2010 western conf

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  • The early park concessioners received little supervision. Their structures were typical make-shift frontier efforts. Not until after the completion of the northern transcontinental railroads in the 1890s, did more advanced concessioner facilities appear in Yellowstone, for example. Among the first of these was the Lake Hotel, constructed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1890. The formal classicism of this structure, with its ionic columns, three projecting porticos and symmetrical façade, made it clear that the building owed nothing to its setting. The railroads brought the first major developments to the parks. At the same time, as a part of this process, they also introduced their architectural and engineering expertise. The railroads' search for architectural styles suitable for park settings occurred at a time when landscape architecture was beginning to exert major influence on architectural design and theory. In 1842, landscape architect Andrew Jackson Downing had publicized his ideas on "picturesque" landscape and the importance of nature in architectural design in his widely- distributed book Cottage Residences. Several decades later, Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., a friend and pupil of Downing, working in conjunction with architects such as Henry Hobson Richardson, strengthened the connections between architecture and landscape architecture. Building forms responded to their sites, landscaping becoming an integral part of the design. While buildings generally were constructed of natural materials such as native stone, timbers, and shingles, few were intentionally "rustic." Early "rustic" examples were usually "follies"--gazebos and small pavilions. Larger buildings intentionally rustic in style appeared in the Adirondack Mountains in the 1870s, creating the style known as Adirondack Architecture. This influence began to appear in park architecture after 1900.
  • Significance: Warner's Ranch is a landmark of the history of the American West. It is strongly associated with important historical themes, including Mexican and American culture contact during the Mexican Republic; the frontier period in American westward migration, trade, and settlement; and the Gold Rush. The geographical importance of the area as an overland migration route during the 19th century and its excellent livestock pasturage were important elements in its development. American Jonathan Trumbull Warner, an early immigrant to Mexican California, originally occupied the valley in 1844 for the purpose of cattle ranching. He later built a trading post to take advantage of the overland migration trade resulting from the Gold Rush of 1848 through the early 1850s. The original adobe portion of the existing Warner's Ranch Barn may be part of that trading post. The building later became a station for the Butterfield Overland mail. In the late 19th century, a wood, peg- timbered barn was built to support large-scale cattle ranching. It was directly associated with the success of two of the largest cattle ranching businesses in Southern California between the late 1880s and 1961. Warner's Ranch was recognized as a site of exceptional importance in American history in 1962, when the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service identified it as a National Historic Landmark.
  • Significance: Warner's Ranch is a landmark of the history of the American West. It is strongly associated with important historical themes, including Mexican and American culture contact during the Mexican Republic; the frontier period in American westward migration, trade, and settlement; and the Gold Rush. The geographical importance of the area as an overland migration route during the 19th century and its excellent livestock pasturage were important elements in its development. American Jonathan Trumbull Warner, an early immigrant to Mexican California, originally occupied the valley in 1844 for the purpose of cattle ranching. He later built a trading post to take advantage of the overland migration trade resulting from the Gold Rush of 1848 through the early 1850s. The original adobe portion of the existing Warner's Ranch Barn may be part of that trading post. The building later became a station for the Butterfield Overland mail. In the late 19th century, a wood, peg- timbered barn was built to support large-scale cattle ranching. It was directly associated with the success of two of the largest cattle ranching businesses in Southern California between the late 1880s and 1961. Warner's Ranch was recognized as a site of exceptional importance in American history in 1962, when the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service identified it as a National Historic Landmark.
  • Bannack State Park, MT. 2008 Save America’s Treasures stabilization project
  • Deconstructed Detroit, Michigan the number of abandoned houses in Detroit is more like 12,000. Encompassing an area of over 138 square miles, Detroit has enough room to hold the land mass of San Francisco, Boston, and Manhattan Island, yet the population has fallen from close to 2 million citizens, to most likely less than 800,000. With such a dramatic decline, the abandoned house problem is not likely to go away any time soon. “ The Garbology study done by Arizona State University several years ago established that as much as 30% of Americas landfills are choked with demolition and construction debris. Over six million old growth window sashes end up in our landfills yearly. In truth, most of these houses are well built with quality materials not available today. Rehabbing these classic structures will almost always cost less than building new and provide character not affordable in new construction. The problem is that many times the cost to rehab exceeds the appraised value in certain areas. So, why not just tear them down? Well, a more creative and environmentally sound way to deal with this issue is to mothball these houses. For less than the cost of demolition an abandoned house can be stabilized and held for future rehab. Patching the roof and painting the façade can work well toward this goal. Sometimes houses must be demolished and vacant lots are the result. Before new infill housing is ever considered it makes more sense to let the occupied homes on either side of the lot incorporate them into their yards. One of the problems we have attracting folks back to the central city are the small yards often typical of historic family homes. These CDC's can usually purchase the lots inexpensively divide them and sell or give them to the adjoining property owners. Only when all of these options have been exhausted, should in-fill be considered. Infill comes in three varieties. Moving existing historic houses onto vacant lots, building new homes that fit the neighborhoods character and building new houses that don't fit in the neighborhood. The latter I like to call "alien infill". We've all seen houses that are so alien to the neighborhood they appear to have been plopped down by Martians.” Bob Yapp http://www.bobyapp.com/blog/2009/03/abandoned-lots-whats-a-community-to-do
  • Léon Krier, The Architecture of Community. Island Press, Washington, Covelo, London, 2009. p. 33.
  • A Monumental Achievement ­The structural engineer of Zaha Hadid’s spectacularly complex MAXXI building offers us an exclusive sneak peek. By Cathryn Drake Posted July 22, 2009 Zaha Hadid’s MAXXI (National Museum of the XXI Century Arts) is now virtually finished and will open to the public in early 2010. That is four years later than planned, due to funding problems, an estimated $28 million in cost overruns, and—most of all—sheer technical difficulty. The exuberant 323,000-square-foot structure, Italy’s first national museum of contemporary art, is more like a world unto itself than a mere building. It is massive in scale and has drunken, fragmented spaces: slanted walls, dizzying elevations, unevenly staggered staircases, steep skateboard-worthy ramps, and extreme cantilevers with precipitous views. Even so, the finished form looks deceptively clean and simple, an illusion made possible by the Italian engineering team Studio Croci & Associati. “ It took us months just to understand the shape,” Federico Croci says. “What you see is not what it seems. It looks like all one piece, but there are joints everywhere, structures tilting out, and you don’t understand what is supporting what.” The job has taken Studio Croci—which has restored landmarks such as the Tower of Pisa, the Colosseum, and the St. Francis of Assisi Cathedral—six years and a team of 25 to complete. “The design of this has been the most challenging thing we have ever done,” Croci says. http://www.metropolismag.com/story/20090722/a-monumental-achievement
  • The first “Make It Right” house in New Orleans. Photo courtesy of Rudy R. Christian.
  • Brad Pitt’s Make it Right Foundation house in the Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans.
  • Whose pattern language is it anyway?
  • The 1970s were a pivotal decade for historic preservation. The nation’s Bicentennial helped create a swell of interest cultural heritage, and preservation matured as a national grassroots movement. Interest in traditional building methods and skills emerged in the counter-culture and entered the main stream. 1956 - National Park Service Historical Architects Charles E. Peterson and Henry Judd gain approval from the US Civil Service Commission to create a Building Restoration Specialist series for federal employment 1968 - The “Whitehill Report on Professional and Public Education for Historic Preservation” submitted to the Trustees of the National Trust for Historic Preservation 1968 - The National Park Service proposes establishment of the William Strickland Preservation Center at Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia 1978 - National Council for Preservation Education (NCPE) established on the recommendation of the Higher Education Study Group sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation Higher Education Study Group sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation 1979 - The Campbell Center for Historic Preservation Studies in Mt. Carroll, IL began offering courses in museum collections care, architectural conservation.
  • Why Preserve? 04/21/10 2007 Maine Preservation Conference Technology and Communications: Effect of the World Wide Web on potential for collaboration and dissemination of information. Changes in career patterns. New modes of education: academic, vocational, experiential. 2003 - Establishment of a Building Preservation/Restoration Program (Associates of Applied Sciences degree) at Harford Community College in Bel Air, MD 2003 - The Preservation Trades Network announces the International Trades Education Initiative in partnership with Belmont Technical College 2003 - The National Park Service and National Trust for Historic Preservation announce plans to create the Western Center for Preservation Training & Technology at the former White Grass Dude Ranch in Grand Teton National Park 2004 - The American College of the Building Arts formerly (SoBA) in Charleston, SC licensed as a college by the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education 2004 - “Preservation Trades Training: A New Perspective” session and Preservation Trades Group Retreat at National Preservation Conference in Louisville, KY 2004 - The World Monuments Fund initiates Preservation Arts Training Program in North America 2005 - International Trades Education Symposium, Belmont Technical College, St. Clairsville, OH 2007 – 2 nd International Trades Education Symposium, Tallberg, Sweden
  • Stop-splayed, undersquinted, bridled scarf joint, with abutments
  • Laurie Smith : Geometry as a Spatial Design Language This presentation will look at some of the evidence for almost a millennium of geometrical design in English and Welsh historic buildings. The examples, ranging in scale from dwelling house to cathedral, have been chosen to demonstrate the extensive and diverse use of geometry as a spatial design language by a largely pre-literate and pre-numerate society. However, although this society lacked modern academic schooling, it demonstrated high levels of spatial literacy and the practical masonry and carpentry skills necessary to express it in harmonically proportioned architectural form. Geometry was a core subject in the medieval curriculum. Sometimes geometrical symbols are found scribed or carved into the fabric of historic buildings, design icons, or signatures that give clues to the geometrical design methods employed. For example, the compass scribed geometrical module carved into an aisle post at T. Mawr (Great House), a Welsh timber framed hall-house built at Castle Caereinion in 1460, can be opened like a flower to reveal the building's plan, section, long elevation, spere post cross section, braces, and timber scaling throughout the building. Similarly, the twin daisy wheels of the Monks' Door at Ely Cathedral, where building commenced in 1181 can be used to design the tripartite arch of the door itself and the concentric arcs of the tympanum above it. Beyond the door, in the cathedral's nave, daisy wheel geometry defines the proportional division into nave and aisles, the alignment of the arcades, and the alternation of cylindrical and angular piers within them. In both examples, the geometrical foundation is the driving force behind the building's constructed form and visual aesthetic. A building’s design is the conceptual foundation on which its tangible form, visual appearance, function and subsequent history are all constructed so it follows logically that we comprehend historic buildings more fully if we understand how they were designed. However, attempting to find out how a particular building was designed can be fraught with difficulties. Lack of records is one and changes to the building’s fabric another but without a doubt the greatest difficulty is where, as people of the 21st century, we no longer speak the design languages of earlier times. This is particularly true of the geometrical design systems of the medieval period because geometry is no longer taught as a methodology in our design schools nor as an aspect of architectural history in our universities. In seeking a deeper understanding of medieval buildings and the mindset of their designers it is an essential first step to relearn the demotic design language of the period. Laurie Smith spent 20 years as a Senior Lecturer in Design at several colleges in Britain, then spent a subsequent 20 years researching and writing about early geometric building design and analyzing dozens of buildings. He has spoken at most of the prestigious Architectural Museums in the U.K., and this will be his first opportunity to present in the U.S. He is a Board member of the UK Carpenters Fellowship and designs its quarterly journal, the Mortice and Tenon .
  • Lincoln Cathedral
  • Kicking Horse Covered Bridge griphonmedia.spaces.live.com
  • Russell Colbath Homestead Visitors' Center & Rendezvous White Mountain National Forest, Albany, New Hampshire, September 2-12, 2003
  • Save America’s Treasures grant. The oldest standing building in Idaho, in the Coeur d’Alene’s Old Mission State Park. The Mission of the Sacred Heart or Sacred Heart Mission was constructed between 1850 and 1853 by Catholic missionaries and members of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe.
  • The heavy timber frame, hand hewn and joined by mortise and tenon and wood pegs was called “Postunsil” construction. Walls laced with willow boughs and woven with grass over which mud was applied approx. 12” thick. Walls lined with clapboard in 1865. Hexastyle portico designed in Roman Doric order in classical Proportions. Ornament and figures hand carved By Father Ravalli.
  • Between 1999 and 2009, the Save America's Treasures program allocated around $220 million dollars for the restoration of nearly 900 historic structures, many of them National Historic Landmarks. This investment by the SAT program generated in excess of $330 million from other sources. This work meant 16,012 jobs (a job being one full time equivalent job for one year...the same way they are counting jobs for the Stimulus Program). The cost per job created? $13,780. Donovan Rypkema.
  • Maintenance and Sustainability Historic buildings are inherently sustainable. Preservation maximizes the use of existing materials and infrastructure, reduces waste, and preserves the historic character of older towns and cities. The energy embedded in an existing building can be 39% of the embedded energy of maintenance and operations for the entire life of the building. Sustainability begins with preservation. Historic buildings were traditionally designed with many sustainable features that responded to climate and site. When effectively restored and reused, these features can bring about substantial energy savings. Taking into account historic buildings' original climatic adaptations, today's sustainable technology can supplement inherent sustainable features without compromising unique historic character.
  • Another flaw in the human character is that everybody wants to build and nobody wants to do maintenance. Kurt Vonnegut (1922 - 2007), Hocus Pocus Differences between maintenance of new and historic buildings
  • What is embodied energy? There are two forms of embodied energy in buildings: · Initial embodied energy; and · Recurring embodied energy The initial embodied energy in buildings represents the non-renewable energy consumed in the acquisition of raw materials, their processing, manufacturing, transportation to site, and construction. This initial embodied energy has two components: Direct energy the energy used to transport building products to the site, and then to construct the building; and Indirect energy the energy used to acquire, process, and manufacture the building materials, including any transportation related to these activities. The recurring embodied energy in buildings represents the non-renewable energy consumed to maintain, repair, restore, refurbish or replace materials, components or systems during the life of the building. As buildings become more energy-efficient, the ratio of embodied energy to lifetime consumption increases. Clearly, for buildings claiming to be "zero-energy" or "autonomous", the energy used in construction and final disposal takes on a new significance. Photo by D'Arcy Norman, used under Creative Commons License. Photo uploaded to Flickr June 2, 2009.
  • Building Trades Training: A New Perspective 04/21/10 Session Notes: Lisa Sasser, PTN Education Committee Chair The year 2007 will mark the 40th anniversary of the Whitehill Report, and the preservation movement has grown and developed in ways that could scarcely have been imagined by its authors. Not long after the events of 9/11, I was at a talk given by John Stubbs of the World Monuments Fund. He said something that resonated profoundly with me – that the preservation movement re-invents itself every 25 years, and that we are on the cusp of that wave of re-invention. I believe that the trades have a major role to play in that process. In 1967, it was feared that it might be too late to find the trades and bring them to the table. Now, almost forty years later, the trades have found a voice to ask, “how large can we build the table”. My friend Bill Wilkes from the American College of the Building Arts recently said to me, “you know, we’re going to look back on this 10 years from now and wonder why it was so hard”. I share his faith and optimism that the traditional trades will grow and flourish, not just in the way we conserve our cultural heritage, but in how we think about and act upon the whole of the built environment, and in what we as a society regard as good and valuable work. This process is happening now – thanks to the efforts of people like all of you.
  • 2010 western conf

    1. 2. Tlingit house with painting and totem pole deserted Cape Fox village, Alaska, 1899
    2. 3. Kwakiutl House Frame Edward C. Curtis, c. 1914
    3. 4. Haida Longhouse
    4. 6. Timberline Lodge, Mt. Hood Oregon Winter 1942-43
    5. 10. Warner Ranch, Barn-Trading Post, Warner Springs vicinity, San Diego County, CA
    6. 11. Warner Ranch, Barn-Trading Post, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs vicinity, San Diego County, CA
    7. 14. Pete French Round Barn Harney County, Oregon
    8. 70. How we think about buildings goes hand-in-hand with how we think About preservation

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