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  • Insert Figure 1.1
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  • Insert Steps in applying the scientific method from p. 12.
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  • Insert Figure of tsunami (p. 16).
  • Insert Figure of Aral Sea from 1960’s and today (p. 17).
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    1. 1. Chapter 1: Earth Environments and Systems Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Science </li></ul><ul><li>Human Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Geography </li></ul>1.1 – The Study of Geography
    3. 3. 1.1 The Study of Geography <ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Science </li></ul><ul><li>Human Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Geography </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1.1 The Study of Geography <ul><li>Physical Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climatologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geomorphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biogeographers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceanographers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciologists </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 1.1 The Study of Geography <ul><li>Technology, Tools, and Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartographer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography <ul><li>The Spatial Science Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial science </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absolute location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Place </li></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    8. 8. <ul><li>Spatial Distributions and Spatial Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial interaction </li></ul></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    9. 9. <ul><li>Ever-Changing Earth </li></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    10. 10. <ul><li>The Physical Science Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific method </li></ul></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    11. 11. <ul><li>Earth’s Major Subsystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul></ul></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    12. 12. <ul><li>Earth Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasons, ocean tides, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term Changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World climates, drought cycles, rise or fall in sea levels, erosion of coastlines </li></ul></ul></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    13. 13. <ul><li>The Environmental Science Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ecosystem </li></ul></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    14. 14. 1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    15. 15. <ul><li>Human-Environment Interactions </li></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    16. 16. 1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    17. 17. <ul><li>A Life-Support System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    18. 18. Kissimmee River and Lake Okeechobee
    19. 19. <ul><li>The Human-Environment Equation </li></ul>1.2 Major Perspectives in Physical Geography
    20. 20. 1.3 Models and Systems <ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><li>Physical models </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial/graphic models </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical/statistical models </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual models </li></ul><ul><li>Mental maps </li></ul>
    21. 21. 1.3 Models and Systems <ul><li>Systems Theory </li></ul>
    22. 22. 1.3 Models and Systems <ul><li>How Systems Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of matter and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 1.3 Models and Systems <ul><li>How Systems Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed systems </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 1.3 Models and Systems <ul><li>Equilibrium in Earth Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equilibrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic equilibrium </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. 1.3 Models and Systems <ul><li>Equilibrium in Earth Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>threshold </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Feedback Loop
    27. 27. Physical Geography End of Chapter 1: Earth Environments and Systems

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