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  1. 1. The Stars Chapter 14 Great Idea: The Sun and other stars use nuclear fusion reactions to convert mass into energy. Eventually, when a star’s nuclear fuel is depleted, the star must burn out.
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Nature of Stars </li></ul><ul><li>The Anatomy of Stars </li></ul><ul><li>The Variety of Stars </li></ul><ul><li>The Life Cycles of Stars </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Nature of Stars
  4. 4. The Nature of Stars <ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion reactor in space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball of gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All stars have a beginning and an ending </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Night Sky
  6. 6. Measuring the Stars with Telescopes and Satellites <ul><li>Electromagnetic radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of photons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Schematic Drawings of Telescopes
  8. 8. Keck Telescopes
  9. 9. Magellan Telescope
  10. 10. Orbiting Observatories <ul><li>Great Observatories Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubble Space Telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chandra X-Ray Observatory </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Hubble Space Telescope
  12. 12. The Anatomy of Stars
  13. 13. The Structure of the Sun <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stellar core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corona </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar wind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream of particles </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Surface of the Sun
  15. 15. The Sun's Chromosphere and Corona
  16. 16. Earth’s Magnetic Field
  17. 17. Northern Lights
  18. 18. The Science of Life <ul><li>Why is the visible spectrum visible? </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Sun’s Energy Source: Fusion <ul><li>Sun’s energy source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Fusion on the Sun – cont. <ul><li>Fusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-steps-hydrogen burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P + P  D + e + + neutrino + energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D + P  3 He + photon + energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 He + 3 He  4 He + 2protons + photon + energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 billion years </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Ongoing Process of Science <ul><li>The Solar neutrino problem </li></ul>
  22. 22. The IceCube Lab
  23. 23. The Variety of Stars <ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute brightness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy output </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Luminosity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apparent brightness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Astronomical Distance Scale <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cepheid variable </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Triangulation of Stellar Distances
  26. 26. Cannon and Leavitt
  27. 27. The Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram <ul><li>Star groupings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main-sequence stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red giants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White dwarfs </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Life Cycles of Stars
  29. 29. The Birth of Stars <ul><li>Nebular hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pierre Laplace </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Eagle Nebula
  31. 31. Formation of a Planetary System
  32. 32. The Main Sequence and the Death of Stars <ul><li>Stars much less massive than the Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown dwarf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glows 100 billion years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No change in size, temperature, energy output </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Main Sequence and the Death of Stars – cont. <ul><li>Stars about the mass of the sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen burning at faster rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move off main sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helium burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red giant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White dwarf </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Life Cycle of the Sun
  35. 35. The Main Sequence and the Death of Stars – cont. <ul><li>Very large stars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successive collapses and burnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catastrophic collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supernova </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The Interior of a Large Star
  37. 37. Star Explosion
  38. 38. Neutron Stars and Pulsars <ul><li>Neutron star </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense and small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High rotation rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulsar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special neutron star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End state of supernova </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Jocelyn Bell Burnell
  40. 40. Pulsars – Rapid Rotation and Intense Magnetic Field
  41. 41. Black Holes <ul><li>Black hole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of collapse large star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing escapes from surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot see them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See impact on other stars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detect x-rays, gamma rays </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Generation of the Chemical Elements <ul><li>Universe began with light elements </li></ul><ul><li>All objects made of atoms formed in the giant stars </li></ul>