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  • This is a great presentation for educating seniors on the importance of balance and exercise examples.
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  • Great exercises for balance!
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  1. 1. Balance By Tim Sebesta
  2. 2. Health Related Components of Physical Fitness Health Related components: Those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work Cardiovascular Fitness: The ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise. Body Composition: The relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water, etc) Flexibility: The range of movement possible at various joints. Muscular strength: The amount of force that can be produced by a single contraction of a muscle Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movement over a length of time.
  3. 3. Skill Related Components of Physical Fitness Skill Related Components: Those aspects of fitness which form the basis for successful sports participation. Speed: The ability to move quickly from one point to another. Agility: The ability of the body to change direction quickly. Balance: The ability to maintain an upright posture while still or moving. Coordination: Integration with hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses. Reaction Time: Amount of time it takes to get moving. Power: The ability to do strength work at an explosive pace.
  4. 4. How Does Balance Work? Balance is a magnificent combination of teamwork from the brain, muscles and bones which help keep us from falling, allow us to rise from a chair, climb stairs and walk outside on uneven terrain.
  5. 5. How Does Balance Work? There are three ways we process balance information as we go about our day. Visual cues come from our eyes and tell us information about our environment. They help us sense potential dangers and obstacles to prevent falls. Internal spacial orientation tells us where our arms and legs are positioned in space. For example when our eyes are closed we know where our arm is because of this integral sense of spacial orientation. The inner ear contains fluid-filled semicircular canals which provide our brain with crucial information on the position of our head and its movement in space in relation to gravity. This is why we get seasick or car sick. When all these systems are working together automatically with our musculoskeletal system we can stay active and independent, preventing falls and improving your elderly balance.
  6. 6. Balance Disorders According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, when balance is impaired, an individual has difficulty maintaining orientation. According to NIDCD, some of the symptoms a person with a balance disorder may experience are: •A sensation of dizziness or vertigo (spinning) •Falling or a feeling of falling •Lightheadedness or feeling woozy •Visual blurring •Disorientation Some individuals may also experience nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, faintness, changes in heart rate and blood pressure, fear, anxiety, or panic. The symptoms may appear and disappear over short time periods or may last for a longer period of time. A doctor's help will be necessary to sort out these different causes and arrive at a correct diagnosis.
  7. 7. Falling Statistics • Did you know that falling down is the leading cause of injury death for Americans age 65 and older? • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC), each year 35 to 40 percent of older adult Americans fall at least once. • Falling down is not just the result of getting older. Falling can be caused by a variety of circumstances, and many falling mishaps can be prevented. • Each year, U.S. hospitals have 300,000 admissions for broken hips, and falling is often the cause of those fractures. Balance exercises can help you stay independent by helping you avoid the disability - often permanent - that may result from falling.
  8. 8. How to Reduce Your Risk of Injury from Falling Many factors are involved with falling •Vision may decrease and lead to falls •Reduced muscular strength including weak legs and hips •Postural problems including curved spine and spinal degeneration. •Step height may be reduced increasing stumbling •Decrease in reaction time •Drug interactions
  9. 9. Want to Prevent Falling? Have Your Vision Checked Regularly Vision problems can increase your chances of falling. •You may be wearing the wrong glasses, or have a condition such as glaucoma or cataracts that causes vision problems or limits your vision. •To reduce your risk of falling, have your vision checked by an eye doctor every year for early detection and correction of vision problems. If you can’t see something, it’s harder to avoid it, and this increases your risk of falling.
  10. 10. Prevent Falling: Watch Out for Medication Side Effects Age can affect the way some medications work in your body, so if you have been taking any over-the-counter medications for awhile, it's important to tell your health care provider. He or she will be able to tell you if the over-the- counter medications are still safe for you to take. •Look out for drugs--or combinations of drugs--that have side effects including drowsiness or disorientation. These side effects can increase your risk of falling. •This is especially important with over-the-counter cold and flu medications, which can often increase drowsiness. •And don't forget herbal remedies. Some remedies increase sleepiness and many react with other types of medication, which could increase your risk of falling down. Be sure to check with your health care provider before trying new medication, especially if you are already taking prescription drugs. And ask your doctor or pharmacist for a complete list of side effects you might expect when taking them.
