Chapter 1


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  • One of the best ways of organizing knowledge about the world.
  • Korean woman in Downtown Washington, D.C. Amsterdam, the Netherlands Garifuna women in Honduras
  • Chapter 1

    1. 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd . ed) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 1: A World of Regions Robert M. Arthur
    2. 2. <ul><li>Geography matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global differences in Cultures, Resources, Capital, Spatial Organization, & Territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographic Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate the variety of the world’s people and places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the relationships between the world’s communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with regional, national & global development </li></ul></ul>The Power of Geography
    3. 3. <ul><li>Geographic Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examines how natural forces shape the Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How human interaction modifies the environment and the spatial organization of human activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines both physical & human approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic examination of territories </li></ul></ul>The Power of Geography
    4. 4. Regions <ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large size territories (such as counties, provinces, and countries, or large sections of countries such as the Midwest USA) that encompass many places, all or most of which share a set of attributes that differ from the attributes of places that make up a different region. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. A World of Regions <ul><li>Regions are dynamic, changing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A two-way process of people’s activities changing their environment and people being affected by their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by people responding to the opportunities and constraints presented by their environments </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Setting the Boundaries – World Regions
    7. 7. <ul><li>Regionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logical Division </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of homogeneity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by functional organization of human occupancy </li></ul></ul>The Regional Approach
    8. 8. Regions <ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular </li></ul>
    9. 9. Geography & Interdependence <ul><li>“ The tangible partitioning of space within which different processes operate” </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>World Regions </li></ul><ul><li>National States </li></ul><ul><li>Supranational Organizations </li></ul>
    10. 10. Regionalization <ul><li>The geographer’s classification of individual places or areal units </li></ul><ul><li>The geographers equivalent of scientific classification </li></ul>
    11. 11. Boundaries and Frontiers <ul><li>Define space, encompass territory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permeable: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the flow of goods and people across them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impermeable: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act as barriers to movement of goods and people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontier Regions </li></ul>
    12. 12. Regionalism & Sectionalism <ul><li>Regionalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When individuals begin to relate stronger to their region than their country, then separatist movements can occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sectionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Irredentism </li></ul>
    13. 13. Geopolitical Framework Nations vs. States Ethnic Separatism – Centripetal vs. Centrifugal Forces Basques in Spain
    14. 14. Globalization The increasing interconnectedness of the world’s regions. <ul><li>Resulting from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Factors - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in information handling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multinational corporations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade associations between countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political factors – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supranational governments (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Issues of Scale <ul><li>Global to Local </li></ul><ul><li>Example of Call Centers (Back Office Jobs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we in Nebraska or in India?? </li></ul></ul>Call Center in Mumbai, India
    16. 16. Globalization <ul><li>Transnational Corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Commodity Chains </li></ul><ul><li>Global Stratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-liberal Policies </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Globalization and Population Change <ul><li>Unevenly distributed, 3 major areas of high density, China, India & Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Near water, oceans, seas, lakes or rivers, temperate, low lying areas with fertile soils. </li></ul><ul><li>6 billion now, projected to rise to 10 billion by 2050. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Demographic Transition Model <ul><li>Attempts to link population growth to Industrial Growth. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Population Growth and Change
    20. 20. Age–Sex Structure of Populations
    21. 21. Globalization and Cultural Change <ul><li>The global spread of common architectural forms, dress, ‘fast food’, entertainment, & the English language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These changes do have local character and are not universal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many local fashions, foods, etc. are exported around the world, not just those of the developed world. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Diversity Amid Globalization <ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Interconnectedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human and Physical Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continual Reorganization of Global and Local Geographies </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.0 Contemporary and Traditional Landscapes in Shanghai
    23. 23. Alternative Images of Globalization Southwestern India Washington, D.C. demonstration Guilin, China
    24. 24. Cultural Globalization McDonald’s in Thailand … … Linguistic Diversity in Maryland
    25. 25. Economic Globalization – Formal Figure 1.10
    26. 26. Economic Globalization – Informal Figure 1.6
    27. 27. Economic Development, Technology, and Social Well-Being <ul><li>Uneven global distribution of natural resources and of energy sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favors a few countries while leaving others disadvantaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political factors important too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan has few resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unfavorable conditions (war, civil strife, corrupt governments, poor infrastructure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology facilitates the shift of energy and natural resource inputs to cheaper sources </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Global Inequities Figure 1.11
    29. 29. Technology Systems <ul><li>1790 – 1840: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water & steam, textiles, ironworking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canals & turnpikes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1840 – 1890: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal powered steam, machine tools, steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads & world-wide shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1890 – 1950: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal combustion power, oil, plastics, electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft, automobiles, radio & telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950 – 1990: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear power, electronics, petrochemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global air routes, highways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990 - ?: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy, robotics, microelectronics, biotechnology & IT </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Economic Sectors <ul><li>Primary Activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resource extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing or processing of natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sale and exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quaternary Activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information processing and handling </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Economic Development <ul><li>Gross Domestic Product (GDP): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All goods and services produced by a country in one year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gross National Product (GNP): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All goods, services and income or loss generated abroad from investments, bank accounts, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures the overall wealth of a country, not how that wealth is distributed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide by the population to give GDP per capita. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Economic Development Figure 1.47 Figure 1.49
