zero Energy 24 Hours, Social


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Design of sustainable, ecological, social and transformable interior and exterior spaces such as bars, restaurants, performing, areas among others; promoting interaction with people while reinforcing culture and reducing the use of energy to zero.

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zero Energy 24 Hours, Social

  1. 1. 0 E 24 H Energy Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Architecture At Savannah College of Art and Design May, 2012, Lily Marie Riefkohl _________________________________________________________________/__/___Professor Amy Wynne DateCommittee Chair _________________________________________________________________/__/___Professor Daniel Brown DateCommittee Member _________________________________________________________________/__/___Nancy Sharifi DateCommittee Member
  2. 2. 0 E 24 H SocialA Thesis Submitted to the Department of Architecture In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture Savannah College of Art and Design By Lily M. Riefkohl Savannah, Georgia May, 2012
  3. 3. D edicationThis work is dedicated in the loving memory to my grandmother Maria M. Puig
  4. 4. A cknowledgements:
  5. 5. It is a great pleasure to thank the many people who made this thesis possible.I would like to thank my committee chair, Amy Wayne for creating a positive and inspir-ing learning environment. Throughout my graduate experience, she constantly encour-aged further exploration both architecturally and graphically.I wish to express my immense gratitude to my faculty advisor, Daniel Brown for his timeand for helping me focus the scope of my project. His support over all the process hastruly been invaluable.I am grateful for the aid of Prof. Jain Kwon for constantly expanding my perspective ofthe interior spaces.I am deeply greatful with my topic consultant Nancy Sharifi for her constant advise andsupport in the environmental aspect of my project.I am indebted to my many friends and colleagues for providing a stimulating environ-ment and for always pushing me into inspiration. Specially Daniela Rey for all her inter-est, admiration and support during the process.I wish to thank my aunt, my mom and my sister Claudie, among other members of myfamily, for their guidance, support, faith, encouragement and enthusiasm.Finally I need to thank to my spiritual guidance and spiritual forces who didn’t let me falland push me to keep working on this thesis when I was about to give up.
  6. 6. Table of Contents
  7. 7. Abstract 1Arguable Position 31. Background, Goals and Justification 5 1.1 Introduction 7 1.2 Background Information and Theoretical Context 11 1.3 Cultural Technical and Environmental Objects 15 1.4 Cultural Historic Background 17 1.5 Architectural Historic Background 23 1.5.1 Vernacular Architecture 25 1.5.2 Colonial Architecture 27 1.5.3 Current Architecture 31 1.6 Environmental and Sustainability Issues 37 1.7 Economical Issues 39 1.7.1 Cost of Petroleum VS cost of electricity 432. Context 45 2.1 Demographics 47 2.2 Industry 49 2.3 Educational and Professional Context 51 2.4 Description of the Region 53 2.5 Climate 57
  8. 8. 3. Site Analysis 59 3.1 History and Description of the Region 61 3.2 Site Surroundings 65 3.3 Uses 71 3.4 Height 72 3.5 Closing Time 73 3.6 Site Existing Conditions 74 3.7 Climatic Conditions 75 3.8 Transportation and Transit 764. Program Analysis 73 4.1 Program Planning Goals 81 4.2 Sustainability 83 4.2.1 Sustainable Technologies for Energy Generation 89 Solar Power 90 Wave Power 95 Wind Power 98 4.2.2 Sustainable Materials 101 4.2.3 Other Sustainable Aspects 111 4.3 Adjacencies 113 4.4 Uses and Spatial Qualities of Interior and Exterior Spaces 115
  9. 9. 4.5 Transitional Spaces 125 4.6 Building Clock 127 4.7 Case Studies 1295. Quantitative Program 133 5.1 Occupants per area 140 5.2 Zoning Requirements 1416. Schematic Design 143 6.1 Concept 145 6.2 Form Evolution 147 6.3 Process Perspectives 149 6.4 Program 153 6.5 Schematic Plans 155 6.6 Perspective View 1617 Design Development 162 7.1 Building Plans 163 7.2 Building Section 169 7.3 Wall Section 170 7.4 Applied Technologies 173 7.5 Building Exterior 175 7.6 Building Energy Consumption 178
  10. 10. 7.7 Restaurant Plans 179 7.8 Restaurant Views 181 7.9 Conclusion 183Bibliography 187Table of figures 191Appendix 199
  11. 11. 1 A bstract
  12. 12. 0 E 24 H Social Rises in energy rates, global economic crisis, global warming, apprehension for theplanet and our future generations are vast concerns for general population. Puerto Ricosuffers from all of the previous issues mentioned, but also lacks the sustainability and thespread of this knowledge in the population; which could minimize some of the impactsof the crisis the world and specifically the island is going through. A lot of spaces desig-nated for the interaction of people have been closed or removed, affecting the culturalaspect of socialization. Working with these issues while implementing architecture, de-sign and sustainability into a cultural and social building that becomes a teaching tool bythe interaction of environment and user is what is intended to be achieved in this project.A solution to a sustainable concern in the island of Puerto Rico is introduced througharchitecture in a multi-functional building that responds to site and public interests,it also serves as a device for learning about technological possibilities by implement-ing not only solar, tidal and wind power but also interactive sustainable features thatare functional and serve to enhance education though social interaction. Achieving azero energy building is difficult but not impossible. The amount of sources requiredto produce the energy the building would consume are really high, especially becausethe building will be working throughout 24 hours. The energy needed to achievefunctionality of the building is high enough as to be impossible to apply technologiesonly in the infrastructure of the building. Additional energy generating technologieswere implemented in the site and surroundings in order to meet energy requirements. 2
  13. 13. 3
  14. 14. A rguable PositionThrough a 24 hours social space, architecture can become an educationaltool, teaching people sustainability while keeping them busy and enter-tained. 4
  15. 15. 5
  16. 16. Chapter 1 Background, Goals and Justifications 6
  17. 17. I ntroduction Sustainability is a word often repeated but not habitually practiced when it comes to Puerto Rican way of living.1 Many people use the word because they have heard it many times before, not knowing exactly what it implies. Sustainability can be reflected in many aspects such as social, economic, environmental, and architectural; all of these relating with each other and affecting way of living.2 Architecture is not only a way of expressing art and creating spaces while being functional, but can also be a tool for communication and teaching. Since Puerto Rican architecture lack sustainability; 1 Jorge San Inocencio, Monografias, Es Puerto Rico un pais Sustentable?, trabajos64/PuertoRico-pais-sustentable.shtml, accessed April 18, 2012 2 Peter Docherty, Abraham B Shani, Creating Sustainable Work Systems: Developing Social Sustainability, Second Edition, (Oxon, OX, 2009) Pg 77
  18. 18. the term understood only by a few 3 end up looking as a utopia. It’s been said that architects design according to the client’s needs and budget.4Letting people interact with architecture and environment, is making them part of thedesign.5 Is not the same having a design for the people, for the revival of culture, designwith a social conscience; that just designing for a client and a specific use. The user willbe the client, and as a social effect, the building will become the key for letting peopleinteract with nature, environment and sustainability while making them part of a ho-listic design.6 People like to feel good about things they do, and this project will be anopportunity to not only integrate community, but make them an active part of contribu-tion to the environment and economic situation the country is passing thru. Making thepeople interact with architecture and be part of the sustainable aspect of the buildingis making them the protagonist of the scene, which could make the building even moresuccessful. Since Puerto Rican clients don’t know about the actual benefit of having an en-vironmentally designed and sustainable building, and they just saw it as a huge initialexpense, architects haven’t had the opportunity to express it as much as desirable in the3 Odette Rodriguez Garcia, Puerto Rico: una isla de sustentabilidad, Universia Puerto Rico No-ticias, 09/7/2008, Alan Jefferis, David A. Madsen, Architectural Drafting and Design fifth edition, (Clifton Park,NY, 2005) 55 Sensing architecture, New Ideas for architecture of tomorrow by Maria Lorena Lehman WhyArchitecture Can Make a Positive Difference in an Occupant’s Life,, what is holistic design, article writtenby S.E. Smith, edited by O. Wallace, Last modified 05, April 2012, copyright protected 2003-2012conjecture corporation 8
