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tragedy of the commons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive economic zone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200 nautical miles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another major industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone depletion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin cancers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cataracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Danger to marine organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even dryer conditions in Australia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melting of New Zealand’s glaciers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Marine Territorial Claims <ul><li>Greatly Expanded the Area of Small Island Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect undersea resources: oil and gas fields, nodules, fisheries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very Little Open Sea Left </li></ul>
  16. 16. European Exploration <ul><li>Initial Contact in the Mid 1700’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish and Portuguese followed by the Dutch – Abel Tasman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Cook: 1770, lands at Botany Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims land for England, also claims New Zealand </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Colonization <ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Settlements: 1800’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convicts as forced labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importation of sheep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wool exports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 1860 exporting 35 million pounds of wool to Britain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat production expands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold Rush: Late 1800’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other metals and minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of railroads and roads </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Colonization <ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1792 – Establishment of sealing stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1840 – The Treaty of Waitangi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official settlement begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maori uprisings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of gold and other metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration enables the export of perishables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meat and dairy products </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Colonization <ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally of little interest to Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 1700’s early 1900’s traders and missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British, French, and Germans </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Independence <ul><li>Australia & New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1901: The Commonwealth of Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six states and two territories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtains Papua New Guinea from Britain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand becomes self governing colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtains protectorates of Pacific Islands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cook Islands, Samoa, and Tokelau </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both countries fight with Allies in WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War concerns in Southeast Asia </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. WWII & Independence <ul><li>Important Turning Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage from bombing and occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction with U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic naval bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer payments </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Economic Change <ul><li>Australia and New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s: Economic changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly Japanese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions by the EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realignment of economy towards Asian markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise in service sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finance, tourism, business services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts in agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Pacific Islands Economy <ul><li>MIRAB Economies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar and tourism (300,000 tourists yearly) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coconut products and tourism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuvalu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade deficits </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Population <ul><li>Least populated world region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Australia – 19.6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea – 5.3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand – 3.9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly coastal regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low densities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islands have higher densities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low birth rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aging population </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Migration & Ethnicity <ul><li>Strong Influence of Immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia – mostly British settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1901: White Australia Policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranked British and northern Europeans highest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished in 1973 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New wave of southeast Asian immigrants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand – similar to Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands – high degree of indigenous peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaspora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Islanders to Australia and New Zealand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Language & Religion <ul><li>Australia and New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English dominates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many aboriginal languages extinct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation aids variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some spoken by only 500 people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>817 different languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Australia and New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant in New Zealand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant and Catholic in Australia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cargo cultures </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Culture & Society <ul><li>Traditional Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong ties to the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupted by Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altered for tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British Heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of the ocean </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Political Stability <ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British importation of Asian laborers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upset ethnic balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Caledonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous peoples want independence from France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bougainville </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Succeed from Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Join Solomon Islands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irredentism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Cooperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Pacific Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes U.S., France and UK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Pacific Forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excludes U.S., France and UK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports independence movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation group (APEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional trade and transportation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NZAFTA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Poverty & Inequality <ul><li>Inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia and New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High overall GDP’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High poverty amongst aboriginal peoples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower GDP’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence affluence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Uranium <ul><li>Testing of Bombs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall Islands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ends 1958 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western Australia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began in 1966 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French Polynesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>150 Tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greenpeace protests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uranium mines in Australia </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Aboriginal Issues & Multiculturalism <ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biculturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few rights for aboriginals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stolen Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1930s – reserves created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote, marginal land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% of the Northern Territories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Further land claims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Southeastern Australia <ul><li>Australian Core Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queensland to Adelaide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% of Australia’s population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main agricultural region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat and cotton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wine Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 th largest exporter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World class wines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barossa Valley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunter Valley </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Southeastern Australia <ul><li>Sydney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentrification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canberra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected in 1909 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melbourne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport hub </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Islands of the Pacific <ul><li>Mining Landscapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Export of profits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nauru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guano </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Caledonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nickel mines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polluting refinery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copper mines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Islands of the Pacific <ul><li>Tourist Landscapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tropical Paradise” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bora Bora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overdeveloped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism facilitated by air travel and cruises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boom – 1980 on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major source of foreign exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million tourists yearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotourism, eco-villages </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. End of Chapter 11: Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman

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