Ch21

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Ch21

  1. 1. The Living Cell Chapter 21 Great Idea: Life is based on chemistry, and chemistry takes place in cells
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Nature and Variety of Cells </li></ul><ul><li>How Does a Cell Work? </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism: Energy and Life </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Division </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Nature and Variety of Cells
  4. 4. The Cell Theory <ul><li>All living things are composed of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is the fundamental unit of life </li></ul><ul><li>All cells arise from previous cells </li></ul>
  5. 5. Science in the Making <ul><li>The discovery of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cork Cells
  7. 7. Observing Cells: The Microscope <ul><li>Early microscopes </li></ul><ul><li>Light microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Electron microscope </li></ul>
  8. 8. Light Microscope
  9. 9. Electron Microscope
  10. 10. Electron Microscope and Photograph
  11. 11. How Does a Cell Work?
  12. 12. The Cell Is Like a Refinery
  13. 13. Cell Membranes <ul><li>Cell membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates cell parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Membrane Lipid Bilayer
  15. 15. Cell Membranes – cont. <ul><li>Receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Action of Cell Receptors
  17. 17. Plant Cell
  18. 18. Plant Cell
  19. 19. The Nucleus <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains genetic material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double Membrane </li></ul>
  20. 20. Nucleus Surrounded by a Double Membrane
  21. 21. Terms Related to Cells and Single-Celled Organisms
  22. 22. Plant Cell
  23. 23. Animal Cell
  24. 24. Energy Organelle - Chloroplasts <ul><li>Organelle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized structure in cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant cells only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own DNA </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Energy Organelle – Mitochondria <ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces cells energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own DNA </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives cell shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex web </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Cytoskeleton
  28. 28. Organelles and Their Functions
  29. 29. Metabolism: Energy and Life
  30. 30. The Cell’s Energy Currency <ul><li>Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 phosphate groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar molecule: ribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of phosphate group provides energy </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Structure of ATP
  32. 32. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert sunlight to energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy + CO 2 + H 2 O  carbohydrate + O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul>
  33. 33. Photosynthesis
  34. 34. Glycolysis: The First Step in Energy Generation in the Cell <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation of carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieves energy in glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Glycolysis <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 pyruvic acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 energy carriers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert energy carriers to 2–3 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 molecule glucose = 6–8 ATP </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Glycolysis
  37. 37. Fermentation: A Way to Keep Glycolysis Going <ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yeast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Uses of Fermentation
  39. 39. The Final Stages of Respiration <ul><li>Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose broken down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy-carrying molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>36–38 ATP </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Water Vapor Expelled during Respiration
  41. 41. Cell Division
  42. 42. Mitosis <ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not for sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration of chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear membrane reforms </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Mitosis
  44. 44. Human Cell Dividing
  45. 45. Meiosis <ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cell forms 4 gametes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gametes are genetically unique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain half the number of chromosomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Process of Meiosis <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation again </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 daughter cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ normal number of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Meiosis
  48. 48. Crossing Over
  49. 49. Thinking More about Cells <ul><li>Biochemical evidence for evolution </li></ul>

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