  19. 19. country. 7 If nature, user, and sustainable techniques are applied interacting with them- selves 24 hours a day, during 7 days per week, people will eventually understand the con- cept and give it the value and importance that it requires to improve quality of life. Puerto Rican population tends to be very social,8 this public building can only achieve the purpose if the program gather the community in social activities while enter- taining them in different ways. Using the entertainment as an excuse, the learning expe- rience will be enhanced and promote by curiosity, questioning and wondering looking for answers an amaze in the user. Most of the population is very visual9 what will make possible to address the information throughout different types of users (different ages and different social classes). This will gather people as a solution and stimulation of the social aspect of the Puerto Rican culture, as well as the economical aspect, letting the possibility of becoming a touristic attraction. This project will include rentable spaces such as restaurants and activities rooms, as well as places for free cost. The purpose is to generate a capital from those rent, while having other areas for the enjoyment of general public. The building could be semi- open, open or enclosed or transformable, depending of the use or necessity. The importance of all the design and transformation is the way the place could become educational tool in an unconventional way. The way the building is experienced becomes the learning tool avoiding the need of literature or teachers to be 7 Jorge San Inocencio, Monografias, Es Puerto Rico un pais Sustentable?, PuertoRico-pais-sustentable.shtml, accessed April 18, 2012 8 Raffaello Beetti, Survival of Weak Countries in the Face of Globalization: Perto Rico and the Caribbean, (San Juan, PR, 2003) 94 9 Charles Smith, Sensory Learning Styles Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Learning Styles in Grappling, white-, accessed 04/21/20129
  20. 20. understood. Building’s environment and experience linked to design will make the build-ing self-explanatory. Sustainable technologies, materials and principles in conjunction toenvironmental design will be applied throughout the building in order to achieve a holisticdesign. Technologies such as tidal power, sun power and wind power would be appliedto the design and exposed with their explanations. Other aspects of sustainability will beincorporated as well in order to achieve a more sustainable and environmental friendlybuilding as possible.“The amount of information we are processing at one time determines our stimulationlevel at the moment, if a place give us a lot to think about because there’s a lot of variety inthe objects within it, that space is more stimulating to us. A place is particularly stimulat-ing if we cannot predict what we will experience next.”10 Architecture is where people experiment spaces and had the opportunity to iden-tify with them.11 This project intend to do the same for the country and its population,while improving a situation that is becoming a crisis.10 Sally Agustin PhD, Place Advantage: Applied Psychology for Interior Architecture, (New Jersey, 2009) page13711 Sally Agustin PhD, Place Advantage: Applied Psychology for Interior Architecture, (New Jersey, 2009) page118 10
  21. 21. B ackground Information and Theoretical Context Puerto Rico is mainly known by the tourism, nightlife, hospitality, food and cul- ture. It is known for being a relaxing destination, a place to go and have fun. Tourism has been an important source of income for the island and especially has been an es- sential factor in our cities’ development.1 Today touristic areas are still active, but un- fortunately because of the increase of the life style cost, some of these areas have been affected, causing the closure of many local businesses. 2 Since ever, the culture has been known for having people that interacts with each other in every aspect of their life.3 People in Puerto Rico don’ tend to be very in- 1Julio Morales, Puerto Rican Poverty and Migration, We just had to try elsewhere, (West Port, CT, 1986) 33 2 Marian Diaz, “Hay Negocio despues de la quiebra”, El Nuevo Dia, 9/26/2010, Negocios 3 Raffaello Beetti, Survival of Weakn Countries in the Face of Globalization: Perto Rico and the Caribbean, (San Juan, PR, 2003) 94 11
  22. 22. dependent, but collective, which make public spaces really important.4 Due to globaleconomical crisis, this cultural aspect has been seriously affected. Changing a societies’way of living could affect their way of feeling with themselves, with the economical situ-ation and with life. Effects such as depression, among other problems, affect their well-ness overall and end up affecting the culture in general.5 The lack of employment hasinjected desperation in the population, becoming more aggressive and violent.6 This iscompletely linked to their mental capacity, and the criminality that is constantly increas-ing in the island, as a result of the economic situation.7 Puerto Rico climate is known to be very hot consistently throughout almost ev-ery season. Lately, this has been getting worst due to global warming. Puerto Ricanshave not taken advantage of natural ventilation to address the issue of high tempera-tures inside living and work spaces; developments and constructions in general havenot been designed environmentally oriented.8 The lack of vegetation and the constantcreation of massive concrete buildings, where civilians gather the most, make it impos-sible to cool places naturally. During the last few years the economy has passed through such bad situation4 Progrma de Desarrollo Profesional, UPR/PUPR/ATI, Mejora de la calidad de espacio public peatonal a lolargo de la Avenida Roosevelt, 4, 30 informe final 5 Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad:un explosive binomio”, Dialogo Digital,6/21/2011,, accessed 4/19/2012 6 Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad: un explosivo binomio”, Dialogo Digital,6/21/2011,, accessed 4/19/2012 7 Puerto Rico Expresa, “La falta de empleos es la verdadera crisis”, 10/18/2011,, accessed 4/19/2012 8 We care green team UPRM, “Reducir energia”,, accessed4/19/2012. 12
  23. 23. that the costs for utilities have been duplicated, or even triplicated, depending of the area.9 Currently Puerto Rican government is working on a project to reduce energy cost with the use of natural gas, but the expenses to make this possible have been so high that the hope to reduce energy cost relies on eliminating the dependence of petroleum. The incomes of people haven’t increased, but more people are losing their jobs as a result of the economical crisis that has affected many countries.10 This makes it dif- ficult to afford the lifestyle that people use to have before this crisis begun. Architects are not helping to improve the environment and the financial situation, what makes shorter the list of environmental friendly buildings in Puerto Rico. 11 Knowing about the importance of the culture and the socialization among Puerto Rican people, and been aware of the adverse effect of the economical crisis, we can say that a harmful effect have occurred with traditions among this population, which has been vanished or significantly reduced. 9 Senator Fas Alzamora, Senado de Purto Rico, Resolution R.del S. 2247. 10 Peter Gevorkian, Alternative Energy systems in Building design, (2009), 11 Erica Sanchez, Camila Espina, “Crisis Economica y Criminalidad:un explosive binomio”, Dialogo Digital, 6/21/2011, html, accessed 4/19/201213
  24. 24. 14
