Ch18

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  • http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Hawaii/Maps/map_location_hawaii.html
  • Ch18

    1. 1. HAWAII (Chapter 18) E. J. PALKA
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Should Hawaii be included within North America? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the fifty states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural, historical, and economic ties with the mainland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A distinct entity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical separation from the continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness of physical and cultural landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct flora and fauna </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Hawaii (page 361)
    4. 4. Geology <ul><li>Visible portion of a series of massive volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Mauna Kea , on Hawaii (the “Big Island”), possibly the world's tallest mountain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation is 4528 meters (13,784 feet), but the mountain extends more than 5400 meters 18,000 feet below sea level. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several active volcanoes, including Mauna Loa on the Big Island </li></ul><ul><li>Spectacular sea cliffs: northeast side of Molokai among the world's highest at 1150 meters (3600 feet) formed by wave action </li></ul>
    5. 6. Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the largest and one of the most active volcanoes on earth
    6. 7. Climate <ul><ul><li>Tropical location (entirely south of Tropic of Cancer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime influence dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highest temperatures September and October </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest temperatures early March </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal temperature ranges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Record high of 31° C (88° F) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Record low of 13° C (57° F) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Climate: Precipitation <ul><li>Stronger seasonal variation than temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drier summer May to October </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moister winter October to April </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orographic rainfall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North and east sides of islands rainier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest rainfall at low elevations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kauai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Waialeale about 1234 cm (486 inches) of rain each year (one of the wettest places in the world) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waimea , 25 km (15 miles) away, less than 50 cm (20 inches) per year. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Plant and Animal Life <ul><ul><li>Diverse plant and bird community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical and temperate climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental variation, including arid areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several thousand plants and 66 birds found nowhere else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of alien plants and animals </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Oahu E. J. PALKA
    10. 11. Polynesians <ul><ul><li>Settled the islands possibly 1500 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly migrated by canoe from the Marquesas Islands (4000 km/2500 miles southeast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second wave of immigrants 400-500 years later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population at European discovery about 300,000 </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Early European Impact <ul><li>Captain James Cook (1778) first European to explore the islands </li></ul><ul><li>Way station for trade with East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Center of North Pacific–based whaling industry (early 1820s) </li></ul><ul><li>New England missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on Native Hawaiian culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disintegration of political and economic traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upsetting of food gathering and distribution systems leading to famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infectious diseases (measles, leprosy, smallpox, syphilis, tuberculosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population reduction from 150,000 (1804) to 75,000 (1850) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermarriage </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Asians <ul><ul><li>First sugar plantation 1837 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for labor, declining numbers of Native Hawaiians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap, abundant labor from Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Chinese 1852 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese 1868 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filipinos 1906 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1852-1930, some 400,000 agricultural laborers </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Population Growth <ul><li>Pre-European population: about 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1876 : 54,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1920s : 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>World War II : 400,000 service personnel (temporarily population at 850,000) </li></ul><ul><li>2006 : 1,285,498 </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration bringing higher population growth than country in general </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on Oahu —harbor at Honolulu </li></ul>
    14. 15. Hawaii’s Ethnic Diversity (page 365)
    15. 16. Ethnicity in Hawaii <ul><li>Greater integration than other parts of U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No census tract with >40% Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No census tract with >70% Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of Honolulu tracts with at least 10% of three major groups—Caucasians, Japanese, Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success of Japanese and especially Chinese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High educational levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High per capita incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower levels of well-being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Hawaiians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filipinos (later arrivals) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Hawaii in the United States <ul><li>Turbulent history after Cook’s explorations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation under Kamehameha (1785-1795) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries’ growing influence undermining authority of Hawaiian rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing European efforts to fill power vacuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1820s: French </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1843: Brief annexation by Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing influence of American planters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overthrow of Hawaiian rulers (1893) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annexation by United States (1898) </li></ul><ul><li>Statehood (1959) </li></ul>
    17. 18. Land Ownership <ul><li>One-half government owned—by state government </li></ul><ul><li>Unusually large concentrations of land owned by a few major landholders: 95% of privately owned land in hands of 72 owners </li></ul><ul><li>Small-unit ownership most common on Oahu </li></ul><ul><li>Lanai and Niihau almost all under one owner </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of individual, small land parcels (e.g., for housing) </li></ul><ul><li>Most land leased </li></ul>
    18. 19. Agriculture <ul><li>Traditional crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineapples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decline in relative importance since World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still produces substantial portion of world’s sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineapples declining </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Federal Government <ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarters of Pacific Command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center of Pacific operations for all services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major military bases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owns 25% of Oahu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees 25% of work force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to cutbacks </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Tourism <ul><li>Perception as tropical paradise </li></ul><ul><li>First scheduled trans-Pacific flights in 1936, but ships remained primary transportation to 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Increased visitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth on mainland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of tourists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainland U.S., especially West Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia, especially Japan </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Tourism: A Mixed Blessing? <ul><li>Principal growth sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$11 billion to economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>171,000 employees (22% of all jobs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in scenic beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to downturns in economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconvenience to natives </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Transportation <ul><li>Entirely dependent on air transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher costs for everyday and luxury goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imports of food, energy, vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural exports $96 million annually </li></ul>
    23. 24. Honolulu <ul><li>Dominates Hawaii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>72% of residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crowded by mountains, ocean, federally held land </li></ul><ul><li>High living costs </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>
    24. 25. The Islands <ul><li>Oahu : Densely population and intensively used </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii (the “Big Island”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by five huge shield volcanoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large ranches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kauai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily eroded into spectacular scenery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy orographic precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lush vegetation </li></ul></ul>
    25. 26. The Islands (continued) <ul><li>Niihau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee side of Kauai, therefore less rainy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privately owned by Niihau Ranch Company </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maui </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second largest island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central lowlands with mountains east and west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive tourist development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molokai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half ranchland, half rugged mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least economically developed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lanai and Kahoolawe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee of Maui and therefore dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineapple production on Lanai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kahoolawe formerly a bombing range for the military, now returned to the state </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. A Paradise? <ul><li>Perception as a paradise </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial and ethnic assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great scenic beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental awareness </li></ul></ul>

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