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Ch 11


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Ch 11

  1. 1. A Geographic Profile ofTHE UNITED STATES ANDCANADAChapter 11
  2. 2. 11.1 Area and Population Canada is only slightly larger in area than the U.S. Canada & U.S. share world’s longest int’l border (5,527 mi) Population  United States 311 Million (2011) Pop Density = 84/mi2  Canada 34 Million (2011) Pop Density = 9/mi2  Together, the countries have 5% of the world’s population on 13% of its land surface 90% of Canadians live within 100 miles of U.S. border Canadians and Americans are overwhelmingly urban  79% of Canadians and Americans are city dwellers  Megalopolis (“Boswash”) is home to 1 out of 7 Americans  500-mile-long narrow, urban belt from Boston to Washington  Includes 7 metropolitan areas
  3. 3. Principal Features of the U.S. and Canada
  4. 4. Population Distribution of the U.S. & Canada
  5. 5. Population Cartogram of the U.S. & Canada
  6. 6. Metropolitan Populations (in millions)
  7. 7. 11.1.1 Migration into North America Nations of Immigrants  Due to immigration, the U.S. is the only MDC in the world that is experiencing significant population growth  Each year, nearly a million legal immigrants arrive in the U.S. and over 280,000 arrive in Canada  65,000 Guest Workers enter the U.S. Annually  Illegal Aliens / Undocumented Workers  Estimated 11 million illegal immigrants live in the U.S. Controversy of Illegal Immigration in U.S.  Fear of immigrants taking jobs and bleeding social services  Others argue low-wage immigrants are vital for the American economy, taking jobs shunned by most Americans, while contributing to the economy through their purchases  Measures to Handle Illegal Immigration  Secure Fence Act of 2006  Secure Border Initiative and the Virtual Fence
  8. 8. Migration Flows into the U.S. & Canada
  9. 9. 11.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Remarkably diverse natural environments  Some of most spectacular wild landscapes on the planet  Present people with a vast array of opportunities for land use and settlement It is important to consider how these landforms have promoted or hindered human uses and how climates have also done the same
  10. 10. 11.2.1 Landforms and Land Uses Major Landforms  Greenland  Canadian Shield  Appalachian Mountains  Piedmont  Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains  Great Plains  Rocky Mountains  Columbia Plateau  Great Basin  Pacific Mountain Ranges  Arctic Coastal Plain
  11. 11. Physical Geography of the U.S. & Canada
  12. 12. Natural Hazards of North America Earthquakesalong the San Andreas Fault Volcanoes in the Cascade Range The Midwest As “Tornado Alley” Hurricanes batter theEast Coast and Gulf of Mexico Blizzards in theU.S. Midwest and NortheastDroughts (1930s “Dust Bowl”)
  13. 13. Climates of the U.S. & Canada
  14. 14. Biomes of the U.S. & Canada
  15. 15. Land Use in the U.S. & Canada
  16. 16. 11.2.2 Climates and Land Uses The U.S. has more climatic types than any other country in the world, and even Canada is quite varied  Tundra (Canada and Alaska)  Subarctic (Canada and Alaska)  Humid Continental (Midwest)  Humid Subtropical (U.S. Southeast)  Tropical Savanna (Southern Florida)  Tropical Rain Forest (Hawaii)  Marine West Coast (Coastal Pacific Northwest)  Mediterranean (Central and Southern California)  Semiarid / Steppe (Interior West)  Desert (U.S. Southwest)  Undifferentiated Highland (Rockies, Sierra Nevada)
  17. 17. 11.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies Migrations of Native Americans into the Region  Began their migrations as Asians  Started crossing what was then a land bridge between Alaska and Siberia at least 12,500 years ago (possibly as early as 33,000 years ago)  Migration persisted until about 3,000 years ago
  18. 18. 11.3.1 Native American Civilizations Similarities to Indigenous Cultures of Latin America  Some developed civilizations, the rather complex, agriculture-based ways of life associated with permanent or semipermanent settlements and stratified societies Dominant Native American Civilizations  Anasazi (1200 B.C.E. – 1300 C.E.)  Mogollon (300 B.C.E. – 1400 C.E.)  Hohokam (100 B.C.E. – 1500 C.E.) Mound Builder Civilizations  Poverty Point (2000 B.C.E. – 200 C.E.)  Adena (2000 B.C.E. – 200 C.E.)  Hopewell ( 200 B.C.E. – 700 C.E.)  Mississippian ( 700 C.E. – 1700 C.E.)
