Ch10ed

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Ch10ed

  1. 1. THE SOUTHERN COASTLANDS: ON THE SUBTROPICAL MARGIN (Chapter 10)
  2. 2. Introduction • Division of southern margin of the U.S. based on human geography – Rio Grande east to North Carolina – U.S.–Mexico border area (Chapter 14) • Distinctions of southern coastlands – Humid subtropical climate – Location on the continental margin • Subregions – East: Recreation, retirement communities – West: Resource extraction
  3. 3. Southern Coastlands (page 191)
  4. 4. Florida: East Amenities
  5. 5. Subtropical Environment • Humid subtropical climate – Warm, humid summers – Mild winters – Long growing seasons • Average growing season – Longer than 10 months – Southern Florida having nearly 12 months – Almost everywhere at least 9 months
  6. 6. Subtropical Environment (continued) • Average rainfall greater than 125 centimeters (50 inches), almost all in the summer (April–October), for ideal growing conditions • Advantages for agriculture – Can grow crops that cannot be grown elsewhere – Double-cropping possible – Winter vegetables
  7. 7. Length of Growing Season (page 192)
  8. 8. Citrus • Introduced by Spanish in the 16th century • Other producers – Southern Texas – California (only area to exceed Florida) • Location – South of 29° north latitude – 40% between Tampa and Orlando – Southward shift to avoid frost, but farther south soils are too swampy • Oranges and grapefruit most important • Local processing (80% as concentrate) • Labor-intensive, use of migrant labor
  9. 9. Citrus Production Oranges Grapefruit
  10. 10. Citrus Florida Oranges Texas Grapefruit
  11. 11. Sugar Cane • Production – Southern Coastlands – Hawaii • Tropical crop – Full year to mature – Non–frost tolerant – Requires 125 centimeters (50 inches) rainfall • Protected by federal import controls and price supports
  12. 12. Sugarcane
  13. 13. Harvesting and loading sugar at Masterson Plantation. Photograph courtesy of the Brazoria County Historical Museum.
  14. 14. Rice • Fewer climate demands than citrus or sugarcane— requires sufficient water • Irrigated – Louisiana – Texas (near Houston) • Additional areas in transition zone – Mississippi Alluvial valley – Mississippi and Arkansas
  15. 15. Rice Production (page 385)
  16. 16. 'A rice-raft with plantation hands, near Georgetown, South Carolina'
  17. 17. Amenities • Increased migration for amenities rather than economic opportunity – Outdoor climate similar to indoor climate – Air conditioning • Retirees (% population over 60 years of age) • Tourism – Coastal area from New Orleans to Mobile, coastal Mississippi ("Mississippi Riviera") – Traditional focus Florida: beaches, Disneyworld, baseball training camps, Cape Canaveral (Kennedy Space Center) – Expansion north along Atlantic Coast Florida Ohio Connecticut 1950 12.4 13.7 13.3 2000 22.2 17.4 17.7
  18. 18. New Orleans
  19. 19. Hazards • Winter freeze – Winter vegetables – Citrus – Need for cold temperatures to kill disease organisms Jan 12, 2010 Winterpark, FL
  20. 20. Hazards • Hurricanes – Intense solar heating over large bodies of warm water – Areas facing tropical waters of Caribbean, southern Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico – Occasional massive storms: • Hugo (1989) • Andrew (1992) • Katrina (2005) • Ike (2008)
  21. 21. Hurricane Hazard Zones (page 197)
  22. 22. Water • Slow-acting hazard – Adequate rainfall, close to ocean – Withdrawing water faster than replacement – Distant rivers – Land too flat for reservoirs • Urban areas far from rivers – Need to pump water from underground water table – Central Florida, Cape Canaveral to Tampa (includes Orlando) • Sinkholes: loss of support of underground water
  23. 23. Lake Lanier, GA • Drought…
  24. 24. • Major ports – Large river estuaries – Anchorages short distance inland from river mouths • Sheltered bays • New Orleans most important port and focus Trade
  25. 25. • New Orleans most important port and focus
  26. 26. Historic New Orleans
  27. 27. Houston, TX • Houston: Houston Ship Channel (1873) • Access to hinterlands – Rivers – Railroads
  28. 28. Mobile, AL Oakleigh Mansion James Roper built this house in 1833. It was named Oakleigh for the stately oak trees around it. This antebellum (meaning before the Civil War) home is now operated as a museum by the Historic Mobile Preservation Society. It gives us a partial view of what life was like in Mobile during the nineteenth century.
  29. 29. Resources • Continental shelf – Extension of geological continent outward from coast – Along Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts extends 80 kilometers (50 miles) – Extensive oil and gas deposits • Top oil production states – Texas – Louisiana – (Alaska) • Political issues • Environmental problems • Natural gas in conjunction with petroleum • Salt domes (rock salt)
  30. 30. Oil and Natural Gas Production (page 202)
  31. 31. Industrial Development • Petrochemical industry – Natural gas and petroleum products – Capital for industrial growth • Corpus Christi, Texas, to Pascagoula, Mississippi • Concentration around Houston, Beaumont, Port Arthur – Important materials for other chemical industries – Cheap water transportation to customers in Megalopolis • Aluminum – Bauxite from Caribbean and South America – Cheap water transportation, abundant local fuel
  32. 32. The Region’s Two Halves • Eastern half – Emphasizes environmental attractions – Miami • Recreation and travel • Cuban Americans: Links to Latin America • Western half – Resources, manufacturing, trade – Houston • New Orleans – Located between to halves – Not as strong in either specialization

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