by Johan P. Olsen MAKING SENSE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
"Why," Ford asked in exasperation, "when I only want to hire a pair of hands, do I get a whole person?Toyota selects, develops, and motivates its people to become committed to building high-quality products-and how you can do the same for your company.Toyota Culture examines the “human systems” that Toyota has put in place to instill its founding principles of trust, mutual prosperity, and excellence in its plants, dealerships, and offices around the world. Beginning with a look at the evolution of the Toyota culture and why its people are the heart and soul of the Toyota WayTheory x
Single-loop:Firm uses data to improve performance by adjusting routines, taking-for-granted its goals & valuesDouble-loop:Firm changes its core assumptions about mission, underlying values & beliefs (transform culture)
Distributive efficiency give to the ones who gain the most utility from it.
Lisa Sahulka - Leadership and-administrative-dynamics-third-class
Leadership and Administrative DynamicsEckerd Fall 2011
AgendaMyers Briggs exercise • Bureaucracy Organization • Scientific Management theories • Universal Management Principles • Classical Theories in modern organizations • Human Relations approaches • Human Resources Model • Open Systems • Contemporary Developments • Contingency Theories Memo writing Read memos in class.
What is Myers BriggsCarl Jung• Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology• Father of Myers Briggs Type Indicator• Jung believed:• Eight psychological types (for our purposes two) • Introverted and extroverted. • Four main functions of consciousness • Two perceiving functions – sensation and intuition • Two judging functions – thinking and feeling
Myers Briggs• There are certain preferred ways of thinking and acting.• There is not a better or worse type.• Four pairs of opposites equal 16 possible psychological types.
Why is this important to a leader?• It is important to know yourself as a supervisor.• It is equally important to know who you are supervising.
• Introvert • Sensing• Extrovert • Intuition How do I Where do I take in get energy? information? How do I How do I make organize my decisions? world?• Thinking • Judging• Feeling • Perceiving
EXTREMES• Introvert • Sensing• Extrovert • Intuition Work in Facts or groups or 30,000 feet in Work alone the air Solve the Business problem or decision or prefer People processing decision and flexibility• Thinking • Judging• Feeling • Perceiving
• Pre-Scientific Management (Pre-1800s)• Classical Management (1800-1930) • Administrative Theory/Universalism (Henri Fayol) • Scientific Management (Federick Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt-“Gantt Chart”) • Structuralist School (Max Weber-“bureaucracy”)• Neoclassical Management and Organization Theory (1930-1960s) • Human Relations School (Human Relations/Hawthorne Experiments) • Behavioral School (Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Rensis Likert, Chris Argyris, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland)Modern Management and Organization Theory (1960-2000s) Management Science (OM, MRP, JIT, CI, TQM) Systems Theory (Peter Senge)(Subsystems, Open/Closed) Contingency Theory (Open Systems Planning, Organizational Design, Leadership)
Extraverted/Introverted (E/I)At work• In general:Introvert ExtrovertReflects then acts ACTION!Needs time alone Needs peopleDeep interaction Breadth of knowledgePrefers depth of knowledge Frequent interaction
Extrovert / Introvert Extrovert – 70% US population Introvert – 30% of US population • Let’s talk about it. (extracts • Let me think about it. information externally) • Quiet please! • Loud • Prefer to work alone. • Prefer environments where • Even if they know working in a co-workers are talking. team is important, they will still • Do not like long intervals of need “alone time” to re- working alone. energize. • Want to work with other people in teams.
Dark Side – particularly in a leaderI E• Seems to have decided • Seems to have but is really just thinking. decided but are just• Staff observe introverts to processing out loud. be aloof and unfriendly. • Can overwhelm• If dismissed in discussions, they will • Can dominate the retreat and not provide conversation valuable input.
Sensing/intuition (S/N)At work• How do we gather informationSensing IntuitionDetails/fact abstract, theoreticalInformation that touches the 5 senses unconscious mind hunches
Sensing Intuitive Work NEEDs to be Thinks conceptually at the organized from point 30,000 foot level. A to point B and so Policies, procedures, repetition on. and rules are boring. Loves policies, May start by considering the procedures, outcome first. repetition and rules Have to start from point A.
S I• Do the work. • Conceive the work• Prefer to work at one project at a • Major multi-taskers time and even better if the • Energy bursts projects are in order.• Long-term stamina to complete a project.
Dark SideS I• Future oriented tasks • Details and simplistic are not appealing. explanations are points of frustration.• Can’t see the forest for the trees syndrome. • Get to the bottom line! • May make decisions that are unrealistic based on what could be vs. what is.
Feeling/Thinking (T/F)Once we get the data from either sensing or intuition• How do we judge? How do we make decisions?Thinking FeelingLogical empathyRational consensus“Business approach” balance harmony
Dark SideT F• Can be perceived as • May appear naïve uncaring and cold • Poor decision making• Staff may have hurt to spare feelings feelings • Time not effectively• No crying! utilized trying to make staff feel better.
Judgment/perception (J/P) Once we get the data from either sensing or intuition • How do we judge? How do we make decisions?Judging Perceiving•I like to have things decided. •I like to stay open to respond to whatever•I appear to be task oriented. happens.•I like to make lists of things to do. •I appear to be loose and casual. I like to keep•I like to get my work done before playing. plans to a minimum.•I plan work to avoid rushing just before a •I like to approach work as play or mix workdeadline. and play.•Sometimes I focus so much on the goal •I work in bursts of energy.that I miss new information. •I am stimulated by an approaching deadline. •Sometimes I stay open to new information so long I miss making decisions when they are needed.