  19. 19. Anasazi Pueblo Dwelling in Arizona
  20. 20. 11.3.2 Indigenous Culture Groups & Lifeways Seven Native American Language Families (represented by more than 250 languages)  Aztec-Tanoan  Hokan-Siouan  Penutian  Mosan  Algic  Na-Dene  Eskimo-Aleut A trait apparently shared by most of the Native American groups was their deep reverence for the natural world
  21. 21. Native American Culture Areas
  22. 22. 11.3.3 European Impacts on Native Cultures Narratives of what took place in North America following 1492  Europeans: Times of settlement, development, taming the frontier, and “civilizing the savages”  Native Americans: Times of depopulation and cultural demolition Canada  Native American peoples refer to themselves as the First Nations in acknowledgement of their pre-Columbian claims to the land  In 1999, Canada ceded ¼ of its total area to the Inuit peoples in creating the territory of Nunavut United States  Native American Reservations (“The Res”)  Home to 1/3 of Native Americans today  Among poorest communities of the country  Plagued by high rates of incarceration, alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, broken families, teen suicide, and unemployment  Importance of legalized gambling revenues
  23. 23. Modern Native American Lands
  24. 24. Lakota at the Wounded Knee Massacre Site Pine Ridge, South Dakota
  25. 25. Native American CasinoAllegany Indian Reservation, New York
  26. 26. 11.3.4 European Settlers and Settlements Waves of European Settlement in North America  Religious persecution in Europe  Colonization of new lands by European powers  Expansionist efforts of newly independent Canada and the U.S. Several Territorial Acquisitions of the United States  Manifest Destiny (opening of settlement all the way to the Pacific) California Gold Rush (1849) as impetus for settlement Homestead Act (1862)  Allowed pioneer family to claim up to 160 acres of land for $10 Multiculturalism Act (1988)  Recognized Canada as a multicultural society
  27. 27. Territorial Acquisitions of the U.S. & Canada
  28. 28. Major Ethnic Groups in the U.S. & Canada
  29. 29. 11.3.5 Ethnic Minorities Minorities comprise about 1/3 of the U.S. population  16% are Hispanic (50 million)  13% are African Americans (39 million)  4% are Asian Americans Hispanics overtook blacks as the largest minority in the United States after the 2000 Census Future lack of a majority  By 2040s, non-Hispanic whites to drop below 50% of US population
  30. 30. Ethnic Urban Landscapes of the U.S.Black-run Business in Los Angeles, California
  31. 31. Ethnic Urban Landscapes of the U.S. Latino Neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois
  32. 32. Ethnic Urban Landscapes of the U.S. Chinatown in San Francisco, California
  33. 33. 11.3.6 Nonindigenous Languages & Faiths Language  English and French are Canada’s official languages  U.S. does not have an official language (English spoken by 96% of its residents)  “Spanglish”  Hybrid tongue of Spanish and English  From Hispanic neighborhoods into mainstream culture of U.S. Laws guarantee religious freedoms in both nations  Both countries predominantly Christian  Largest single denomination is Roman Catholicism  43% in Canada / 26% in the United States  Other monotheistic faiths in the U.S.  5 million Jews and 1 million Muslims  Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the U.S.
  34. 34. Nonindigenous Languages of the U.S. & Canada
  35. 35. Religions of the U.S. & Canada
  36. 36. 11.4 Economic Geography The U.S. and Canada are very wealthy nations  United States $ 45,640 GNI PPP  Canada $ 37,280 GNI PPP Where the United States ranks:  World’s largest economy  World’s largest producer and consumer of goods/services  World’s largest federal foreign debt  World’s largest national debt  With about 5% of the world’s population, the U.S. has a third of the world’s wealth The “average” American has been going nowhere economically for a number of years, due to inflation 15% of Americans (46 million) are considered poor
  37. 37. Poverty in America
  38. 38. 11.4.1 Sources of the Region’s Affluence Keys to Region’s Affluence  Large endowments of important natural assets  Large population represents pool of labor and talent as well as a market  Mechanized economies  Peace and stability within and between these countries  Overall sense of internal unity and track record of continuity in political, economic, and cultural institutions Imbalance in the Distribution of National Wealth  Wealthiest 1% of Americans take in 20% of country’s total income  Protested in the form of the 2011 Occupy Wall Street movement  Poorest 10% of Americans take in less than 2% of total income  While 15% of Americans live below the poverty line, less than 10% of Canadians are below its poverty line  However, this is a region where most people enjoy the “good life”
  39. 39. 11.4.2 An Abundance of Resources U.S. and Canada resemble European environments and their potential for production of wheat, cattle, and other products Largest food-exporting region of the world  U.S. has more arable land than any other country  A much smaller proportion of Canada is arable, but it has more farmable land than many other countries Resource Rich:  Forests (Canada is world’s largest exporter of wood)  Mineral Resources  Energy Resources  Oil (Including Shale Gas)  Natural Gas
  40. 40. Occupy Wall Street Movement
  41. 41. Canadian Timber En Route to East Asia
  42. 42. Principal U.S. Shale Gas Reserves
  43. 43. Tar Sands Locations in Canada
  44. 44. Oil Production at the Athabasca Tar Sands Facility
  45. 45. 11.4.3 Mechanization, Services, and IT Transition to Service Sector / Information Technology  Although raw materials contribute much to their wealth, the U.S. and Canada have become prosperous because of machines and mechanical energy, complemented by a boom in IT  Most Americans and Canadians employed in service sector  Finance, Medical Care, Retail Sales, Entertainment, etc.  Manufacturing now only accounts for 10% of U.S. economy  Rust Belt  U.S. profits from a “knowledge economy”  Designing products, but not making them
  46. 46. Steel Mill in South Korea, Not Pittsburgh!
