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R       IH2N – C – C =O       I I      H OH  PROTEIN: PUNY TO POWERFUL        Lona Sandon, M.Ed., R.D., L.D.        Assist...
OBJECTIVES Discuss the importance of proteins in the diet Discuss the main functions of proteins in the body Discuss ho...
IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN 2nd only to water as an ingredient for tissues & structures Needed for muscle maintenance Constan...
COMPOSITION                            QUALITY   Complete                              High       contain all essential...
HIGH-QUALITY PROTEIN   A complete protein   Contains extra    amino acids for    protein synthesis   Good digestibility...
LOW-QUALITY PROTEIN   An incomplete    protein   One or more limiting    amino acids   Usually from plant-    derived f...
COMPLEMENTARY PROTEIN COMBINATIONS     Ex: Whole grain breads, cereals, rice,     pastas   Ex: Kidney, black, or pinto bea...
NITROGEN BALANCE                  Used as indicator of                  adequacy of total calorie &                  prot...
NORMAL PROTEIN TURNOVER                 Muscle Protein           Synthesis            Breakdown                      Muscl...
PROTEIN TURNOVER   Endurance/aerobic exercise seems to have little    impact on PRO synthesis or breakdown   Resistance ...
HOW MUCH PROTEIN IS NEEDED?          AMDR = 10-35% of daily calories                     Adapted from: Fink, Burgoon, Mike...
FACTORS INFLUENCING PROTEINNEEDS   Total energy intake       If adequate kcal, calculate PRO needs in middle of range   ...
FACTORS INFLUENCING PROTEINNEEDS   Exercise intensity and duration     High levels require higher PRO needs     2-6% en...
FACTORS INFLUENCING PROTEINNEEDS   Dietary protein quality     Vegetarians  have higher PRO needs,      calculate at hig...
PROBLEMS OF TOO MUCH PROTEIN Used for energy or converted to fat Increases fluid needs & risk of dehydration High PRO s...
PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS? Ask  the following questions: What is the quantity of protein or amino acids in  the product? Is t...
WHEN ARE PRO SUPP. NEEDED?                  Very high calorie &                  PRO needs due to                  traini...
RISKS OF PRO SUPPLEMENTS Allergic reactions to added ingredients Contaminated with banned substances Nutrient-nutrient ...
PRO & DAILY TRAINING Aim to maximize muscle PRO synthesis Repair microtrauma of muscles caused by  training If inadequa...
PRE-TRAINING PROTEIN   Recent research suggests PRO prior to exercise may:      Provide energy for muscle cells      De...
4-24 HOURS PRIOR TO TRAINING Consider time before training Choose lean proteins       3-6 ounces of meat or        equi...
1 -4 HOURS BEFORE TRAINING Focus on CHO Small amounts of PRO may be tolerated        2–4 oz lean meat        8 fl oz m...
PROTEIN DURINGTRAINING/COMPETITION?                PRO can serve as an energy                 source                    ...
PROTEIN DURINGTRAINING/COMPETITION? Research supporting BCAAs    Ingestion may prevent     central nervous system     fa...
PROTEIN AFTER TRAINING Critical for recovery Increased rate of PRO synthesis     Availability   of food effects synthes...
PROTEIN AFTER TRAINING                    Type:                       Influences                        hyperaminoacidem...
PROTEIN AFTER TRAINING   Better absorption when    consumed with CHO     Increased circulating      insulin promotes pro...
HOW MUCH?                           EXAMPLES 6 grams essential AAs             Chocolate milk  PRO synthesis           ...
CHOCOLATE MILK FOR RECOVERY Provides PRO & CHO in amounts shown to  promote muscle synthesis & glycogen  repletion Provi...
SUMMARY PRO is a key nutrient for muscle mass Complete, high quality & complementary PRO can provide essential AAs for a...
REFERENCESFink HH, Burgoon LA, Mikesky AE, eds. Practical  Applications in Sports Nutrition. Sudbury, MA:  Jones and Bartl...