  25. 25. C ultural, Technical and Environmental Objects Could architecture be the solution for health, criminality and economy? This could create conflict of values but looking from the sustainable perspective this could become a reality in a near future. Sustainability can improve and even change non ar- chitectural issues, such as economical problems, over a long term period.1 At this time, is imperative to think in a sustainable way to understand that this could put an end to the economical crisis, and at the same time this could recover cultural traditions. There are many options for the solution to problems regarding electrical ex- penses that people have not even considered in the country, such as tidal power, wind power, solar energy and people’s energy. The implementation of these, as well as the 1 David Edwards, “Energy trading & investing trading, risk management and structuring deals in the en- ergy markets”, (2009) 15
  26. 26. utilization of the concept of the conservation of energy can definitely be of substantialimportance for the improvement of the economy and the development of new sustain-able-energy options. Using the right technology, electrical as well as water costs can bereduced significantly, making it possible to keep a business running without major ex-penses. More people will have to learn about this technology, experts in the area will behired; more employments and more opportunities will be created. The requirements ofpeople to install and give maintenance to these will help reduce the rate of unemployedpopulation in the country as well. This change in electrical expenses could improveeconomy. All this together could also be translated into a decrease in unemploymentrates, and the possibility of increasing salaries. The creation of a sustainable space in which people and nature will provide theenergy for the building operates is the ideal option to reduce expenses. Reduction inutility cost could end up reducing prices of items sold and result in savings for custom-er’s pocket; allowing people to maintain the socialization aspect of culture.The project will be located in the coast of Puerto Rico, where breezes, water, sun andmoon could be transformed to provide a great contribution to the energy the build-ing needs. Another element to take into consideration for the contribution of sustain-able energy sources will be the customers themselves and the energy obtained by theirmovements. Since energy is not destructed but transformed, every step taken can betranslated into energy if advantage is taken of existent technology. This energy could betransformed, adding this as a source of power the project will use to run with. 16
  27. 27. C ultural Historic Background What is a country without culture? What is a culture without people? People define the culture as culture can define a country, always referring to background and history to explain present. According to Merrian-Webster dictionary culture is defined as the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. Pop- ular culture is defined as the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; and the characteristic features of everyday existence shared by people in a place or time . 1 Puerto Rican culture is the resultant mix of Taínos, Spanish and Africans, later 1Merrian Webster dictionary,2012, =0&t=132633668617
  28. 28. on diverted by the influence of Americans.2 These cultures bring to Puerto Rico back-grounds of dissimilar life styles, behaviors and characteristics that people from differentcountries used to have in the past, and which have evolved as one unique through his-tory once they have mixed together. The first inhabitants of Puerto Rico were native Taíno, a descendant VenezuelaArawak Indians tribe. The Taíno Indians lived in theocratic kingdoms and had a hierar-chically arranged chiefs or caciques.3 The Taínos were divided in three social classes,and depending on their social level were the task they used to perform: the naborias(work class), the nitaínos or sub-chiefs and noblemen (priests and medicine men) andthe caciques (chiefs). Every yucayeque or village used to have one cacique.4 The nabo-rias were free workers subject to service obligations who carried out the more onerousand repetitive tasks.5 Under the Spanish the labors performed by the naborias for thecaciques were transferred to the holders of the Encomienda. (The Encomienda was thelegal system employed by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas toregulate Native American labor.) The pre-Conquest organization of the naborias labormade it easier to introduce the eventual distribution of the workers.6 Taínos, use to settle closer to sea or rivers, since they were sea going and live inthe great extent on seafood. They use to entertain themselves with football (batú), mu-sic, dance and rituals. They use to be very collective and had many activities in which2 Sebastian Robiou, Aportacion indigena a la cultura Puertorriquena, 1992, Premio Concurso de ArticulosV Centenario3 Robert L Muckley, Adela Martinez Santiago, Stories From Puerto Rico, 1344 Http:// 5 Robert L. Muckley, Adela Martinez Santiago, Stories of Puerto Rico 135 6 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico a Panorama of its People, (Princeton, NJ) 15 18
  29. 29. socializing played an important role. The areitos was known as the maximum indig- enous artistic expression, in which Taínos used to assemble to perform sacred dances, smoke tobacco and herbs while invoking their gods by the use of music and dance.7 At each stage in history the various inhabitants of the country have used re- sources of Puerto Rican islands to satisfy their needs for food, housing and collective needs. Nevertheless, their use of these resources has sometimes failed to preserve the necessary balance for their renewal. The early Taínos barely modify the insular ecology. Their settlements near the mangrove swamps made little impact on the surrounding land, flora and fauna. Later on Taínos of the agro-ceramic cultures began cultivation by using the technique known as slash-and-burn. They set fire to a piece of land to clear the undergrowth and then to take advantage of the initial fertility provided by the ashes. This practice, although it damaged the soil which was then exposed to erosion by wind and rain, did not affect the fertility of the land when the number of people who lived on it was relatively low, between 25 and 100. Nine to ten years was enough for the abandoned terrain to recover its residual topsoil and develop new tree canopies.8 Christopher Columbus, arrived to the Island on November 19, 1493, on his sec- ond travel to the New World. In 1508 Juan Ponce de Leon settles on the island with 42 men, and became the first governor of San Juan Bautista, Spanish name for Boriquen (Puerto Rico).9 Upon arrival, the Spanish colonists began a chain of events that redi- rected the music, religious and lifestyle course of Puerto Rico. The Church and the army change: Catholicism imported instruments and teachers, while the militia instituted 7 Http:// 8 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico a Panorama of its People, (Princeton, NJ) 13 9 Lisa Pierce Flores, History of Puerto Rico, 8 19
  30. 30. small bands. Since the beginning of the 16th century, the music area of the island heav-ily influenced by the Spanish presence included a variety of instruments of Europeanextraction such as drums, harp, bells and the harpsichord, among others. Music andreligion were not the only aspects of Taino habits and culture that changed, but also thearchitecture, social classes, government, economy and lifestyle in general. The conquerors founded gold deposits in the island, which lead Taínos to workfor them to provide gold to the Spanish crown. News of the island wealth encourageother Spaniards to join in the colonization. The contacts with the Spaniards and the newwork regime eventually exposed the Tainos to diseases they have never experiencedbefore and for which they lack immunity. 10 In 1511, King Ferdinand authorized massive trade of African slaves on the is-land. The groups of African affecting the ethnic and cultural formation of the island in-clude Ashanti and Fante in Ghana, the southern shore of River Niger Carabalíes, Congosof Equatorial Africa and, from late eighteen century until the middle of the nineteencentury, the Yoruba and Mende of West Africa. Slaves were characterized by a strongfoundation to their traditions and ancestral beliefs, intimately linked to their dances andmusic.11 As slaves, segregated from the rest of the community, they had their own activi-ties, music, rituals, and religion which become directly from their African roots. Bringingwith them their music, religion and traditions; and adapting it with the Caribbean envi-ronment and the materials they find to make musical instruments they begin the cre-10 R. A. Van Middeldyk, The History of Puerto Rico, (2008) 9 11 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico: A Panorama of its People, (Princeton, NJ, 2009) 143 20
