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  1. 1. Chapter 4: The Atmosphere, Temperature and the Heat Budget Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
  2. 2. Atmosphere <ul><li>An envelope of air that surrounds earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Carbon Dioxide, water, and Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as an insulator that maintains “moderate” temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Shields us from damaging UV rays. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 4.1 Characteristics of the Atmosphere <ul><li>Density decreases rapidly w/ altitude </li></ul><ul><li>97% of air is in first 25 km (16 miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Pressure decreases w/ altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of the Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (~78%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (~21%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argon (~1%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable Gases (<1%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, Ozone, CFC’s, Methane, Nitrous Oxides, and particles (dust). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Composition of the Atmosphere </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Photosynthesis: Plants use sunlight as the force that combines CO 2 and H 2 O to produce carbohydrates (sugar). </li></ul>4.1 Characteristics of the Atmosphere
  6. 6. <ul><li>Water Vapor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly variable (0-4%) depending on moisture in the air (dry or humid). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particulates: solids suspended in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Aerosols: tiny liquid droplets other than H 2 O </li></ul>4.1 Characteristics of the Atmosphere
  7. 7. <ul><li>CO 2 and the Greenhouse Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming SW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth emits LW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases trap some LW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 , H 2 O vapor, Methane, NO x , ozone </li></ul></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  8. 8. <ul><li>CO 2 measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing trend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. hem winter, CO 2 increases due to decreased photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ozone (O 3 ) Layer formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in upper atmosphere when O 2 is split into two O atoms by sun’s UV radiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A free O atom joins with O 2 to form O 3. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: 2O 2 + 2O  2O 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: 2O 3  2O 2 + 2O (using UV radiation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 3 protects us from damaging UV radiation. This is the “good” ozone and is located in the upper atmosphere. </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  10. 10. <ul><li>Ozone (O 3 ) Layer Destruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human emitted chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) can lead to the destruction of the “good” ozone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine atoms found in CFC’s enter the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and bond to form chlorine monoxide gas in very cold temperatures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Cl + O 3  ClO + O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: The oxygen atom (O) are now bonded with Chlorine and can not be used to replenish the O 3. </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ozone Hole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not a hole, just an area in the stratosphere with less Ozone than normal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone-destroying pollutants (CFC’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches its greatest extent in October after the long Antarctic winter. </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  12. 12. <ul><li>Vertical Layers of the Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Layering by Temp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troposphere (Temp normally decreases with height) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal lapse rate 6.5 o C/1000 meters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratosphere (Temp normally increases with height) </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  13. 13. <ul><li>Layering by Temp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosphere (Temp normally decreases with height) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coldest at top of Mesosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermosphere (Temp increases with height) </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  14. 14. <ul><li>Layering by Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest layer is Ozonosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Layer is ionosphere </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  15. 15. <ul><li>Layering by Chemical Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosphere </li></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  16. 16. <ul><li>Effects of the Atmosphere on Solar Radiation </li></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  17. 17. <ul><li>Water as Heat Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water exists in 3 states: solid, liquid, vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water changes state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latent heat of… </li></ul></ul></ul>4.2 Atmospheric Environmental Issues
  18. 18. <ul><li>Processes of Heat Energy Transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent hear of Condensation </li></ul></ul>4.3 Heating the Atmosphere
  19. 19. <ul><li>Energy Budget: How do you think the surplus energy in the low latitudes is transferred to the higher latitudes? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Heat Energy Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations in heat budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a Surplus or deficit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deficit in higher latitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surplus in lower latitudes </li></ul></ul></ul>4.3 Heating the Atmosphere
  21. 21. <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature scales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit scale ( o F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celsius scale ( o F) </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  22. 22. <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature scales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit scale ( o F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celsius scale ( o F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  23. 23. <ul><li>Short-Term Variations in Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily effects of Insolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud Cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential Heating of Land vs. water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Air Movement </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  24. 24. <ul><li>Daily effect of insolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak temp near 4 p.m. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest temp near sunrise (e.g. 6 a.m. </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  25. 25. <ul><li>Cloud Cover </li></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  26. 26. <ul><li>Differential Heating of Land and Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continentality </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  27. 27. <ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albedo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snow and ice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Air Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onshore or offshore </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  28. 28. <ul><li>Vertical Distribution of Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal Lapse rates 6.5 o C/1000m (3.6 o F/1000 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, it varies from this! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the lapse rate can promote or decrease cloud cover. </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  29. 29. <ul><li>Temperature Inversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur when temperature increases with height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will trap smog </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  30. 30. <ul><li>Why is the air clear above the inversion? </li></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  31. 31. <ul><li>Surface Fog and frost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by rapid cooling at night </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  32. 32. <ul><li>Controls of Earth’s Temperatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land and Water Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean Currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landform </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  33. 33. <ul><li>Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp typically cools as you move away towards the poles from equator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land and Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific heat of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seattle, WA vs. Minneapolis, MN (similar latitude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>summer </li></ul></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  34. 34. <ul><li>Ocean Currents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clockwise in N. Hem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterclockwise in S. hem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California Current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure 4.24  </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  35. 35. <ul><li>Use this information in the figure below and Figure 4.24 to discuss the route sailing ships would follow from North America to Europe and back? </li></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  36. 36. <ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature usually decreases with height. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snow in mountains of southern CA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers at the equator (Mt. Kenya) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landform Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Human Activities </li></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  37. 37. <ul><li>Temperature Distribution at Earth’s Surface: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotherms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature gradient </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  38. 38. <ul><li>Temperature Distribution at Earth’s Surface: January ( o C) </li></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  39. 39. <ul><li>Temperature Distribution at Earth’s Surface: July ( o C) </li></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  40. 40. <ul><li>Annual March of temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual temp lag </li></ul></ul>4.4 Air Temperature
  41. 41. <ul><li>Weather and Meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>Climate and Climatology </li></ul><ul><li>5 basic Ingredients for Weather and Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy (insolation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>precipitation </li></ul></ul>4.5 Weather and Climate
  42. 42. <ul><li>Describe how either image shows weather and/or climate </li></ul>4.5 Weather and Climate
  43. 43. 4.6 Complexity of Earth’s Energy Systems
  44. 44. Physical Geography End of Chapter 4: The Atmosphere, Temperature and the Heat Budget