  11. 11. Increase Your Home's Accessibility and Safety to Reduce Falling Risks About half of all falls happen at home. To increase accessibility and make your home safer: • Remove items you might trip over (such as papers, books, clothes, and shoes) from stairs and places where you walk. • Remove small throw rugs or use double-sided tape to keep the rugs from slipping. • Keep items you use often within easy reach, so you can avoid using a ladder or step stool. • Have grab bars installed next to your toilet, and install grab bars in your tub or shower. • Use non-slip mats in the bathtub and on shower floors. • Improve the lighting in your home. As you get older, you'll need brighter lights to see well. Use lamp shades or frosted bulbs to reduce glare. • Make sure all stairways have handrails and sufficient lighting. • If you have a disability, it's best to wear shoes that give good support and have thin non-slip soles. You might also consider avoiding lightweight slippers (especially backless styles) or athletic shoes with deep treads, which can reduce your feeling of control.
  12. 12. Before You Start: Safety Tips for Balance Exercises Before you start your exercise program, read these safety tips for lower body exercise: • Check with your doctor before beginning any exercise program. Hold onto a table or chair for balance when you used only one hand. • As you progress, try holding on with only one fingertip. When you feel comfortable with one fingertip, try the following lower body exercises without holding on at all. Ask someone to watch you the first few times, in case you lose your balance. • If you are very steady on your feet, move on to doing the exercises using no hands, with your eyes closed. Have someone stand close by if you are unsteady.
  13. 13. Balance Exercise Safety Guidelines • Be aware of your posture. Try to maintain your weight over your ankles. • Avoid fast movements including quick turns or changes in position. • Use a chair as a place to not only perform seated exercise but also to hold on to while standing. Hold on with your finger, one hand or two hands. • Always get up slowly when rising from a chair. • Don't close your eyes when exercising or standing at your chair. • Do not hold your breath. • If you are taking medications, ask your doctor if there are any side effects which may cause light-headedness or decreased balance.
  14. 14. What You Will Need 1. A sturdy armless chair. 2. Smooth bottom shoes that won't catch on the carpet. 3. A counter to hold which will allow 8 to 10 feet of walking. 4. Soft items to step over under 6 inches high. Slippers and small plush toys work great. 5. (Optional) A roll of masking tape. Blue painters tape works great and is easier to remove from carpet and floor. 6. (Optional) A sheet of paper to read. 7. (Optional) One pound ankle and wrist weights.
  15. 15. Plantar Flexion Hold table with one hand, then one fingertip, then no hands; then do exercise with eyes closed, if steady. Summary: 1. Stand straight, holding onto a table or chair for balance. 2. Slowly stand on tip toe, as high as possible. 3. Hold position. 4. Slowly lower heels all the way back down. 5. Repeat 8 to 15 times. 6. Rest a minute, then do another 8 to 15 repetitions. 7. Add modifications as you progress.
  16. 16. Knee Flexion Do knee flexion as part of your regularly scheduled strength exercises, and add these modifications as you progress: Hold table with one hand, then one fingertip, then no hands; then do exercise with eyes closed, if steady. Summary: 1. Stand straight; hold onto table or chair for balance. 2. Slowly bend knee as far as possible, so foot lifts up behind you. 3. Hold position. 4. Slowly lower foot all the way back down. 5. Repeat with other leg. 6. Add modifications as you progress.
  17. 17. Hip Flexion Do hip flexion as part of your regularly scheduled strength exercises, and add these modifications as you progress: Hold table with one hand, then one fingertip, then no hands; then do exercise with eyes closed, if steady. Summary: 1. Stand straight; holding onto a table or chair for balance. 2. Slowly bend one knee toward chest, without bending waist or hips. 3. Hold position. 4. Slowly lower leg all the way down. 5. Repeat with other leg. 6. Add modifications as you progress.