    33. 33. Economic Development
    34. 34. Social Well-Being <ul><li>Human Development Index – UN: </li></ul><ul><li>Measures distribution of wealth, education, infant mortality, life expectancy, gender issues & many other factors </li></ul>
    35. 35. Social Development – Health and Education < Receiving a polio vaccine in Jakarta Women and Literacy
    36. 36. Development & Gender Equality <ul><li>Global inequality of female income & attainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many countries women perform most of the work </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Earth System Science <ul><li>Dynamic Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Plate Tectonics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Drift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Shield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alfred Wegener </li></ul>
    38. 38. Plate Tectonics
    39. 39. Seasons, Weather & Climate <ul><li>Earth’s Orbit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial Tilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equinox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer Solstice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter Solstice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At a specific time & place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average conditions over longer time frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monsoons </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Atmospheric Circulation <ul><li>Hadley Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerlies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jet Streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical Highs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertropical Convergence Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar Fronts </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Precipitation <ul><li>Convectional Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equatorial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orographic Precipitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising air over mountains </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Global Rainfall & Climatic Zones
    43. 43. World Ecosystems <ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biogeography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Climate Change <ul><li>Natural Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerosols </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. World-System <ul><li>Economic Ties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immanuel Wallerstein </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-Periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation of the World Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Justice </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Organizing the Core <ul><li>Division of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of productive processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports credit </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. National Identities <ul><li>Nation </li></ul><ul><li>Nation-State </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Diaspora </li></ul>
    48. 48. Commodification of Nature <ul><li>Judeo-Christian View </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier View, Organic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature as nurturing and chaotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both considered female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationalize the nurturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tame the chaotic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commodify </li></ul>
    49. 49. Organizing the Periphery <ul><li>Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>1870s on – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Hegemony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial Overstretch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carving of Africa </li></ul>
    50. 50. Imperialism & Colonialism
    51. 51. Imperialism & Colonialism
    52. 52. International Division of Labor <ul><li>Specialization of regions & peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply the core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Economic Geography </li></ul><ul><li>International Trade Routes </li></ul>
    53. 53. Exploration & Exploitation
    54. 54. U.S. Tribal Lands
    55. 55. Discovery or Invasion <ul><li>Economic, Political, & Religious Motives </li></ul><ul><li>Supposed Superiority of the West </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation and Destruction of Local Systems </li></ul>
    56. 56. Development Theory <ul><li>Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes that poverty and lack of development are the problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also assumes that poor countries need to emulate Western growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmentalism </li></ul>
    57. 57. Neoliberalism <ul><li>World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>International Monetary Fund (IMF) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of Import Restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage Foreign Investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Government Budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food Subsidies, Welfare Programs, Health Care, Education usually first to suffer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Key Factors of Globalization <ul><li>New International Division of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of U.S. as an Industrial Producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralization of Manufacturing Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specializations Within the Core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internationalization of Finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Banking & Financial Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Cities </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Key Factors of Globalization <ul><li>New Technology Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing & Management Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications & Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-Space Convergence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Homogenization of Consumer Markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising & Entertainment </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Key Factors of Globalization <ul><li>Transnational Corporations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Liability Corporations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investments & Activities Span International Boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise of Power Over Peripheral States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export of Jobs to Cheaper Labor Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Footloose Companies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transnational Economic Integration </li></ul>
    61. 61. Urban Structure Seattle and Industry Contrasts between high and low income – New Delhi
    62. 62. Cultural Diversity Cultural Collisions … and Hybridization Figure 1.33 Figure 1.35 Gujarat, India South Asia
    63. 63. Culture (cont’d) <ul><li>Cultural Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Syncretism or Hybridization </li></ul>Figure 1.34a–c
    64. 64. Language … Figure 1.36 Figure 1.37 Dubai, UAE
    65. 65. … and Religion Figure 1.38
    66. 66. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd . ed) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman End of Chapter 1: A World of Regions