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Military History


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Military History

  1. 1. Military HistoryA Review of World War I to Present<br />
  2. 2. World War I<br />About 10 million combatants killed, 20 million wounded<br />May 17, 1915 brought the United States into World War I. A German submarine sank the British ocean liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. More than 1,000 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. <br /><ul><li>* 1914 – 1918
  3. 3. * Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, Turkey)
  4. 4. *Allies (U.S., Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Montenegro, Portugal, Italy and Japan)</li></li></ul><li>“It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war … but the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts.”<br />-Woodrow Wilson<br />In February, 1915, the German Government announced an unrestricted warfare campaign. This meant that any ship taking goods to Allied countries was in danger of being attacked. This broke international agreements that stated commanders who suspected that a non-military vessel was carrying war materials, had to stop and search it, rather than do anything that would endanger the lives of the occupants.<br />
  5. 5. Trench Warfare<br />The two armies dug trenches to protect themselves from bullets and bombs. Then they put up mazes of barbed wire around the trenches. The area between the trenches was called “no man’s land”. Soldiers ate and slept in the trenches. First one side, and then the other would try to break through at some point along the line. It was very difficult for either side to win a battle this way, and trench warfare claimed many lives.<br />
  6. 6. British trench, France, July 1916 <br /> (during the battle of Somme)<br />
  7. 7. Chemical Weapons of World War I<br />*The Germans gave agents code names and also grouped them by use with the use indicated by colored crosses on artillery rounds:<br />- Weisskreuz – White cross, irritants affecting the eyes and other moist tissues<br /> - Blaukreuz – Blue cross affecting the upper respiratory tract<br />- Grunkreuz – Green cross, affecting the lungs<br />- Gelbkreuz – Yellow cross, attacking any exposed surfaces.The Germans gave agents code names and also grouped them by use with the use indicated by c<br />
  8. 8. 1939 – 1945<br />(US involvement 1941-45)<br /><ul><li>50 million people died
  9. 9. Allies – Great Britain, Russia, US, France
  10. 10. Axis – Germany, Italy and Japan </li></ul>At the Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost land to surrounding nations. Germany must pay the modern equivalent of $57 trillion. This embarrassed the Germans and bankrupted the German economy. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse. <br />Desperate people turn to desperate leaders and Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems. <br />World War II<br />
  11. 11. Adolf Hitler<br />Adolf Hitler was born in a small town in Austria. He dreamed of being an artist, but did not have sufficient talent to gain entrance into the art academy in Vienna. He went on to do odd jobs and eventually developed an interest in politics. In 1914, Hitler joined the German army, and earned the iron cross for bravery as a message-carrier. He was greatly disturbed by the German defeat in World War I and ultimately blamed German’s loss on the socialists and Jews, who he felt had surrendered the nation.<br />
  12. 12. Adolf Hitler, cont’d<br />Hitler’s interest in politics led him to seize control of the German Workers Party in 1920. He changed the name to the National Socialist German Workers Party, which he called the Nazi Party for short. On November 9, 1923, Hitler and General Ludendorf (a World War I hero) attempted a small revolution known as the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler jumped onto a tabletop in a beer hall proclaiming the current Weimar government overthrown. He and Ludendorf led their supporters into the street, and were promptly arrested. Hitler then spent two years in prison, where he spent his time writing Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which outlined his future policies, centered on the theory of Aryan superiority and Jewish inferiority. <br />
  13. 13. Adolf Hitler Cont’d<br />Hitler was released from prison in 1925. He went on to workl on the advancement of the Nazi Party, which proved slow through the stable years of 1925 to 1929 in Europe. However, with the rise in unemployment due to the depression, the people ‘s support for the Nazi Party rose. The Nazi Party was promising a rise in employment and a return to glory for the nation. In 1932 the Nazis won 37.3 percent of the popular vote and occupied 230 seats in the German Reichstag. There was little stability in the German government at this time, and seeking a solution to this instability, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor on January 30, 1933. Once in office, Hitler dissolved the Reichstag and persuaded Hindenburg to issue a decree granting him authority to prohibit public meetings, the wearing of political uniforms, and publication of dissenting opinions. <br />