  31. 31. ation of different music styles, dances, drinks and activities overall. Some of the music created by them still alive today forming an important part of the Puerto Rican culture. With these styles festivals, dances and parties celebrated under trees or any other place in contact with nature.12 Fortress have been constructed to protect the island from attacks, and the is- land became important due to geographical position and wealthy. In the first half of the sixteenth century, many Spanish ships took advantages of the favorable northeast- erly trade winds in navigation, what made of Puerto Rico’s western coast their first stop in the New World. There they took on water and provisions for their journey to Santo Domingo, Veracruz, the Panama coast, or some other Spanish Port. These stops at the watering places on the western coast stimulated the early development of that part of the island. 13 Once the exportation of gold declined in the 1520, the island became less pro- ductive, establishments of sugar mills in Puerto Rico started. Every mill had a hacienda, (modest area of land, generally situated on the banks of a river, and a destined for sug- arcane cultivation and the necessary food supplies for its workers. It generally included meadows for oxen and other domestic and industrial use. )14 The few slaves left on the island by the end of the 16th century were concentrated in the haciendas. The estan- cia’s workface was its household. Depending on the resources of the hato’s owners, it could accommodate kinsmen, slaves, servants, or any others who, in one way or an- other, found in it a means of subsistence. 12 Ivonne Figueroa, AfroBorinquen Culture, El Boricua, html, accessed 4/24/2012 13 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico: A Panorama of its People., 71 14 Fernando Pico, History of Puerto Rico: A Panorama of Its People, (Princeton, NJ, )65 21
  32. 32. In 1898 American troops led by General Nelson Miles, invade Puerto Rico andassigned an American governor to the Island. Further on after many rebellions anddisputes, Puerto Rico in 1949 achieved to have their own elected governor. In 1952the US Congress and the Puerto Rican people ratify constitution, making Puerto Rico aCommonwealth or freely associated state (Estado Libre Asociado).15 The presence of United States in the island brought with it many changes relat-ed to economy, industry and politics.16 Upon the arrival of Americans, existent PuertoRican culture based on agrarian capitalism of coffee and sugar plantations with peas-ant economy and patriarchal and semi-feudal relations, adverse those from the UnitedSates with its industrial capitalism, and financial and trade. 1715 Lisa Pierce Flores, The History of Puerto Rico, 24 16 Carlos Di Nubila, Carmen N. Rodriguez Cortes, “Puerto Rico:Sociedad, cultura y educacion:ANtologia deLecturas, 108 17 Carlos Di Nubila, Carmen N. Rodriguez Cortes, “Puerto Rico:Sociedad, cultura y educacion:Antologia deLecturas, 109 22
  33. 33. A rchitectural Historic Background “A wide range of environmental factors has influenced architecture in the Caribbean Is- lands, and these factors differ from island to island, as well on individual island. Each en- vironmental aspect affected building material availability and each presented unique demands for shelter and comfort requirements.” - Edward E. Crain, Historic Architecture in the Caribbean Islands23
  34. 34. If we go back to the primitive hut, we will understand how everything was re-lated to basic needs only and people helping them in favor of nature.1 With the passof the years this concept have changed drastically, same as architectural expressions.Constructions used to be done in order to fulfill basics needs only, but history havegave it other characteristics when changing government, religion or ideas. It have be-come a direct representation of the historic time we live therefore a depiction of cultureand country. As architecture represent space and space define the way the user will experi-ence the building and how it will feel in it, with architectural and aesthetic changesduring the history quality of spaces have varied as well; changing for better or worsethe quality of spaces people are daily using and experiencing. 1 Historic architecture in the Caribbean Island 24
  35. 35. V ernacular Architecture The Taíno settlements were single family units in town of 50 or more houses ar- ranged around circular counts. Taino villages were called yucayeques. The houses were of two types: the huts and the caney.1 Huts, also called “bohios”, were circular, with diam- eter made from bamboo an exterior fixed with wild cane or palms which were secured with small branches of vine. (Figure 1.1) A cone shaped roof was framed to the center posts and attached with grass and palm fronds. The second tye of housing existent was the “Caney”, where the chieftains used to live. (Figure 1.2) It was rectangular in shape and a more spacious than the “Bohio”, with roof gable and a front marquee of receipt being located opposite the batey or place where the member of the tribe were gathered to celebrate many of their social and ceremonial activities. 1 Bobby Kalman, The Lands, People and Culture Series, New York, NY, 2003, 625
  36. 36. Both type of housing were made of wood poles or bamboo buried in soil andreeds lapel made of Rattans with roofs of palm leaves, straw, leaving in the top a vent forthe easily extraction of air and smoke from the members who always kept the homes. Asingle bohío could accommodate several families, was common among the taínos mar-ried daughters lived in the homes of parents. Generally, villages were arranged surrounding a square or a platform in whichthe batey was performed, as well as the major festivities, such as the areítos and the cer-emony of cohoba. Hammocks were hung on the tree to be protected from sun and raineffect.Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 26
  37. 37. C olonial Architecture Colonial architecture was created in Puerto Rico during the 16th and 17th cen- tury with the arrival of Spaniards to the Island. This buildings were painted in pastel colors, had tiled roof and balconies with ornaments (Figure 1.3). All these buildings ac- cessed to an inner courtyard style of Andalucia in Southern Spain. 1 Fortress were constructed during these period as well, since the island was first port of call for galleons entering the West Indies and the last safe harbor for ships, laden with treasures , making the return to Cadiz or Sevilla. The most notable of these struc- tures include El Morro, the San Juan Cathedral and the Dominican Convent Casa Blanca. Constructions were made out of materials available in the area such as stone and wood. 1 Eduardo Tejeira Davis, Roots of Latin American Architecture, 1987, 42027