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Protein Lecture

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Protein Lecture

  1. 1. R IH2N – C – C =O I I H OH PROTEIN: PUNY TO POWERFUL Lona Sandon, M.Ed., R.D., L.D. Assistant Professor
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES Discuss the importance of proteins in the diet Discuss the main functions of proteins in the body Discuss how much protein should be consumed and the various factors that can affect the protein needs of athletes Discuss protein supplementation and its place in sport nutrition Explain the importance of protein intake for the athlete involved in daily training Discuss the type, quantity, and timing of protein consumption before, during, & after exercise.
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN 2nd only to water as an ingredient for tissues & structures Needed for muscle maintenance Constant turnover – breakdown & rebuild Can be metabolized for energy Must be replaced daily Critical for enzymes & body functions Inadequate protein can hinder sports performance
  4. 4. COMPOSITION QUALITY Complete  High  contain all essential AA  Typically animal proteins  Animal products & soy  Contain all essential AA  Enough AA for synthesis of Incomplete non-essential AA  May contain all essential AA  Good digestibility (95%) but in inadequate amounts  Mainly plant sources  Low  Plant sources Complementary PRO  Limiting amino acids  2 or more incomplete PROs to  Ex. Grains & low lysine make a complete PRO  Limited digestibility (85%) TYPES OF PROTEIN FOR ATHLETES
  5. 5. HIGH-QUALITY PROTEIN A complete protein Contains extra amino acids for protein synthesis Good digestibility Usually from animal- derived foods & soy
  6. 6. LOW-QUALITY PROTEIN An incomplete protein One or more limiting amino acids Usually from plant- derived foods
  7. 7. COMPLEMENTARY PROTEIN COMBINATIONS Ex: Whole grain breads, cereals, rice, pastas Ex: Kidney, black, or pinto beans, lentils, split peas Ex: peanuts, almonds, walnuts, flaxseeds, sunflower seeds
  8. 8. NITROGEN BALANCE  Used as indicator of adequacy of total calorie & protein intake  When calorie intake is low, protein is broken down resulting in negative N2 balance  Negative N2 balance can result in poor athletic performance, muscle loss N2 balance = (Nitrogen in) – (Nitrogen out)
  9. 9. NORMAL PROTEIN TURNOVER Muscle Protein Synthesis Breakdown Muscle free amino acid pool De novo formation Oxidation Dietary Body Blood amino acids protein protein Adapted from: Gibala & Hawarth, 2006
  10. 10. PROTEIN TURNOVER Endurance/aerobic exercise seems to have little impact on PRO synthesis or breakdown Resistance exercise stimulates PRO synthesis (muscle anabolism) while also increasing breakdown (muscle catabolism)  Being in a fed state increases synthesis during exercise recovery, promoting muscle growth  6-10 g essential AA acids stimulate anabolism post training
  11. 11. HOW MUCH PROTEIN IS NEEDED? AMDR = 10-35% of daily calories Adapted from: Fink, Burgoon, Mikesky, 2006
  12. 12. FACTORS INFLUENCING PROTEINNEEDS Total energy intake  If adequate kcal, calculate PRO needs in middle of range  Adequate calories allow for maximum use of PRO Desire to lose or gain weight  Calculate PRO needs at high end of range for both weight loss or gain  Higher level needed for muscle recovery & maintain positive N2 balance Carbohydrate availability  If CHO intake low, calculate PRO at higher end of range
  13. 13. FACTORS INFLUENCING PROTEINNEEDS Exercise intensity and duration  High levels require higher PRO needs  2-6% energy may come from PRO breakdown during endurance training Training status/fitness level  Higher levels for less fit athletes  Training adaption occurs after ~2 weeks, then become more efficient using PRO, requiring less
  14. 14. FACTORS INFLUENCING PROTEINNEEDS Dietary protein quality  Vegetarians have higher PRO needs, calculate at higher end of range Age  Youthathletes need higher end of range  Masters athletes may need higher levels
  15. 15. PROBLEMS OF TOO MUCH PROTEIN Used for energy or converted to fat Increases fluid needs & risk of dehydration High PRO sometimes means high fat & cholesterol intake Displaces other healthful foods; missing essential vitamins/minerals Fat weight gain not muscle
  16. 16. PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS? Ask the following questions: What is the quantity of protein or amino acids in the product? Is the supplement necessary? Evaluate usual intake first. What is the cost? Will it enhance performance? Does the supplement have any harmful effects?