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  15. 15. 1939 – 1940 Timeline<br />September 1,1939 – Poland Invaded<br />April 9, 1940 – Denmark and Norway Invaded<br />May 10, 1940 – Holland, Belgium & France Invaded<br />May 15, 1940 – Holland Surrenders<br />May 28, 1940 – Belgium Surrenders<br />June 10, 1940 – Norway Surrenders<br />June 22, 1940 – France Surrenders<br />June, 1940 – Britain LAST democracy fighting Hitler<br />
  16. 16. September 16, 1940<br />President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Selective Training and Service Act. This was the first peacetime draft in the United States.<br />The Act included all able bodied men between the ages 21-30.<br />The draftees were only to be sent to defend American held territories.<br />
  17. 17. The United States had the 17th largest army in the world in 1938. The army was smaller than even that of Romania.<br />Two-thirds of the draftees of the Selective Training and Service Act had never even fired a rifle. They were outfitted with Springfield rifles and steel helmets left over from World War I.<br />
  18. 18. By the spring of 1941, Hitler was the unchallenged master of most of continental Europe. He had eleven countries and seventy million people under the Nazi flag. In the countries he defeated, he instituted a policy of oppression and mass murder. <br />By June of 1941, Hitler headed east invading the Soviet Union. By September of 1941, he captured 1.4 million Soviet troops. <br />On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor<br />
  19. 19. Winston Churchill<br />Speech on June 4, 1940:<br />Cut and paste the following link into your browser :<br />For Audio:<br /><br />For Text:<br /> <br />
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  21. 21. THE BOMBERS OF WORLD WAR II<br />Bombers were the ultimate long range heavy weapons of World War II. They provided the mean to significantly erode the enemies’ strength in the battlefield and defeat them. In addition to their main strategic role, World War 2 bombers also provided tactical air support. These tactical attack roles evolved during the war and are now the dominant elements of modern air forces. <br />
  22. 22. Here is a list of the main types of land-based World War 2 bombers:<br />British bombers<br />Wellington (11400) - long range medium bomber carrying 2 tons of bombs. Produced before and during the war, bombed Germany until October 1943. For comparison, the Mosquito carried 1.8 tons to Berlin at twice the speed of the Wellington.<br />Lancaster (7300) - 4-engine long range heavy night bomber. The main British bomber in the second half of World War 2, carried up to 10 tons of bombs, including a huge 10 ton bomb, or the special dam buster bomb, but typically carried up to 6 tons of bombs to a range which covered all of Germany. Had 3 turrets with 8 machine guns. Lancasters flew over 150,000 sorties, and almost half of them were lost in action, together with over 21,000 airmen. <br />Halifax (6100) - 4-engine long range heavy night bomber since 1941, carried 5.4 tons of bombs. Similar to the later Lancaster, which had greater bomb load and range. The first bomber equipped with the H2S navigation-targeting RADAR. <br />
  23. 23. Mosquito (7700) - a very fast long range medium bomber which carried a 1.8 ton bomb and successfully relied on its high speed and agility instead of guns and gunners for self-protection. Although its loss rate was lowest of all allied bombers and its bombing precision the highest, British decision makers remained firm in their conservative belief that the main bomber must have gun turrets, so instead of becoming the main bomber type, the excellent Mosquito&apos;s advantages were used mainly in support of the main force of the slow heavy bombers, and less than 1/4 of the Mosquitoes produced were of bomber types. The other Mosquitoes excelled in multiple other combat roles. <br />
  24. 24. American bombers<br />B-24 Liberator (19200) - 4-engine very long range heavy bomber since mid 1941, carrying up to 6 tons of bombs. It was the allied bomber with the longest range during most of the war, and was used accordingly in all war fronts, both in very long range bombing missions, such as attacking Nazi Germany&apos;s only natural source of oil, in Ploesti, Romania, and by very long range anti-submarine patrols all over the Atlantic Ocean, which greatly contributed to defeating the German submarines. In the anti-shipping role it was operated in large numbers by the Coastal Command of the Royal Air Force. <br />
