Chapter 16: Underground Water and Karst Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. ...
Underground Water and Karst Landforms
Earth’s Freshwater Resources <ul><li>97% of Earth’s water exists as salt water </li></ul><ul><li>Of the remaining  water (...
16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Subsurface water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All soil beneath Earth’s surface </li>...
16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Subsurface Water Zones and the Water Table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized by...
16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Zone of saturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest of the 3 layers of undergroun...
16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Environmental Systems: Underground Water </li></ul>
16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Intermediate zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between zones of aeration and saturat...
16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Distribution & Availability of Groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on...
16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>Aquiclude </li></ul><ul><li>Perched water table </l...
16.2 Groundwater Utilization <ul><li>Groundwater  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital resource to most of the world </li></ul></ul...
16.2 Groundwater Utilization <ul><li>Wells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial openings dug or drilled below the water table ...
16.2 Groundwater Utilization <ul><li>Artesian Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Terms: Artesian conditions, Artesian sprin...
16.3 Groundwater Quality <ul><li>Hard water vs. soft water </li></ul><ul><li>Mine drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Percolation o...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Subsurface water can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages mass movement...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Karst Landscapes and Landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common sol...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Q: Where is the nearest karst area to where you live? </li></ul>
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Development of a classic karst landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm,...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>2 dominant sinkholes identified from their formation process </li></...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Sudden collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of caverns (caves) </li>...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Disappearing stream </li></ul><ul><li>Swallow hole </li></ul>
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Uvalas (valley sinks) </li></ul><ul><li>Haystack hills (or conical h...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Limestone Caverns and Cave Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: ...
16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Limestone Caverns and Cave Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns </...
16.5 Geothermal Water <ul><li>Geothermal Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geyser (e.g. Old Faithful, Yellowstone) </li></ul></u...
Physical Geography End of Chapter 16: Underground Water and Karst Landforms
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  • Insert cover image for Chapter 16 (p. 438).
  • Insert Figure 16.1
  • Insert Figure 16.2
  • Insert Figure 16.2
  • Insert Figure 16.2
  • Insert Figure 16.3
  • Insert Figure 16.4
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  • Insert Figure 16.11a
  • Insert Figure 16.12, 16.13, and 16.14
  • Insert Figure 16.11a and 16.11b
  • Insert Figure 16.15a and 16.15b
  • Insert Figure 16.11b, c and 16.16
  • Insert Figure 16.18 and 16.19
  • Insert Figure 16.20 and 16.21
  • Insert Figure 16.22 and 16.23
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    1. 1. Chapter 16: Underground Water and Karst Landforms Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. Underground Water and Karst Landforms
    3. 3. Earth’s Freshwater Resources <ul><li>97% of Earth’s water exists as salt water </li></ul><ul><li>Of the remaining water (3%): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>69.56% glaciers, permafrost, and snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30.10% subsurface water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><1% atmosphere, lakes, rivers </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Subsurface water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All soil beneath Earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water contained within soil, sediments, and rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recharges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underground water resources </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Subsurface Water Zones and the Water Table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized by depth and water content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of aeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uppermost zone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called Soil water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percolation below zone of aeration </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Zone of saturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest of the 3 layers of underground water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Table </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marks the upper limit of the zone of saturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies depending on precipitation, outflow, and removal </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Environmental Systems: Underground Water </li></ul>
    8. 8. 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Intermediate zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between zones of aeration and saturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated during wet periods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effluent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater seeping into a stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps stream flowing during dry periods </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Distribution & Availability of Groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of ground surface to allow water to infiltrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount and type of vegetation cover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permeability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Porosity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. 16.1 The Nature of Underground Water <ul><li>Aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>Aquiclude </li></ul><ul><li>Perched water table </li></ul><ul><li>Springs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: Is a perched water table a reliable source of groundwater? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 16.2 Groundwater Utilization <ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital resource to most of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of half of drinking water for U.S. population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation consumes bulk (2/3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ogallala Aquifer </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 16.2 Groundwater Utilization <ul><li>Wells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial openings dug or drilled below the water table to extract water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of removal may exceed natural replenishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinking of land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial recharge </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 16.2 Groundwater Utilization <ul><li>Artesian Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Terms: Artesian conditions, Artesian spring, Flowing artesian well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado, western Sahara, eastern Australia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 16.3 Groundwater Quality <ul><li>Hard water vs. soft water </li></ul><ul><li>Mine drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Percolation of toxic substances into zone of saturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt water from ocean seepage (e.g. southern Florida, Long Island, Israel </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Subsurface water can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages mass movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove rock through carbonation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolve limestone through carbonation or simple solution in acidic water </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Karst Landscapes and Landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common soluble rock is limestone (calcium carbonate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landforms developed by solutions are called karsts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yucatan Peninsula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Q: Where is the nearest karst area to where you live? </li></ul>
    18. 18. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Development of a classic karst landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, humid climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous development in arid regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active movement of subsurface water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sinkholes (dolines) </li></ul>
    19. 19. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>2 dominant sinkholes identified from their formation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution sinkholes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse sinkholes </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Sudden collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of caverns (caves) </li></ul>
    21. 21. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Disappearing stream </li></ul><ul><li>Swallow hole </li></ul>
    22. 22. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Uvalas (valley sinks) </li></ul><ul><li>Haystack hills (or conical hills or hums) </li></ul><ul><li>Tower karst (S. China) </li></ul>
    23. 23. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Limestone Caverns and Cave Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Carlsbad Caverns, NM; Mammoth Caves, KY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speleothem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalactites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalagmites </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 16.4 Landform Development by Subsurface Water <ul><li>Limestone Caverns and Cave Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What are some of the potential hazards of caving? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. 16.5 Geothermal Water <ul><li>Geothermal Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geyser (e.g. Old Faithful, Yellowstone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot springs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually associated with areas of tectonic and volcanic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Physical Geography End of Chapter 16: Underground Water and Karst Landforms

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