  18. 18. Hip Extension Do hip extension as part of your regularly scheduled strength exercises, and add these modifications as you progress: Hold table with one hand, then one fingertip, then no hands; then do exercise with eyes closed, if steady. Summary: 1. Stand 12 to 18 inches from table. 2. Bend at hips; hold onto table. 3. Slowly lift one leg straight backwards. 4. Hold position. 5. Slowly lower leg. 6. Repeat with other leg. 7. Add modifications as you progress.
  19. 19. Side Leg Raise Do leg raise as part of your regularly scheduled strength exercises, and add these modifications as you progress: Hold table with one hand, then one fingertip, then no hands; then do exercise with eyes closed, if steady. Summary: 1.Stand straight, directly behind table or chair, feet slightly apart. 2.Hold table for balance. 3.Slowly lift one leg to side, 6-12 inches. 4.Hold position. 5.Slowly lower leg. 6.Repeat with other leg. 7.Your back and knees are straight throughout exercise. 8.Add modifications as you progress.
  20. 20. Anytime/Anywhere These types of exercises also improve your balance. You can do them almost anytime, anywhere, and as often as you like, as long as you have something sturdy nearby to hold onto if you become unsteady. Examples: Walk heel-to-toe. Position your heel just in front of the toes of the opposite foot each time you take a step. Your heel and toes should touch or almost touch. (See Illustration.) Stand on one foot (while waiting in line at the grocery store or at the bus stop, for example). Alternate feet. Stand up and sit down without using your hands.
  21. 21. Other Exercises •Grapevine – Arms at side and feet together, step across in front of your left foot with your right leg, continue to step sideways uncrossing the right leg. Reverse and cross right leg behind left leg. Begin practicing in kitchen by holding onto counter. •Single Limb With Arm – raise your arm and then lift same leg. •Stepping Exercises – place soft objects 12 to 16 inches apart. Step over each one at least 6” off the ground for each step. •Clock Reach – Hold chair, lift outer leg and bend knee, extend arm forward at 12, move to 3 then 6. •Eye Tracking – hold thumb in front of face w/elbow bent, move thumb as far to the left as possible and then to right without moving your head, only use your eyes, repeat by moving thumb upwards and downwards; hold thumb at arms length, move thumb as far to right and left as possible, then up and down, but you can move your head. •Dynamic Walking – walk slowly while turning head left to right; repeat exercise #1 but with sheet of paper you are trying to read. •Knee Marching – raise one knee up as high as possible, alternate, repeat 20 times. •Staggard Stance – heel to toe and hold for 10 seconds, step back and repeat with other foot. •Balancing Wand – sit down in armless chair, hold wand in dominate hand, focus at top of wand and begin balancing.
  22. 22. Balance Exercise: Checking Your Progress It feels good to know that you're making progress, and with balance exercises the change can be very subtle. Here's how to tell when your balance is improving: •Time yourself as you stand on one foot, without support, for as long as possible. •Stand near something sturdy to hold onto in case you lose your balance. •Repeat the test while standing on the other foot. •Test and record your scores each month.
  23. 23. How much balance exercise do I need, and how often? With any exercise program, it's important to remember this phrase: "Everything in moderation.“ •The NIH recommends that you don't increase your regularly scheduled strength exercise sessions to incorporate these balance modifications. •Remember: you can do more harm than good by doing strength exercises too often. Don't exercise the same set of muscles 2 days in a row. •Simply do your strength exercises and incorporate these balance techniques as you progress.
  24. 24. Improve Your Body Balance with Exercise to Prevent Falling • If you don’t have a regular exercise program, start one. Lack of exercise leads to weakness, and that increases your chances of falling. • Exercise can improve your body balance and flexibility at any age. • Having a regular exercise program is also one of the most important ways that people can reduce their risk of falling. Exercise also makes you stronger and helps you feel better. • Try exercises that improve balance and coordination, like Yoga and Tai Chi. Because you work at your own level, these exercises are often suitable for people of any age. • Check with your health care provider about the best type of exercise program for you. KINE1130 (Tai Chi) Tues/Thur 1 pm to 2:20 pm (Section 81001) & 2:30 to 3:50 pm (section 81002)