  25. 25. German bombers<br />Junkers 88 (15700) - a medium range medium bomber during the entire war, carrying up to 3 tons of bombs. Also excelled as a night fighter and in other roles. <br />Heinkel 111 (7300) - a medium range medium bomber. Although it was already becoming obsolete when World War 2 started, it remained in production and in service until the end of the war. <br />Junkers 87 Stuka (5700) - a single-engine dedicated precision dive bomber for tactical support during the entire war, carrying up to 1.8 ton bomb. It was the airborne element of the German Blitzkrieg tactic. <br />Dornier 217 (1900) - medium range heavy bomber since mid 1941, it carried 4 tons of bombs and since 1943 was the world&apos;s first guided weapons bomber, carrying two radio-guided 1400kg bombs or two radio-guided Hs-293 air-to-ground missiles. <br />Arado 234 Blitz (210) - In late 1944 it was the world&apos;s first jet bomber. An advanced single-seat light bomber, at 460mph it was almost impossible to intercept, but it came much too late to affect the war. <br />
  26. 26. Russian bombers<br />Petlyakov 2 (11400) - The best Russian bomber in World War 2, it was something between the British Mosquito and the German Stuka. It was a fast and agile medium range light dive bomber, carrying up to 1.2 ton of bombs. <br />Ilyushin 4 (10000) - Russia&apos;s main long range bomber. It bombed Berlin, East Germany, and the vast German-occupied territory in Eastern Europe and Russia, but it carried only 1-1.5 tons of bombs, or three torpedoes, and it suffered heavy losses by enemy fighters because of its very poor defensive weapons. <br />Tupolev SB2 (6600) - a pre-war light day bomber, since 1943 it was used as night bomber to reduce its heavy losses. <br />
  27. 27. Japanese bombers<br />Mitsubishi G4M Betty (2400) - long range light bomber, operated by the Japanese Navy during the entire war, carrying one ton of bombs, or a big 800kg torpedo. Like other Japanese aircraft, its long range was achieved by lack of armor, which made it very vulnerable. Late types had improved armor. Just before the end of the war the G4M was modified to carry the Okha Kamikaze missile, with a suicide pilot and a powerful 1.2 ton warhead. Once released, the Okha had a range of 20 to 50 miles, depending on its release altitude, and a final dive speed of 600mph, but with strong American air superiority, most Okha-carrying bombers were intercepted before reaching release range. <br />Mitsubishi Ki-21 Sally (2000) - long range light bomber, operated by the Japanese army Air Force over South East Asia during the entire war, carrying one ton of bombs. It was poorly protected, but where it operated it usually faced thinner fighter opposition than other bombers. <br />Italian bombers<br />Savoya-Marchetti 79 (1300) - 3-engine light day bomber and torpedo bomber, carrying up to 1.2 ton of bombs or two torpedoes. It was used mainly as a torpedo bomber. <br />
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  29. 29. Kamikaze Videos<br />Cut and paste the following links into your browser to view kamikaze videos:<br />Video One:<br /><br />Video Two:<br /><br />
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  33. 33. Vietnam<br />Longest war in United States history<br />First “living room” war – people watched footage of combat on the nightly news<br />September 26, 1945 – Lt. Col. Peter Dewey served in the Office of Strategic Services is the first American killed<br />1959 – 1973 (US withdrawal)<br /><ul><li>58,000 killed
  34. 34. 300,000 wounded
  35. 35. 14,000 disabled</li></li></ul><li>Terminology <br />BC – body count<br />Boonies – the jungle<br />Bought the farm – killed in action<br />Bouncing Betty – a type of mine that when triggered is propelled into the air and explodes at groin to head level <br />Charlie – the VC<br />Cobra – heavily armed Army helicopter<br />Deadman’s Zone – slang for the DMZ – 17th parallel<br />
  36. 36. Tet Offensive<br />Turning point in war<br />Military victory for United States but psychological victory for VC<br />American public thought the US was winning war, but watched as Americans were killed at US Embassy<br />Created a credibility gap – fewer Americans trusted the government<br />
  37. 37. Chemical Warfare<br />United States’ planes dropped napalm – a gasoline based bomb that set fire to the jungle<br />The United States also used Agent Orange – nleaf killing toxic chemical that devastated the landscape<br />Dumped 13 million gallons<br />Name came from orange barrels it was stored in<br />
  38. 38. Major Battles<br />Battle at Hamlet of ApBac – Jan. 2, 1963<br />Siege of KheSanh – Jan. 21, 1968<br />Tet Offensive – Jan. 30, 1968<br />First Battle of Saigon – March 7, 1968<br />Eastertide Offensive – March 30, 1972<br />Fall of Saigon – April 29, 1975<br />
  39. 39. Major Operations <br />Operation Chopper – Jan. 12, 1962<br />Operation Ranch Hand – Jan. 1962<br />Operation Rolling Thunder – Feb. 24, 1965<br />Operation Starlight – Aug. 17, 1965<br />Operation Crimp – Jan. 8, 1966<br />Operation Birmingham – April 1966<br />Operation Hastings – Late May 1966<br />Operation Attleboro – Sept. 2, 1966<br />Operation Deckhouse Five – Jan. 6, 1967<br />
  40. 40. Major Operations Cont’d<br />Operation Cedar Falls – Jan. 8, 1967<br />Operation Junction City – Feb. 21, 1967<br />Operation Niagara – Jan. 5, 1968<br />Operation Pegasus – Aug. 8, 1968<br />Operation Menu – Feb. 1969<br />Operation Lam Son 719 – Feb. 8, 1971<br />Operation Linebacker – April 6, 1972<br />