  17. 17. WHEN ARE PRO SUPP. NEEDED?  Very high calorie & PRO needs due to training  During traveling or when food availability it limited  Vegan athletes  Kcal restricting athletes  Female athletes more likely to eat low PRO
  18. 18. RISKS OF PRO SUPPLEMENTS Allergic reactions to added ingredients Contaminated with banned substances Nutrient-nutrient interactions Lost money
  19. 19. PRO & DAILY TRAINING Aim to maximize muscle PRO synthesis Repair microtrauma of muscles caused by training If inadequate, rely on body sources leading to protein losses  Decreased performance  Increases risk of illness Sports anemia  Low hemoglobin
  20. 20. PRE-TRAINING PROTEIN Recent research suggests PRO prior to exercise may:  Provide energy for muscle cells  Decrease catabolism of muscle tissue  Increase muscle protein synthesis Decreases gastric emptying  Leading to longer satiety  Gradual release of nutrients into blood stream  Prevent hunger during training/competition  Consume 1-3 hours prior to training May increase perceived exertion
  21. 21. 4-24 HOURS PRIOR TO TRAINING Consider time before training Choose lean proteins  3-6 ounces of meat or equivalent complementary non-meat PRO sources  8-12 fl oz of dairy  1 oz nuts, seeds CHOs, not proteins, should predominate Familiar foods
  22. 22. 1 -4 HOURS BEFORE TRAINING Focus on CHO Small amounts of PRO may be tolerated  2–4 oz lean meat  8 fl oz milk, yogurt Lean protein sources preferable
  23. 23. PROTEIN DURINGTRAINING/COMPETITION?  PRO can serve as an energy source  Too slow for intense activity  Must go through liver before getting to muscle except BCAAs  Benefit of consumption questionable  Hydration beverages (Accelerade) with PRO does not appear to improve performance/endurance  AA taste bad in sports drinks
  24. 24. PROTEIN DURINGTRAINING/COMPETITION? Research supporting BCAAs  Ingestion may prevent central nervous system fatigue due to low blood levels Research results inconsistent Limited effect on performance
  25. 25. PROTEIN AFTER TRAINING Critical for recovery Increased rate of PRO synthesis  Availability of food effects synthesis rate Positive PRO balance dependent on:  AA composition  AA blood concentration  Timing of feeding
  26. 26. PROTEIN AFTER TRAINING  Type:  Influences hyperaminoacidemia  Complete PROs  Casein  Whey  Soy  Foods containing essential AAs  Whole food sources recommended
  27. 27. PROTEIN AFTER TRAINING Better absorption when consumed with CHO  Increased circulating insulin promotes protein synthesis Improved recovery & muscle repair Best if consumed within 60 min to 3 hours of exercise
  28. 28. HOW MUCH? EXAMPLES 6 grams essential AAs   Chocolate milk PRO synthesis  Yogurt & nuts General recommendations  Meat sandwich on whole  6-20 g PRO post exercise wheat Consume within 3 hours or less of exercise for maximum effect of muscle building hormonesPROTEIN AFTER TRAINING
  29. 29. CHOCOLATE MILK FOR RECOVERY Provides PRO & CHO in amounts shown to promote muscle synthesis & glycogen repletion Provides essential AA & BCAA important for muscle anabolism Provides Na+ & K+ lost in sweat Promotes greater fluid replacement & retention compared to sports drinks Contains many other essential vitamins/minerals
  30. 30. SUMMARY PRO is a key nutrient for muscle mass Complete, high quality & complementary PRO can provide essential AAs for athletes Athletes should achieve a positive N2 balance for muscle building & repair Athletes have higher PRO needs than non-athletes  1.4-2 strength, 1.2-2 endurance, 1.2-1.6 team sports PRO needs depend on: weight, training status, calorie & CHO intake, weight gain/loss, quality & type PRO before & after exercise can benefit athletes
  31. 31. REFERENCESFink HH, Burgoon LA, Mikesky AE, eds. Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2012Gibala MJ. Howarth KR. Protein and exercise. In: Dunford M, ed. Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals, 4th ed. American Dietetic Association; 2006.Roy BD. Milk: the new sports drink? A review. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5:15.

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