Ch07

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Ch07

  1. 1. Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity Chapter 7 Great Idea: All observers, no matter what their frame of reference, see the same laws of nature
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Frames of Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Special Relativity </li></ul><ul><li>General Relativity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Frames of Reference
  4. 4. Descriptions in Different Reference Frames <ul><li>Coin’s path appears different depending on your frame of reference </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Principle of Relativity <ul><li>Baseball versus light </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein’s solution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The laws of nature are not the same in all frames of reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxwell’s equation could be wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our intuitions about the addition of velocities could be wrong </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Principle of Relativity - cont. <ul><li>Principle of relativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every observer must experience the same natural laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special relativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General relativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The speed of light, c , is the same in all reference frames </li></ul>
  7. 7. Albert Einstein
  8. 8. Science in the Making <ul><li>Einstein and the streetcar </li></ul>
  9. 9. Special Relativity
  10. 10. Time Dilation <ul><li>Time Dilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving clock appears to tick more slowly </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Stationary versus Moving Light Clock
  12. 12. Symbols for Deriving Time Dilation
  13. 13. The Size of Time Dilation <ul><li>Calculation of time dilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>t GG = t MM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary ground-based observer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>t GG =d/c </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance traveled by light in 1 tick </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stationary versus Moving Light Clock
  15. 15. Distance and Relativity <ul><li>Length contraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving object appears shorter </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Spaceship at Rest and at High Speed
  17. 17. Objects Moving toward You at Different Speeds
  18. 18. So What About the Train and the Flashlight? <ul><li>Addition of velocities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid at small velocities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not valid near speed of light </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Mass and Relativity <ul><li>Third consequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass is lowest for stationary objects </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Mass and Relativity – Cont. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing moving less than speed of light can be accelerated to or past c </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object above c cannot be decelerated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects at c have zero rest mass </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mass and Energy <ul><li>Einstein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All objects contain a rest energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass can be converted to energy and vice versa </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. General Relativity
  23. 23. The Nature of Forces <ul><li>Gravitational forces and acceleration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame of reference </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Nature of Forces – Cont. <ul><li>Newton versus Einstein </li></ul>
  25. 25. Computer-Generated Image of a Gravity Field
  26. 26. Predictions of General Relativity <ul><li>The gravitational bending of light </li></ul><ul><li>Planetary orbits </li></ul><ul><li>The gravitational redshift </li></ul>
  27. 27. A Gravitational Lens
  28. 28. Technology <ul><li>Global positioning system and relativity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Who Can Understand Relativity? Everyone!!

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