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FOUNDATIONS OF  HUMAN ACTIVITY (Chapter 3)
Indigenous America  (Native Americans or First Nations) <ul><li>Arrival more than 12,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>2-10 ...
 
European Settlement <ul><li>C. 60 million migrants to North America from Europe and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Early period ...
European Immigration <ul><li>1815–1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend of  increasing numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift...
European Immigration (continued) <ul><li>Post–World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of  nationality quotas </li></ul></ul...
Non-European Immigration (pre-1965) <ul><li>Africans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 20 million taken in slave trade, 50% died </...
Recent Immigration <ul><li>Asians  and  Latin Americans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippin...
 
 
British Isles Germany, Scandinavia Southern, Eastern Europe Restrictions Asia, Latin America U.S. Immigration Push Factors...
Settlement Expansion <ul><li>Small early Spanish settlements in Southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Other European settlement </li...
Spanish North (New England) Middle (Pennsylvania) South Settlement and Diffusion from Culture Hearths Spanish (page 49)
 
Settlement of Canada French culture hearth Canadian Shield barrier (page 50)
Canadian Population Density Today (page 52)
Population Density Today: United States (page 53)
Population Mobility <ul><li>Population growth as indicator of well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Periods of  internal migration ...
Population Change, 1990-2000 (page 12)
Urbanization, 2000 (page 56)
Cultures <ul><li>Culture:  People’s assemblage of beliefs and learned behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative, but also ch...
Predominant Religions (page 60)
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Ch03

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Ch03

  1. 1. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY (Chapter 3)
  2. 2. Indigenous America (Native Americans or First Nations) <ul><li>Arrival more than 12,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>2-10 million (estimated) at time of European contact </li></ul><ul><li>Widely varying cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of European settlement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of diseases reduced numbers to 1 million by 1800 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed westward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States: one third on reservations, most others in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better relations than the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of territory of Nunavut (1999) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. European Settlement <ul><li>C. 60 million migrants to North America from Europe and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Early period (to 1815) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most immigrants from northern and western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most French in 1600s, totaling about 15,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1790, two-thirds of American whites were British , others mainly Dutch, German </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. European Immigration <ul><li>1815–1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend of increasing numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from northern and western Europe to southern and eastern Europe with spreading Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post–World War I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and World War II: reduced numbers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. European Immigration (continued) <ul><li>Post–World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End of nationality quotas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New controls after September 11, 2001, attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue of illegal immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More to the U.S. than to Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major determinant: economic opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few try to duplicate conditions in home countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closeness to points of entry </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Non-European Immigration (pre-1965) <ul><li>Africans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 20 million taken in slave trade, 50% died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounted for 20% of population in 1790, then percentage declined with end of slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese exclusion after 1881 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on Japanese </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Recent Immigration <ul><li>Asians and Latin Americans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominican Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settlement near point of entry </li></ul>
  8. 11. British Isles Germany, Scandinavia Southern, Eastern Europe Restrictions Asia, Latin America U.S. Immigration Push Factors Pull Factors 1840s: Irish Potato Famine Economic opportunity 1850-1920: Overpopulation, wars Political/religious freedom Recent: Overpopulation, war, oppression Land availability
  9. 12. Settlement Expansion <ul><li>Small early Spanish settlements in Southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Other European settlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginnings on East Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reached Appalachians by 1750 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossed continent by 1850 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada: Barrier of Canadian Shield north of Lake Superior </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Spanish North (New England) Middle (Pennsylvania) South Settlement and Diffusion from Culture Hearths Spanish (page 49)
  11. 15. Settlement of Canada French culture hearth Canadian Shield barrier (page 50)
  12. 16. Canadian Population Density Today (page 52)
  13. 17. Population Density Today: United States (page 53)
  14. 18. Population Mobility <ul><li>Population growth as indicator of well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Periods of internal migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East to west: farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural to urban areas: manufacturing jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between metropolitan areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postindustrial: movement to areas formerly in decline (e.g., South) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Population Change, 1990-2000 (page 12)
  16. 20. Urbanization, 2000 (page 56)
  17. 21. Cultures <ul><li>Culture: People’s assemblage of beliefs and learned behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative, but also changing </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul>(page 58) Food preferences
  18. 22. Predominant Religions (page 60)

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