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  1. 1. Earth and Other Planets Chapter 16 Great Idea: Earth, one of the planets that orbit the Sun, formed 4.5 billion years ago from a great cloud of dust.
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Formation of the Solar System </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring the Solar System </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Formation of the Solar System
  4. 4. Clues to the Origin of the Solar System <ul><li>Solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects gravitationally bound to Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deduction of origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Solar System
  6. 6. Clue #1: Planetary Orbits <ul><li>Features of solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All planets orbit in same direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits in same plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most rotate in direction of orbit </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Clue #2: Distribution of Mass <ul><li>Most material within Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jovian planets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moons, asteroids, comets </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Mass in the Solar System
  9. 9. The Planets and Their Characteristics
  10. 10. The Nebular Hypothesis <ul><li>Nebular Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud of dust and gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>99% H and He </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collapse of nebula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planetary orbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clumping of matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planetesimals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Stages in Solar System Formation
  12. 12. The Inner Planets – Small and Rocky
  13. 13. Jupiter – Gas Giant Planet
  14. 14. The Science of Life <ul><li>Gravity and bones </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Formation of Earth <ul><li>Planetesimals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined to form earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great bombardment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 metric tons per day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Artists Impression of the Earth’s Great Bombardment
  17. 17. Disk around a Young Star
  18. 18. Differentiation <ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat from collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense material sank to center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter material rose to surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crust </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Principal Layers of the Earth
  20. 20. Technology <ul><li>Producing world-record high pressures </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Formation of the Moon <ul><li>Big splash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large object impacted earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of mantle blown into orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon formed from this material </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Formation of the Earth’s Moon
  23. 23. Planetary Idiosyncrasies <ul><li>Cratering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury, Mars, Moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None on earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uranus </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Science of Life <ul><li>When could life begin? </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of collisions </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres <ul><li>Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgassing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere was N 2 , CO 2 , H 2 , and H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitational escape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living organisms </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Exploring the Solar System
  27. 27. The Inner Solar System <ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Mars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury and Venus too hot for life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mars exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found evidence of water </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Surface of Mars
  29. 29. The Phoenix Lander on Mars
  30. 30. Science of Life <ul><li>Why look for life on Mars? </li></ul><ul><li>Source of science fiction </li></ul><ul><li>Current views </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Outer Solar System <ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layered structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No solid surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comet Shoemaker-Levy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galileo spacecraft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cassini spacecraft </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Theoretical View of the Interior of Jupiter
  33. 33. Comet Shoemaker-Levy Impacted Jupiter in 1994
  34. 34. Saturn with Its Rings and Moons
  35. 35. Moons and Rings of the Outer Planets <ul><li>Moons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Io </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Titan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice and rock </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Artist’s Conception of the Oceans of Europa
  37. 37. Pluto and the Kuiper Belt <ul><li>Pluto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.3% of Earth’s mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbit tilted out of plane of other planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Captured comet or asteroid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still open to question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plutoid designation in 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Pluto and Its Moon, Charon
  39. 39. Science in the Making <ul><li>The discovery of Pluto </li></ul><ul><li>Xena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits sun every 560 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger than Pluto </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Science in the Making <ul><li>The Voyager Satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries </li></ul>
  41. 41. Asteroids <ul><li>Asteroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small rocky bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbit sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most in belt between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Comets <ul><li>Comets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty snowballs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbit outside Pluto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oort cloud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kuiper belt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halley’s Comet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stardust and Deep Impact missions </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Comet’s Tail
  44. 44. Meteors <ul><li>Meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteor showers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original solar system material </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Major Meteor Showers
  46. 46. Science in the Making <ul><li>Discovering new planetary systems </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Doppler effect </li></ul><ul><li>Search for transits </li></ul>
  47. 47. Changes in Redshift or Blueshift of Light
  48. 48. Planet in Front of a Star
  49. 49. Kepler Satellite