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  1. 1. Strategies of Life Chapter 20 Great Idea: Living things use many different strategies to deal with the problems of acquiring and using matter and energy
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Organization of Living Things </li></ul><ul><li>What is Life? </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying Living Things </li></ul><ul><li>Survival: A New Look at the Life Around You </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies of Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies of Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies of Animals </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Organization of Living Things
  4. 4. Ways of Thinking about Living Things <ul><li>Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy and physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All levels complement each other </li></ul>
  5. 5. Study an Ant
  6. 6. What Is Life?
  7. 7. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>High degree of order and complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Part of larger systems of matter and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Life depends on chemical reactions in cells </li></ul><ul><li>Life requires liquid water </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms grow and develop </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate energy use </li></ul><ul><li>Share same genetic code, code is heritable </li></ul><ul><li>All living things are descended from a common ancestor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Organisms Need Energy
  9. 9. Organisms Grow and Develop
  10. 10. Science in the Making <ul><li>Measuring plant growth </li></ul><ul><li>Jan Baptiste Van Helmont </li></ul><ul><li>Plant tissue and CO 2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Classifying Living Things
  12. 12. Cataloging Life <ul><li>Linnaean classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binomial nomenclature </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classification of Life
  14. 14. Classifying Life - cont. <ul><li>Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protista </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Five-Kingdom Classification
  16. 16. Monera
  17. 17. Protista
  18. 18. Different Division of Life <ul><li>Carl Woese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archaea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eucaryea </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Science by the Numbers <ul><li>How many species are there? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Species Estimation
  21. 21. Classifying Human Beings <ul><li>Kingdom: Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subphylum: vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class: Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Primates </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Hominid </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Species: sapiens </li></ul>
  22. 22. Primates
  23. 23. Implications of Linnaean Classification <ul><li>Use of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity depends on time and change </li></ul><ul><li>Classification results from real events </li></ul>
  24. 24. Survival: A New Look at the Life Around You
  25. 25. Survival: A New Look at the Life around You <ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain and distribute molecules for energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Strategies of Fungi
  27. 27. Strategies of Fungi <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break filaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Fungi
  29. 29. Fungi – cont. <ul><li>Lichens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two interdependent species </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Science in the Making <ul><li>The discovery of penicillin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1928 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Fleming </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Strategies of Plants
  32. 32. The Simplest Plants <ul><li>Phylum: Bryophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Bryophytes
  34. 34. Vascular Plants <ul><li>Phylum: vascular plants </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots, stems, leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seedless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angiosperms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual and asexual </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Design of Vascular Plants
  36. 36. Angiosperm
  37. 37. Strategies of Animals
  38. 38. Major Animal Phyla
  39. 39. Invertebrates <ul><li>Invertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most diverse animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arthropods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of known animal species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Arthropods
  41. 41. Three Main Body Segments in Insects
  42. 42. Vertebrates <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean to terrestrial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bony Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Modern Fish
  44. 44. Mammalian Family Tree
  45. 45. Thinking More about Life’s Strategies <ul><li>Eating through the phyla </li></ul>