  47. 47. 11.4.4 U.S.-Canadian Economic Relations Vital Trading Partners  Canada is much more dependent on the U.S.  Canada is the leading country in total trade with the U.S.  Main pattern of trade is the exchange of Canadian raw and intermediate materials for American manufactured goods Economic Disputes  Wheat War  Salmon War  Lumber Dumping Despite occasional disagreements, the trend has been toward more cooperation and free trade Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (1988) North American Free Trade Agreement (1994)
  48. 48. 11.4.5 Transportation Infrastructure Transcontinental railroads first linked the coasts Interstate Highway System (Late 1950s)  Primary network for the trucking of cargo across the U.S.  Reflects American love affair with the automobile Public transportation is popular only in cities  Gridlock makes it an attractive alternative to driving
  49. 49. Highway and Railway Network
  50. 50. 11.5 Geopolitical Issues Historical Relations between the U.S. and Canada The United States’ Place in the World
  51. 51. 11.5.1 Historical Relations Friction following the American Revolution  Northern colonies failed to join the Revolution  British used those colonies as bases during the war  Many in the north came from Tory stock  Wanted to maintain political connections with British government  Tensions were high over who would have ultimate control of the central and western reaches of the continent War of 1812 fought largely as U.S. effort to conquer Canada Canada’s emergence as a unified nation came partly as a result of U.S. pressure  Hostility between U.S. and Canada did not immediately end with the establishment of an independent Canada, but relations improved gradually Today these countries are strong allies
  52. 52. 11.5.2 The United States’ Place in the World U.S. displays its power through military action and trade Isolationism  Geographic advantage of being far away from world’s hot spots  Entered both world wars late Attacks of September 11, 2001  Policy of Preemptive Engagement U.S. remains world’s sole superpower  Strongest economy  Military expenditures larger than those of next 14 countries combined  Dominance of global popular culture  World’s best universities  Headquarters to many of the world’s leading international organizations
  53. 53. 12.6.1 Canada: Quebec The Québec Separatist Movement  The French were earliest European settlers in the Québec area of Canada  In 1763, a major British military victory resulted in a broad sweep of British language and culture across Canada  Cultural dichotomy developed that gave the French dominant influence in Québec but little elsewhere in Canada  In Québec, 82% speaks French as a preferred language  After the end of WWII, French Canadian dissatisfaction spread  Led to the formation of the separatist political party Parti Québécois (PQ)  Party is dedicated to the full independence of Québec from Canada  Québec refused to ratify the country’s 1982 constitution  Twice the separatists forced the country to hold referenda on Québec’s independence, but both failed  A 1995 vote of provincial voters also failed, but by a small margin  Canada has officially recognized Québec as a “distinct society” within Canada
  54. 54. 12.6.2 Canada: Atlantic Region Atlantic Provinces include Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island Importance of the fishing industry  Waters located off the Atlantic coast from near Cape Cod to the Grand Banks were always exceptionally rich in fish  In 1977, worried about overfishing, the Canadian government began enforcing a 200-mile offshore jurisdiction prohibiting foreign competition in the fishing of the Grand Banks  Still, in the 1990s and early 2000s, overfishing of cod and other species in the banks led to a decline in fishing productivity  In 2003, the government completely closed several cod-fishing grounds in Newfoundland waters  Tens of thousands of fishers and fish processors lost their jobs  Fishing tradition may be restored only if fish stocks can themselves be replenished
  55. 55. 12.6.3 Canada: The Arctic  Canada has a vast Arctic territory and wants to explore it to maximum advantage  This is becoming possible as global warming frees the Arctic Ocean of summer sea ice  Also becoming possible is a Northwest Passage for ship navigation through the maze of Canada’s Arctic islands  This potential sea route would be an enormous boon to shipping interests  Canada could charge shipping fees  Canada and Russia are also talking about opening the Arctic Bridge  Shipping route from Churchill, Canada to the Russian port of Murmansk  Considerations:  Warming Arctic Ocean waters will meanRecent dramatic reductions in sea ice cover, new fishing grounds will open and hopes of abundant resources, have  Estimated 1/4 of world’s undiscovered oil countries staking territorial claims and and gas reserves lie in the Arctic drawing future trade routes.