Judging vs. PerceivingJ P• Makes decision in order • Delays decision making to solve the problem and to gain more move on. information. • Last minute vs. planners• Strong planners • Personal life/having a• Strong organizers good time• Work is much more is more important than personal important life/having a good time. than work.
J P• Routine • Adaptable• Order • Process and• Do not like open processing is good. ended issues • Need motivation from• Can motivate others. themselves • Life is a sojourn and• The goal is getting so is work. there.
Dark SideJ P• Resistance to change • May not get things• Decisions made to accomplished in a quickly timely way.• Focus is not at 30,000 • May be off on foot level enough another tangent while staff are still working on the first idea.
Theories comparedCLASSICAL MODERN • Administrative setting, well-educated• Context: factory work, under-educated professionals. workers. (assembly lines) • People need to be challenged, work• People can be organized through together, trust each other. measured steps to deliver the best outcome. • Staff participates in decision making (to varying degrees).• Staff do not participate in decision making (to varying degrees). • Flatter organizational structure• Hierarchical. • Formal teams.• Informal peer leaders. • Complex jobs.• Routine jobs. • Continuous learning.• Division of labor. • Ecosystem is world-wide• Functional departments.• Hierarchical supervision.• Management by control.
Refined at the turn of the century, by Frederick Taylor(scientific management), Henri Fayol (principles andelements of management), and Max Weber (bureaucracy),this is the management philosophy that still dominates ourorganizational landscape. Weber Fayol Taylor Early 20th Century thinking
Bureaucracy and Max Weber (I864-1920)Formalized, hierarchical, specialized with a clear functional divisionof labor and demarcation of jurisdiction, standardized, rule based,and impersonal.Professional, full-time administrative staff with lifelong employment,organized careers, salaries, and pensions, appointed to office andrewarded on the basis of formal education, merit, and tenure.Normative structure where government is founded on authority,that is, the belief in a legitimate, rational-legal political order.
In 1847, a professor in political science atHeidelberg, Robert von Mohl, observedthat:"the privileged classes complained ofloss of privileges, the commercial classesof interference in commerce, artisans ofpaperwork, scientists of ignorance,statesmen of delay."
WeberSocial and Economic differences can be mitigated through the law Legal guarantees against arbitrariness Recruitment based on merit
Changes in human services decision making Public administration Citizens/clients is a are “supermarket” “customers” of services Flatter decision making, power sharing Privatization internally and externally
What are rules?• Rules can assist with interpretation of ambiguous worlds.• Rules define the world. • roles, rights, obligations, interests, values, worldviews, and memory• Rules can mean change.• Rules can fulfill the “invisible veil”Principle.• Rules need flexibility and discretion.• Rules are not inflexible, people are• inflexible.
Scientific Taylor (1856-1915)Management • mass production • low cost, • acceptable quality • organizing large numbers of under-educated and/or non- English speaking immigrants • non-technical • rural workers for urban technical work.
Fayol (1841-1925) What do managers do? What do companies do? • Planning Production, • Organizing Selling/marketing • Staffing Finance • Budgeting Security • Coordinating Accounting • Controlling Management • Fayol considered the need for staff to participate in decision making.
Fayol continued• 1. division of labor authority • 14. esprit de corps• 2. the establishment • 9. Scalar hierarchy, in of authority which each employee• 3. the enforcement of is aware of his or her discipline place and duties• 4. unified command, • 10. a sense of order one employee reports and purpose to only one supervisor • 11. Equity and• 5. unity of direction fairness in dealings• 6. subordination of between staff and individual interests to managers the interest of the • 12. stability of jobs organization and positions• 7. fair salaries • 13. development of• 8. Centralized individual initiative
Human Relations Approaches • Elton Mayo • Western Electric experiments • Conclusions • Group activity, collaboration and the role of informal teams. • Social world of adults • Belonging • Complaining • Social demands
BEHAVIORAL APPROACHAbraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, RensisLikert, Chris Argyris, Frederick Herzberg,David McClelland
McGregor Theory X and Theory YBuying a pair of hands Building people
Human Resources Approach• Douglas McGregor Theory X Theory Y Avoid Work is Natural Work Must be Self- Controlled Direction Avoid Seek Responsibility Responsibility Good Decisions Seek Security Widely Dispersed
Chris Argyris – classical organization structureslead to immature, dependent staff Assumptions (values) SINGLE LOOPDOUBLE LOOP Action Actual Results Results Gap Desired Outcome
Open Systems Peter Senge•Teams COMMUNICATE more than individualsoperating alone.•Leadership is key element to implementing andsustaining a learning environment.•Leaders are responsible for promoting anatmosphere conducive to learning•CREATIVE TENSION - Represents difference betweenthe “vision” of where the organizationcould be and the reality of the currentorganizational situation.
Senge• Systems Theory is NOT a • Emphasizes prescriptive management COMMUNICATION in the theory Learning Process• Attempts to widen lens • Organizations cannot through which we examine separate from their and understand environment organizational behavior • Organizational teams or• The Learning Organization subsystems cannot operate in • Synergy isolation • Nonsummativity • Interdependence • Equifinality • Requisite Variety
Contemporary Developments Professional Bureaucracies (hospitals, universities) Community-Based Organizations (small non-profits) Total Quality Management The Excellence Movement (In Search of Excellence) Business Process Reengineering
Taylor to TQM Customer is always right Upstream quality, not downstream fixing Consistency in production People work within systems not “how I think it is best to do it” Continuous improvements of processes Staff participate Commitment from the top to the bottom
BPR (downsizing) •Addresses silo “thinking” between functions. •Eliminates what is not needed.
Contingency Theory• There is no one best way to structure and manage organizations.• Structure and management are contingent on the nature of the environment in which the organization is situated.• Argues for “finding the best communication structure under a given set of environmental circumstances.”