  38. 38. Soon they started to join tiles and bricks as decorative materials. 2 Mélange of buildings that range from Popular style during the conquest to Neo-classic in the 19th century. The Dominican Convent is another 16th century structure, inwhich tall arcades galleries and large interior patios predominates. Churches were constructed near or in connection with the plaza of the munici-pality. This was important becoming the focus of a large open space. 3 All churcheswere constructed with the same characteristics, predominantly Gothic influence. 4 Colonial architecture has interior courtyards (Figure 1.4), balconies and canti-lever roof to protect spaces from sun and to bring breezes into spaces. The need toform a connection with outdoors environment is fundamental. 5 More appreciationfor the outdoor allowed the garden to become an important part of the living environ-ment, which led the connection of architectural elements between the outdoors andthe building enclosure.6 Architectural elements such as galleries, verandas, porches,balconies, larger windows, louvers, among others, are used as aesthetic as well as cli-mate features. These take advantage of the climate and at the same time offer a degreeof privacy while filtering sunlight, allowing air to flow into the building and maintaininga visual connection with the outside. Interior courtyards allow the flow of the breezesfrom one side of the building to the other while letting indirect light come into the2 Eduardo Tejeira Davis, Roots of Latin American Architecture, 1987, 23 3Thomas S Marvel, Maria Luisa Moreno, La Arquietctura de Templos Parroquiales de Puerto Rico, (SanJuan, PR 1994)32.4Thomas S Marvel, Maria Luisa Moreno, La Arquietctura de Templos Parroquiales de Puerto Rico, (SanJuan, PR 1994)34.5 Edward E. Crain, Historic Architecture in the Caribbean Islands, University Press of Florida, Gainsville, FL,856 Edward E. Crain, Historic Architecture in the Caribbean Islands, University Press of Florida, Gainsville, FL,86 28
  39. 39. Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.529
  40. 40. spaces. Courtyards allow the plantation of vegetation, and at the same time create aspace for gathering people as well as for creating activities in contact with nature. Porches allow crossed ventilation improving the quality of air inside of the build-ings. The roof of the porch is the shadow device that avoids the direct entrance of light,and allows the pass of natural diffuse light into spaces. (Figure 1.5) This decreases theneed of artificial light during the day, as well as the need of artificial ventilation becauseair can get into spaces through the windows and because the presence of diffused lightdoes not transmit as much heat as the direct light do. 30
  41. 41. C urrent Architecture The industrial revolution introduced to the world man made materials which require a lot of energy to be produced and which could be affecting nonrenewable resources, which end up affecting nature and the environment we live in. With the pres- ence of the Americans in the island, many changes occurred in architecture. Americans brought to the island that sense of modernism the island didn’t had and the view of progress that later on changed quality of spaces and modified lifestyle and relationship with environment. Nature and spaces for gathering people and socializing, used to be an impor- tant part of the architecture, as well as part of the cultural aspect. It was very common the use of wood doors to access interior courtyards and the existence of multiple win-31
  42. 42. dows to allow crossed ventilation. The relationship between human and nature use tobe sacred, a really important part of life in every person. During this period the relation-ship with nature still important but addressed in a different manner. Since materialshave changed, the application of new materials with non-seen before qualities becameimportant and even popular. A good example of this is the glass, material that allow theentrance of natural light, and creating windows with that material also allow the crossventilation. Concrete is really important for Puerto Rican architecture, since its qualitiesallow it to persist during hurricanes and other natural disasters. Wood was substituted,mainly by these new materials that were inexistent before. The qualities, strengths, du-rability among other characteristics that these new materials had put them in the list ofpreferences when constructing; at the same time began the way to harm the environ-ment.1 In colonial architecture the architecture, construction, decorations, among oth-ers, were made from natural materials, most taken from renewable sources. It doesn’timply that these types of construction doesn’t harm environment at all, but at least, theway of manipulating the materials didn’t polished the environment in the same waythese new materials were acting. Not only that, but also the inclination about the pro-grams of the building were a problem to the environmental ambit as well. Construct-ing industries was seen as a symbol of progress and economic growth but at the sametime it was a subsidy for the environment and health of people. The implementationof machinery left in a secondary position the architectural design, giving more impor-1 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 87 32
  43. 43. Figure 1.6 Figure 1.733
  44. 44. tance to those engineering technologies.2 The implementation of air conditioning wasthe solution for hot weather and the substitution of crossed ventilation. Mentality ofpeople began to change believing that comfort was created by equipment rather thanarchitectural design.3 The new materials required as well new people to build trained in these materi-als. Architects from different parts of the world came to the island to implement themodern architecture. Henry Klumb was an important architect in the transformation ofthe island, and responsible for many important buildings, now considered historic. Heimplemented the environmental design in conjunction with the industrial techniques,creating spaces that improve the quality of life. His architecture implemented the useof natural light. (Figure 1.6) cross ventilation, environmental orientation of the building,relationship user with nature (Figure 1.7), referencing to all those strategies used in co-lonial architecture, but with the use of new materials. Many other architects tried to dosimilar things and many of them accomplished it. The problem became with the pass ofthe years, when the concrete became massive in the island and the dearth of vegetationimproved even more. (Figure 1.8) Standardization in construction, brought ceilings toits minimum making them 8 ft. height, what concentrate the heat absorbed by the con-crete during all day and liberating that heat during night making spaces warm all daylong. What used to be cantilevers to use as shade have been reduced to the point thatnatural light have become uncomfortable for the interior spaces, creating the necessityof curtains and therefore the use of artificial light in the interior space.4 (Figure 1.9)2Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 883 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 874 Enrique Vivoni, Periferia: Publications: Hacia una modernidad tropical: la obra de Henry Klumb,, accessed 4/20/2012 34
  45. 45. Figure 1.8 Figure 1.935
  46. 46. All those things that were used in the past for a better quality of life have beenforgotten with the pass of the years making the new generations unaware of the im-portance of nature, of the environment and ignorant of the meaning of sustainability.Currently most spaces created are not environmentally oriented and do not related tonature. Many of the plazas created don’t have trees to provide shadow and better qual-ity of air and breeze. Almost all of the new buildings constructed, try to be too modernforgetting about all the environmental aspects that apply on the island. This is a bigmistake made by architects where the incorrect use of glass in buildings have let thepass massive amount of light without being filtered making a space uncomfortable andhotter. New developments are not taking in consideration geographical position, light,wind, among other natural consideration, while taking design decisions. Many treeshave been taken off the site without been replanted. Prior to the advent of air-conditioning, hot conditions were ameliorated byshading and air movement. To permit ventilation windows were operable and distrib-uted across different high elevations. 5 The lack of vegetation and the constant creationof massive concrete buildings, where civilians gather the most, make it impossible tocool places naturally.6 5 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 806 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 98 36