  56. 56. 12.6.4 Greenland Greenland is geologically part of North America because of its proximity to Canada  Danish province  World’s largest island  There are estimates that Greenland may have oil reserves as great as Libya’s  About 80% of the island is covered by an icecap up to 10,000 feet thick  Between 2003 and 2011, an average of about 50 mi3 of this icecap were lost each year due to global warming
  57. 57. 12.6.5 The United States: Changing Geography of Settlement Although the American population has more than tripled between 1900 and 2010, 25% of U.S. counties lost population  Trend of movement from rural areas to larger cities Walmart Effect  Walmart and other large retailers drove out diverse businesses in small and middle sized towns by offering consistently lower prices and a wider selection of merchandise Exurbanization  This is a trend of re-embracing rural life, but in response to urban conditions  City dwellers who are priced out of suburbs or drawn to wider spaces move to the “exurb”, an outer suburb of the city typically so far out as to stand almost alone
  58. 58. Population Change by U.S. County 2000-2010
  59. 59. 12.6.6 United States: A Tale of Two Cities New York City, NY (“The Big Apple”)  Largest city in the United States (8 million)  Unchallenged in size, commerce, and economic impact  Today, more than 35% of the city’s population are foreign-born, with the largest contingents coming from the Dominican Republic, China & Jamaica  Offsets out-migration of longer-resident New Yorkers (e.g., Asians moving to West Coast, retiring whites to Florida, blacks moving back to the South, Puerto Ricans returning to home island)  9/11 attacks on World Trade Center  Mayor Michael Bloomberg unveiled a plan in 2006 to make New York a greener “sustainable city” and pledged affordable housing San Francisco, California  Population of about 7 million, with roughly 20% being Asian Americans  San Francisco Bay Area plays a vital role in California’s economy  A major domestic and international tourist destination  Manufacturing is varied, but in recent decades, computer-related and other electronics businesses have boomed (“Silicon Valley” is home of Apple)  Home to University of California at Berkeley and Stanford University  Dot-com bubble popped at turn of 21st century
  60. 60. 12.6.7 United States: Thirsty West The American West has some environment challenges:  Dry climates  Rough topography  A lack of water transportation except along the Pacific Coast Settlement is clustered in places where water is adequate Explosive suburban populations have surpassed local water supplies New resources had to be found or redirected from elsewhere Region’s largest water source is the Colorado River, carrying snowmelt from mountain peaks in the Rockies In many cases, dams, reservoirs, and irrigation projects have been used to supply needs Water allocation is a zero-sum game, meaning that any benefit to one party equals a loss to another Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona
  61. 61. 12.6.8 United States: Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was the worst natural disaster in U.S. history On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall as a Category 3 storm along Gulf of Mexico coast from SE Louisiana to Alabama New Orleans was the hardest hit by the storm  Geographically, New Orleans is extremely vulnerable to hurricanes  The city already lies an average of 9 feet below sea level  It continues to slowly sink at a rate of 3 feet each century Preparations for the storm were inadequate, and the emergency response was tragically inept  1,577 lives were lost  Economic costs of repair and cleanup were over $80 billion  Nearly 1 million people were made homeless along the Gulf Coast  300,000 were made jobless As New Orleans continues to rebuild, it will need to use adaptation and mitigation to help protect the city in the future
  62. 62. Hurricane Katrina Overwhelmed New Orleans
  63. 63. 12.6.9 United States: ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)  This 12,500 square mile refuge was set aside as wilderness in 1980  Fate of oil beneath tundra ecosystem left for Congress to decide at later time  Subject of ANWR’s oil has been a bitter and polarizing debate ever since  One side argues that the U.S. must develop these reserves to give the U.S. more independence from Middle Eastern oil  The other side argues that oil production in ANWR will do irreparable damage to the coastal plain’s unique environment and the indigenous people who depend on it  The main Native American group is the Gwich’in  Insist that oil drilling and related activity will endanger their way of life  The indigenous perspective on ANWR is not united, however:  An Inuit group, the Inupiat, supports oil production because of the jobs it would bring them Meanwhile, attention is turning to two other potential oil sites in Alaska:  The North Slope’s Teshekpuk Lake  And central Alaska’s Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge