Cheating Presentacion Oct 09

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Cheating Presentacion Oct 09

  1. 1. Teodoro Wigodski Octubre 2009 1 /18
  2. 2. Índice 1. ¿Por qué copio? • Alumno(a) • Profesor • Administración de Docencia 2. Revisión bibliográfica y web • Copiar/hacer trampa (cheating) • Seguimiento 20 años • Predictores motivacionales • Causas en China • Plagio • Bibliografía 3. Criterios para evaluar comportamiento ético 4. Reflexión conjunta 5. Plan de Acción 2 /18
  3. 3. Por qué copio? Fuente: Encuestas a alumnos(as) y elaboración propia 3 /18
  4. 4. Por qué se copia? Fuente: Encuestas a alumnos(as) y elaboración propia 4 /18
  5. 5. Por qué se copia? Fuente: Encuestas a alumnos(as) y elaboración propia 5 /18
  6. 6. College Cheating: A Twenty-Year Follow- Up and the Addition of an Honor Code • Cheating evolution • 1984 54% • 1994 61% • 2004 57% • Honor code: cheaters and noncheaters: similar effect • “I don´t want to cheat, but it is the only way to compete in an environment in which cheating is so widespread” • Punitive factors continue be perceived as the most effective deterrents • Moral and ethics reasoning may become increasingly important goal 6 /18
  7. 7. Motivational Predictors of Academic Cheating Among First-Year College Students: Goals, Expectations, and Costs. Results showed that: • goals and expectations are important for understanding how students’ perceive the costs associated with cheating, and • that attitudes toward cheating and past cheating behavior are among the strongest predictors of intention to cheat and actual cheating behavior 7 /18
  8. 8. The proposed model suggested… • That students’ decisions to cheat are primarily based on a cost/benefit analysis and students’ assessments of the costs and benefits associated with cheating are influenced by their academic goals and expectations. • That homework cheating was more common than test cheating 8 /18
  9. 9. With respect to attitudes • Educators need to help students realize the role that homework plays in building a foundation of knowledge for future learning and assignments. • Additionally, educators should demonstrate to students that assignments are not simply “busy work” and that they serve a specific purpose. • One way to do this is to create and communicate learning outcomes and objectives for each assignment. 9 /18
  10. 10. With respect to subjective norms…. • The biggest hurdle* for educators to overcome is students’ perception that “everyone is doing it.” • When students perceive that a majority of their peers are cheating and are being rewarded for it, they may be more inclined to cheat in order to avoid an unfair disadvantage. * Obstáculo 10 /18
  11. 11. With respect to perceived behavioral control • Educators should be aware that students feel much more confident in their ability to cheat on homework and get away with it than they do in their ability to successfully cheat on tests • Using multiple versions of homework assignments may reduce the amount of cheating that takes place • If educators view homework and test cheating as equally unacceptable, they should clearly communicate punishments associated with both types of cheating 11 /18
  12. 12. Recomendations • Results showed that one of the strongest predictors of cheating frequency in the respondent’s most challenging course was past cheating, particularly cheating during the first semester • Students must be reminded early and often about institutional and classroom standards for integrity • Not only must educators help students learn the institutional expectations, they must also help students learn and practice the skills needed to complete work with integrity (i.e., planning, time management, use of library resources and services, use of academic support resources and services, etc.) 12 /18
  13. 13. On the cause of university students’ cheating phenomenon … ZHOU Run-xian, ZHOU Xiao-pin, 2007 (School of Business Administration, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan Hubei 430205, China; Wuhan International Trade University, Wuhan Hubei 430205, China) • When university students establish the target to pass examination and obtain a certificate, they produce a kind of expectation in the meantime, they make a subjective evaluation on their own ability …, when their own ability can’t reach the target, the “cheating” behavior seems to be in a clear pattern. • Cheating behavior is the decided by the interaction of three factors, which are: • personal character of university students, • social environment, and • higher education management • To clear up the cheating behavior phenomenon, we should start from three aspects: • norm university students behavior, • excellent social environment and • … improves various internal functions for development of students’ comprehensive character and education http://www.ceps.com.tw/ec/ecjnlarticleView.aspx? jnlcattype=0&jnlptype=0&jnltype=0&jnliid=3445&issueiid=56694&atliid=961154 13 /18
  14. 14. Plagio en educación • Se pide a los estudiantes que realicen trabajos de redacción o investigación. • Por holgazanería, por voluntad deliberada de engañar o por temor de no hacer un buen trabajo, algunos de ellos utilizan textos ajenos que entregan al profesor sin citar su origen. • Los profesores suelen considerar este tipo de comportamiento como plagio, y por lo tanto como un comportamiento impropio que conlleva sanciones o penalizaciones en la nota otorgada al trabajo. • Este fenómeno ha alcanzado una dimensión creciente (las universidades hacen firmar a los estudiantes un "contrato de honradez"), debido al acceso a las nuevas tecnologías que han multiplicado las posibilidades de reproducción y manipulación de textos. • Se han desarrollado software para detectar el plagio • Google: Resultados 1 .130.000 "plagiarism detection software". Fuente: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagio 14 /18
  15. 15. Bibliografía • The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan (Paperback - Dec 1, 2004) • Is It Still Cheating If I Don't Get Caught? by Bruce Weinstein and Harriet Russell (Paperback - April 14, 2009) • Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White- Collar Crime (Oxford Monographs on Criminal Law and Justice) by Stuart P. Green (Paperback - May 17, 2007) • Cheating Lessons by Nan Willard Cappo (Mass Market Paperback - May 1, 2003) • Guiding Students from Cheating and Plagiarism to Honesty and Integrity: Strategies for Change by Ann Lathrop and Kathleen Foss (Paperback - Oct 30, 2005) • How To Succeed in Business Without Lying, Cheating, or Stealing by Jack Nadel (Paperback - Sep 30, 2000) • Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era: A Wake- Up Call by Kathleen Foss and Ann Lathrop (Paperback - Jun 15, 2000) • Psychology of Academic Cheating by Eric M. Anderman and Tamera B. Murdock (Hardcover - Nov 21, 2006) • Detecting and Preventing Classroom Cheating: Promoting Integrity in Assessment (Experts In Assessment Series) by Dr. Gregory J. Cizek (Paperback - April 10, 2003) • Cheating on Tests: How To Do It, Detect It, and Prevent It by Gregory J. Cizek (Paperback - Jul 1, 1999) • Cheating (Ripped from the Headlines) by Stephen Currie 15 /18
  16. 16. Criterios para evaluación ética 1. Identificar los stakeholders 2. Utilitarista (Mills): Es bueno para la mayoría? 3. Deontología (Kant): Se respetan los derechos de todos? 4. Teoría de las virtudes (Aristoteles y MacIntyre): Se satisfacen las virtudes que los stakeholders esperan de los alumnos? • Templanza: término medio entre el miedo y la audacia • Justicia • Prudencia • Honestidad 16 /18
  17. 17. Reflexión conjunta • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 17 /18
  18. 18. Plan de Acción • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 18 /18

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