  47. 47. E nvironmental and Sustainability Issues All those things that were used in the past for a better quality of life have been forgotten with the pass of the years making the new generations unaware of the impor- tance of nature, of the environment and ignorant of the meaning of sustainability.1 There is a lack of sustainable technologies, as well as a lack of practice of envi- ronmental design in the buildings that have been created in Puerto Rico, during the last couple of decades. Many years ago the sustainable technologies were inexistent but the design of buildings played an important role in the inner spaces.2 The orientation of the buildings and the design, use to allow natural ventilation as well as natural light into spaces, making unnecessary the use of artificial ventilation, and reducing the use of 1 Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Gobierno Municipal Autonomo de Carolina, Declaración de Im- pacto Ambiental Preliminar de la Revision Integral del Plan Territorial, June 2005 2 Student Service Building, with-a-green-twist/, accessed 5/7/201237
  48. 48. artificial light, during the day. This practice has been lost. New constructions have notbeen environmentally oriented, what have made necessary the use of air conditioningin every building.3 Puerto Rico climate is known to be very hot consistently throughout almost ev-ery season. Lately, this has been getting worst due to global warming.4 Puerto Ricanshave not taken advantage of natural ventilation to address the issue of high tempera-tures inside living and work spaces; developments and constructions in general havenot been designed environmentally oriented. . The opening in windows is really important for the indoor air quality.5 To con-trol the air that is coming in the building as well as the quality of the air, is important toconsider certain factors, such as building sitting orientation, building height, buildingopenings, establishment of interior light and noise criteria, selection of ventilation andHVAC systems. All this considerations have to be appropriate for the climate, locationand building type and occupancy. The quantity and quality of green spaces in the island is reducing considerably,which make the situation even worst.6 The number of spaces without air conditioningin the island are becoming inexistent because is impossible to be without it due to thelack of ventilation. Even when windows are open there’s no flow of air because of thebad orientation or the quantity of wind barriers (other buildings). The island is becom-ing a mass of concrete with no ventilation and no interaction with nature.3 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 874 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 90 5 Marian Keeler, Bill Burke, Fundamentals of integrated design for sustainable buildings, Hoboken, NJ, 846 Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Gobierno Municipal Autonomo de Carolina, Declaración de Im-pacto Ambiental Preliminar de la Revision Integral del Plan Territorial, June 2005 38
  49. 49. E conomical Issues Utilities cost are increasing every day making unable the stability of business.1 Puerto Rican culture, as well as wellness of the people has been affected due to this. The mix of lack of sustainability and the increase in utilities prices have become a problem in the country. Since sustainable technologies haven’t been implemented in the country and the design have not been environmentally oriented, people don’t know of ways to reduce cost and get a better life style. With all the environmental issues that have been created globally is really im- portant to begin using technologies to help improve the situation, and to create re- sources for future generations. This is something many people try to apply to their life, 1CB Staff of Caribbean Business, Industry unhappy about imminent 100% rise in water rates, Puerto Rico Herald, June 23, 2005, ac- cessed 5/7/201239
  50. 50. especially now when been green is the latest trend, have become very fashionable andpopular. The issue in Puerto Rico is that people don’t know how to be green, they thinkrecycling and reusing is the only way, but people haven’t started thinking about plant-ing vegetation, using sun or wind for creating energy instead of the conventional energysource produced by petroleum, among many other options available. These are issuesthat could improve even better the situation. This won’t change the environment com-pletely, but at least would help the economy; reducing costs of utilities. The economic crisis has affected salaries, employments and business all over theworld. These have been affecting even worst the culture, because the lack of money andthe amount of closing business have been restricting certain social habits. Figure 1.10shows the unemployment rate in the island. Because of the importance of the culture and the socialization among PuertoRican people, and the negative effect of the economic crisis, traditions among this popu-lation has been lost or significantly reduced. The variety of places for people to socializehas been significantly reduced, which affects directly the social aspect of Puerto Ricanpopulation. The economic crisis has affected the possibilities of people affording the lifestylethat people use to have before this crisis begun. 2 We are living in a period in which resources are limited even when we mightthink they aren’t. Starting by the water which compose 74% of the earth3 and 60 % of2 The wall Street Journal, Puerto Rico’s Economic Slump Weighs Hard on Consumers Cost of Living SurgesAs Inflation Helps Tip Island Into Recession, August 14, 2007, The wall Street Journal, Economy,, accessed 5/7/20123 Christen Petersen, Renewing Earth’s Water, Tarrytown, NY, 2011, 8 40
  51. 51. human body, 4 97 % of the water the of the world is polluted, 2 % is frozen into polar ice sheets and glaciers and only 1% is remaining for consumption. This is what makes a re- sources basic as water important thou expensive.5 With combustible we are experienc- ing similar circumstances. Energy for cooling places, for light, refrigeration, and even for gas to run a car depend on this. Combustible comes from fossil fuels (non-renewable re- source) many miles away from distance. This way of acquiring energy could have been changed many years ago by many other existent alternatives, but still economy and government still supporting the entrance of this to the island. This source is hard to get and expensive since there’s not much left. The rises in these prices compromise every day more customer’s pockets. All this could be seen as an environmental issue, but many people don’t see it as an issue till their budgets is affected, seeing it from another perspective; economical. Puerto Rico has become one more in the list of countries affected by this issue. This has resumed in the increase of utilities prices. In 1978 the cost of petroleum starts increasing, but in 1985 it began decreasing again. The problem with this increases in petroleum price is that is immediately reflect- ed in the cost of electricity, but once the price of petroleum decrease is hard to see the difference in reductions of energy prices. Even when the petroleum reduces its costs the life style of people is changing, reason for the company to increase cost of energy. The really notable change in price of petroleum begins in 1998, since that the cost of electricity has changed yearly, affecting population economies. During the year 2010, the changes in price of electricity have increased monthly. These increases are 4 Denis M. Medeiros,Robert E. C. Wildman, Advanced Human Nutrition, MA, 2000,169 Second Edition 5 Markita K. Hill, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 267 41
  52. 52. changes of 1% or 2%, but in people’s budget are significant. The salaries of the popula-tion are not increasing at all but the life style is what makes imperative a solution forthings such as energy cost. Solving energy cost in the country would not solve the economical problem butit will contribute to the economy. Using the right technology, electrical as well as water costs can be reduced sig-nificantly, making it possible to keep a business running without major expenses. Morepeople will have to learn about this technology, experts in the area will be hired; moreemployments and more opportunities will be created. The requirements of people toinstall and give maintenance to these will help reduce the rate of unemployed popula-tion in the country as well. This change in electrical expenses could improve economy.All this together could also be translated into a decrease in unemployment rates, andthe possibility of increasing salaries. Unemployment Rate 18 16 14 12 10 Unemployment Rate 8 6 4 2 0Figure 1.10 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 42
