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Supplements and Ergogenics lecture


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Supplements and Ergogenics lecture

  1. 1. SUPPLEMENTS & ERGOGENICS Lona Sandon, M.Ed., R.D., L.D. Assistant Professor
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES List & state rational & purported benefits of supplements Explain regulations & labeling practices for supplements Analyze the available research on dietary supplements Provide practical advice to athletes Recognize supplements known to be harmful Describe how various supplements might work State resources available for dietitians and athletes to evaluate supplements and ergogenic aids
  3. 3. WHY ATHLETES USE SUPPLEMENTS Improve health Improve strength & power Gain or lose weight Burn fat Enhance energy Correct nutrient deficiencies Improve performance
  4. 4. WHAT IS AN ERGOGENIC AID? Ergo = “work” Genic = “to generate” Anything that helps to improve an athletes ability to perform better  Run faster  Lift heavier  Go longer
  5. 5. TYPES OF ERGOGENIC AIDS Physiological – improves functioning of body systems  Ex: enhances strength training, bicarbonate buffers blunt effects of lactic acid, blood doping increases oxygen carrying capacity Biomechanical – any equipment or devices that aids in performance  Ex: joint wraps/braces, body suits for swimming, lighter wheels in cycling
  6. 6. TYPES OF ERGOGENIC AIDS Psychological – mental strategies for overcoming performance anxieties  Ex:visualization training, lucky socks, preparation rituals Pharmacological – drugs used for the purpose of enhancing exercise performance  Ex:steroids, hormones, painkillers, amphetamines
  7. 7. TYPES OF ERGOGENIC AIDS Nutritional - includes foods, supplements, special dietary practices  Ex: caffeine, creatine, amino acids, sports gels, CHO loading
  8. 8. WHAT ARE DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS?Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 established definition: Not a food, or used as a food item Must include at least one of the following:  Vitamin  Mineral  Herb or other botanical  Amino acid  Dietary substance to supplement diet
  9. 9. REGULATION OF SUPPLEMENTS Can be marketed without proof of safety, efficacy, & quality Products containing new ingredients must notify the FDA, but do not require prior approval Manufacturer responsible for safety but not required to prove safety or efficacy
  10. 10. REGULATION OF SUPPLEMENTS “Facts” panel required All ingredients must be listed May include health, nutrient content, or structure/function claims on label Cannot claim to cure or treat disease
  11. 11. REGULATION OF SUPPLEMENTS(CONTINUED) FDA does not have the resources to monitor labeling claims closely Types of claims allowed:1. Nutrient content - “good source of calcium”2. Health – must be one of the FDA approved statements : “soluble fiber lowers cholesterol”3. Structure/function – unauthorized statements: “calcium builds strong bones”
  12. 12. SUPPLEMENT MARKETING Federal Trade Commission monitors marketing claims Common marketing techniques  Product endorsements by celebrities & athletes  Testimonials  Scientific breakthrough claims:  Unpublished “clinical” studies  Used in foreign country – “known in Europe for years”  False or untested structure/function claims
  13. 13. SAFETY OF SUPPLEMENTS Safety, potency, & identity of ingredients may be unknown Good Manufacturing Practices – GMPs  Voluntary quality control program & procedures within the industry
  14. 14. SAFETY OF SUPPLEMENTS Look for USP seal  2003 guidelines for quality, purity, ingredients, & manufacturing standards  Voluntary participation Buy from well- known companies
  15. 15. EVALUATING SUPPLEMENTS  Is there scientific research to back the claims?  Are the claims physiologically plausible?  Is it safe?  Is it effective?  What is the cost?  What are the ingredients?  Consider the risk-benefit ratio
  16. 16. MORE ABOUT SUPPLEMENTS Use is common among athletes ~ 60% Amount of active ingredient varies greatly & not always consistent with labeling Sometimes contain illegal substances or Rx drugs
  17. 17. COUNSELING ATHLETES ON SUPP. Do not simply dismiss use Understand athletes goals & reasons for supp. use Discuss safety & effectiveness of use Explain physiological mechanisms, potential side effects, & conditions for appropriate use Provide unbiased information Be an open-minded skeptic Stay up on supps by reading fitness magazines & visiting supp stores
  18. 18. WHAT IS DOPING? “Practice of enhancing performance using foreign substances or other artificial means” (Fink, Burgoon, Mikesky, p. 267) Growing problem in competitive & professional sports Oversight agencies  WADA – World Anti-doping Agency  USADA – US Anti-doping Agency
  19. 19. INADVERTENT DOPINGUnaware of ingesting the substance Causes:  Don’t know what is on the banned substance list  Unrecognizable name on ingredients list  Not included on the ingredient list, sometimes intentionally  Product contaminated during production
  20. 20. COMMON DOPING AGENTS Anabolics Prohormones and hormone releasers Fat reducers Anticatabolics Vitamins and minerals
  21. 21. ANABOLICS Increase ability to build muscle tissue Examples  Testosterone  Anabolic-androgenic hormones  Growth hormone – HGH  HMB (Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate)  Leucine metabolite  Anticatabolic, minimize PRO breakdown  Appears safe & effective at dose of 3 g/d
  22. 22. PROHORMONES Claim to increase production of anabolic hormones Androstenedione; “Andro”  Testosterone precursor  May increase estrogen & risk for cancer  Decreases HDL cholesterol  Banned & illegal to market DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone)  Testosterone & estrogen precursor  Poor efficacy if any
  23. 23. HORMONE-RELEASER Ornithine and arginine Clonidine
  24. 24. FAT REDUCERS Modes of action:  Decrease appetite  Increase fat breakdown for energy  Block absorption of ingested fats Caffeine – CNS stimulant, reduce sense of fatigue L-carnitine CLA (conjugate linoleic acid) Ephedrine – banned, risk of stroke/death, ↑ BP Commonly used by endurance athletes & those in aesthetic sports
  25. 25. ANTI-CATABOLICS Intended to help preserve lean body mass Examples  Glutamine  Branched chain amino acids  Leucine  Whey protein Commonly used by body builders
  26. 26. NUTRITIONAL ERGOGENICS USED BY ENDURANCE ATHLETES Branched chain  L-carnitine amino acids  Medium-chain Caffeine triglycerides (MCT) Coenzyme Q10  Pyruvate Energy bars  Sodium/electrolyte Energy gels tablets Ginseng  Sports beverages Glycerol
  27. 27. NUTRITIONAL ERGOGENICS USED BY STRENGTH/POWER ATHLETES Chromium  Protein powders Creatine  Protein bars Conjugated linoleic  Medium-chain acid triglycerides Growth hormone  Beta-hydroxy-beta- Anabolic steroids methyl butyrate
  28. 28. FIND THE RESEARCH MEDLINE/PubMed: Includes research/professional journals in the medical field CINAHL: Includes research/professional journals in nursing and allied health fields Sport Discus: Database that includes general media sources involving sport
  29. 29. WEB SITES Office of Dietary Supplements US Pharmacopeia Consumer Labs
  30. 30. SUMMARY Sports nutritionist must be aware of supplement use Most athletes use or have tried supplements Supplements are not tested for purity, safety, efficacy Supplements do not require FDA approval Supplements may contain banned substances Voluntary GMP and USP guidelines are used by some manufacturers FDA & FTC have limited resources to address abuse in the industry Buyer beware!
  31. 31. REFERENCESFink HH, Burgoon LA, Mikesky AE, eds. Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2012Dunford M, Smith M. Dietary supplements and ergogenic aids. In: Dunford M, ed. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals, 4th ed. American Dietetic Association; 2006.