  53. 53. C ost of Petroleum VS Cost of Electricity Diagrams show how the cost of electricity, as well as the cost of the petroleum have been increasing from 1976 to 2007 . Prices reflected are: cents per kwh for electricity and cent per liter in petroleum. 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1934 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Price of liter - Petroleum 13.36 14.43 13.79 22.04 30.7 29.66 28.35 29.11 28.76 20.99 15.24 16.56 14.8 18.35 18.36 14.98 17.05 15.81 17.57 19.09 20.68 18.79 14.96 23.94 29.73 23.25 30.52 30.98 39.96 56.78 58.68 84.63 Price of Kwh - Electricity 5.32 5.69 5.62 7.47 9.83 10.98 10.64 10.64 10.59 8.86 7.8 8.05 7.69 9.41 9.65 8.97 9.49 9.11 9.48 9.76 10.15 9.7 8.99 10.94 12.44 11.3 12.61 12.83 14.81 17.99 17.76 22.1943
  54. 54. Chart Title 120 100 80 Axis Title¢ 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Series2 13.36 14.43 13.79 22.04 30.7 29.66 28.35 29.11 28.76 20.99 15.24 16.56 14.8 18.35 18.36 14.98 17.05 15.81 17.57 19.09 20.68 18.79 14.96 23.94 29.73 23.25 30.52 30.98 39.96 56.78 58.68 84.63 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1934 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Series1 5.32 5.69 6.62 7.47 9.83 10.98 10.64 10.64 10.59 8.86 7.8 8.05 7.69 9.41 9.65 8.97 9.49 9.11 9.84 9.76 10.15 9.7 8.99 10.94 12.44 11.3 12.61 12.83 14.81 17.99 17.76 22.19 Figure 1.11 44
  55. 55. 45
  56. 56. Chapter 2 Context 46
  57. 57. D emographics Population (1960-2010) Population (1960-2010) 5 Population, 4.027 millions 4 4 3 3 Millions 2 2 1 1 0 Figure 2.1 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2005 201047
  58. 58. Ages of Population Ages of Population Gender of Population Population Population 45% 40% 35% 30% Percentage 25% 52% 52% Female Female 20% Male Male 48% 48% 15% 10% 5% 0%Figure 2.2 0-15 15-44 45-64 65 + Figure 2.3 48
  59. 59. I ndustry Agriculture plays a small role in the economy. Goods-producing industries, such as construction and manufacturing, are significant when compared to the norm in the United States (Table 2). The government also plays an important role: many of the utili- ties (electricity and water), education, and a lesser extent, health services are provided by government entities, In manufacturing, the number of jobs in the production of pharmaceuticals is exceptionally high. Nearly 4 % of all employees in the private sector of the Island work in this industry, more than ten times the average on the continent. Educational services are a substantial share of private sector jobs on the Island. In con- trast, the number of jobs in industries professional and technical services is relatively low and until the share of services in the field Financial is somewhat lower than average.49
  60. 60. Industry Comparison Between Puerto Rico and USA Other Private Services Hospitality and Food Services Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Health and Welfare Educational Service Administrative Services and Waste Management Companies and Enterprises Management Technical amd Profesional Services Finances, Insurance and Real State Information Puerto Rico USA Public Services Transportation and Storage Retail Trade Wholesale Pharmaceutical Products Manufacturing Construction Mining Agriculture, Forestry fishing and hunting Figure 2.4 50
  61. 61. E ducational and Professional Context 45 Education (Population between 25 and 44 years old) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 No high school Diploma High School Diploma Some College Associate Degree, Bachelor Degree, Master Figure 2.5 Degree or PhD51
  62. 62. Today, education is a matter of high priority for Puerto Rico; it is evident in theisland’s overall literacy rate of 90 percent and its budget for education, approximately40%. Education is obligatory between 6 to 17 years old. Primary school consists of sixgrades; the secondary levels are divided into 2 cycles of 3 years each. The school term inpublic schools starts in August through mid-December and January through late May.The school system is administered by the Department of Education and has several lev-els of learning. The language used in the schools is Spanish, however, English is taughtfrom kindergarten to high school as part of the school curriculum. Some private schoolsprovide English programs where all classes are conducted in English except for theSpanish class. Puerto Rico has more than 50 institutions of higher education. Puerto Rico hasachieved one of the highest college education rates in the world (6th) with 56% of itscollege-age students attending institutions of higher learning, according to World Bankdata. At the present time only a 17.9 percent of population between 25 and 44 yearsold haven’t finished high school, while 25.5 of the population have as higher educationachieved a high school diploma. The majority of population in the country betweenthose ages is educated, having a 16.4 of population with some college education and40.1 with associate degree, bachelor degree, or any graduate or professional degreesachieved.11 U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey. 52
  63. 63. D escription of the Region Puerto Rico is part of the Antilles arc of islands that constitute as an introduction to Central America and helps form the inland seas American, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The Antilles is a chain of islands that stretch more than 1500 miles starting from Florida (USA) to Venezuela (South America). They enclose the Caribbean sea. To the north and east is the Atlantic Ocean. These are divided into 3 main groups, the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles. 1 Puerto Rico is actually an archipelago of islands within the archipelago of the Antilles. The smaller nearby islands are also part of Puerto Rico. Two of them, Vieques and Culebra, are municipalities and most of the other small islands are used for wild life 1 Jose Manuel Garcia Leduc, Apuntes para una historia breve de arquitectura,San Juan , PR, 2003, 67 53
  64. 64. reserves and recreational areas. Puerto Rico is located at latitude 17 ° 50 ‘and 18 ° 30’ north and longitude 65 °13 ‘and 67 ° 58’ at the north of the Ecuador and south of the tropic of Cancer. This area ofland which means that receives direct sunlight throughout the year. The location in thetropics provides basic weather conditions along with other factors like the sea, makingdefined as tropical maritime climate. The tropical condition establishes a hot weathercondition throughout the year. The winds are another factor that affects the climate of Puerto Rico. The mainpattern of winds from the east-northeast and are called trade winds and the shaft, cen-tral mountain. Its geographical position places the country in an area of cyclones orhurricanes.Known as La Isla Grande, the main island of Puerto Rico is almost rectangular in shapeand has an area of 100 miles long by 35 miles wide. The territory is very mountainous(cover 60%), except in the regional coasts, but Puerto Rico offers astonishing variety:rain forest, deserts, beaches, caves, oceans and rivers. It is divided into three geographi-cal areas; the Central Interior Mountain Ranges, Northern Karst, Coastal Plains. The cen-tral interior Mountain Ranges cover the most of the island, including interior mountains,mountain sides, low areas within the mountains and hills. These mountain ranges are LaCordillera Central, La Sierra de Cayey, La Sierra de Luquillo, and La Sierra Bermeja.The Northern Karst is located in the northern interior mountainous part of the islandof Puerto Rico. This particular area consists of formations of limestone rock dissolvedby water throughout the geological ages. This area consists of formations of ruggedvolcanic rock dissolved by water throughout the geological ages. This limestone region 54
  65. 65. is an extremely attractive zone of haystack hills, sinkholes, caves, limestone cliffs, and other karst features. The Coastal Plains are smaller in square miles than the Central Interior Mountain Rang- es and the Northern Karst. (Figure 2.6) This area, which is relatively flat, was originally formed by the erosion of the interior mountains. The largest cities on the island are located here, San Juan to the north, Ponce to the south and Mayaguez to the west. Beaches and sand dunes are abundant on Puerto Rico’s 1,126 kilometers of coast. 2 2Patricia Levy, Nazry Bahrawi, Cultures of the World Puerto Rico, Tarrytown, 2005, Second EditionNew York, 7-12 Costal Plains Areas of Karst Topography Mountainous Area Approximate axis of mountain chain55
  66. 66. Atlantic Ocean Caribbean SeaN Figure 2.6 56
  67. 67. C limate The climate is Tropical Marine with regular temperature of 86°F. Puerto Rico en- joys warm and sunny days most of the year. The winds, which blow from the East, moder- ate temperatures. In the interior, the temperature fluctuates between 73°F and 82°F. Rain tends to be evenly distributed throughout the year, but doubles during the months from May to October, which, unfortunately, coincides with hurricane season, as falls from November to April, with a driest period from January to April. The north coast gets twice as much rain as the south coast. Puerto Rico is expose to the cyclones of Caribbean. Hurricanes frequently occur between August and October. Dozens of hurricanes have been recorded in the island’s history, but probably the most destructive was San Ciriaco, which struck on August 8, 1899. The relative humidity is high, about 80% throughout the year.57
  68. 68. Maximum and Minimum Temperature in San Juan Temperature in San Juan Maximum and Minimum 120 100 80 Temperature 60 Max. Min. 40 20 0 Figure 2.7 Month 58
  69. 69. 59 C hapter 3 Site Analysis
  70. 70. Puerto RicoN Figure 3.1 Location of the Island in the World Map. 60
  71. 71. H istory and Description of the Area San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico is divided in many districts, being Condado one of them. (See Figure 3.2 for location map) Condado is a wealthy tourist-oriented neighborhood, located near Old San Juan, and surrounded by Atlantic Sea and the Con- dado Lagoon. Currently all the area is being revitalized, erecting new buildings, restor- ing the roads and other residential buildings in the zone. According to the 2000 United States Census, it has a population of 6,170 residents. The beaches in the area are located along all the Atlantic coast, these are popu- lar by surfers and kite surfers. At the north as well, along the coastline, many hotels are located, as well as many commercial buildings such as nightclubs, casinos, shops and restaurants. (See Figure 3.3) This makes Condado one of the island’s primary tourist des- tinations, as well as a successful zone. It is also one of the few pedestrian oriented areas of Puerto Rico.61
  72. 72. San Juan Condado N SiteFigure 3.2 62
  73. 73. T N Atla ouristic Map ntic O cea n Con dado Lag oon Figure 3.363
  74. 74. The site can be accessed from El Puente Dos Hermanos, a bridge that connectsthe Historic San Juan with the Ave. Ashford, Condado. In the 1970 this bridge was theplace where people use to go from Thursday to Saturday at night. The frequency ofpeople there, as well as having vendors who converted trucks into food stands, con-taminating Condado lagoon with food residue and trash. Puerto Rico government con-structs a sanitary sewer system to service the structures that were discharging their rawsewage into the water body. This effort in addition with the enlargement of the DosHermanos Bridge to increase water flow into the lagoon, improved significantly the wa-ter quality of the area. Now over 300 species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians andtropical fishes, are associated with the Lagoon and its mangrove habitat, including 124species of fish. The Lagoon includes coral reefs that are home to sponges, starfish andsea urchins and other fish and marine invertebrates. Turtles and manatees now makethe Condado Lagoon their habitat. El Condado began its process of urbanization in 1908 by the Behn brothers, twobrothers who worked in the industry in America. Their growth and development wasmostly in the form of transport-influenced by sub urbanization and developed a Plangrid. El Condado becomes a typical suburb to the traditional urban center of old SanJuan. This area experienced a change in the early decades of the 20th century, whensome of the richest families built their homes in the area, giving some prestige to thezone. The area looks very different compared to what it was in the 20th the century.Some of the luxurious homes located between the skyscrapers of condominiums havebecome mall inns, shops, museums and restaurants. 64
  75. 75. S ite Surroundings Walking Time: Time in walking distance is measured from the center of the site First radius - 2.5 minutes walking distance, which equal 1/4 of a mile. Second radius - 5 minutes walk equals 1/2 mile and Third radius - 10 minutes walking distance, which equals 1 mile of distance from the center of the site.65
  76. 76. N 10 Atla Figure 3.5 ntic O Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza cea n 5 Puente Dos Hermanos 2 .5 Ramada Con d ado Lag oon Figure 3.6 SiteFigure 3.4 Figure 3.7 66
  77. 77. Figure 3.8Figure 3.9Figure 3.10Figure 3.11 Figure 3.12 Figure 3.1367
  78. 78. View of the site surroundings taken Nfrom the street in the direction the ar-row is pointing ile 1m Atla ntic O cea n ile 2m 1/ Con d ado Lag oon Figure 3.14 68
  79. 79. Solid Void: N ile m 1 Atla ntic O cea n ile Figure 3.16 m 2 1/ Office Building Restaurant Figure 3.17 Residence Con dado Lag oon Figure 3.15 Figure 3.1869
  80. 80. Figure 3.19 Figure 3.20 Figure 3.21 The site is currently occupying two parking lots facing the beach front of Con- dado and having at one side the Ramada Hotel (Figure 3.15), at the other side an office building (Figure 3.16) and a restaurant (Figure 3.17). In front of the site are residential buildings. (Figure 3.18) The Ramada Hotel is currently abandoned, but there’s a plan for its revitalization in a near future. Right next to this hotel is located the Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino. (Figure 3.5) It is currently the closest functional hotel to the site, and a place often frequented by tourist and Puerto Rican population. The Conrad San Juan Condado Plaza Hotel and Casino is a luxury hotel in located at the entrance of Condado. This hotel overlooks the Atlantic Ocean and Con- dado Lagoon. The building has an energized and chic decoration. This resort has to offer, museums, upscale shopping, restaurants (Figure 3.19), a lounge (Figure 3.20), bar (Figure 3.21) and casino. 70
  81. 81. U N ile m 1 Atla ses ntic O cea n m ile /2 1 Con d ado Lag oon Hotel Residential Parking Commercial Site Green Areas / Plaza Figure 3.2271
  82. 82. H N le i 1m Atla eight ntic O cea n ile m 1/2 Con dado Lag oon11-15 Story Building1-5 Story Building6-10 Story Building+ 15 Story BuildingParking LotSiteGreen Areas / Plaza Figure 3.23 72
  83. 83. C N ile 1m Atla ntic O cea losing Time n ile 2m 1/ Con d ado Public Building - Open 24 hours Lag oon Private Building - Open 24 hours Public Building - Open from 9 am to 8 PM Public Building - Open from 11 am to 12 am Public Building- Open from 6 PM to 2 am Site 24 hours Open Space Figure 3.2473
  84. 84. S Figure 3.25 ite Existing Conditions N Atla ntic O cea n 247’ Project Area = 71,925 sq. ft.. 195’ ’ 13 148 2’Figure 3.26 74
  85. 85. C limatic Conditions The site is in a position where receive direct sun in almost every part during every season of the year. It is also positioned in a place where wind affects directly, mak- ing possible the utilization of sustainable technologies for the generation of energy. Receives a constant wind from the north east at an average speed of 12 m/h at a height of 33 ft. The east side of the site receive strong waves with an altitude of 6 to 8 ft., what also allows to implements the wave power as an energy generator technology.75
  86. 86. N Atla ntic O cea n Summer Solstice Equinox Winter Solstice Con dado Lag oonFigure 3.27 76
  87. 87. T ransportation and Transit The approach to the site could be pedestrian as well as vehicular. (Figure 3.29) The main road is located in front of the site. One bus stop is located in front of the site, (Figure 3.28) there are several near the area. There are also several parking lots and parking garages available for the use of the public inside of the 5 minute walk radius. (See Figure 3.30 for parking garages, parking lots, bus stops and road direction)77
  88. 88. N ile 1m Atla ntic O cea n ile mFigure 3.28 2 1/Figure 3.29 Con d ado Lag oonSiteGreen Areas / Square/ ParkParking GarageParking LotFigure 3.30 78
  89. 89. 79
  90. 90. Chapter 4 Program Analysis 80
  91. 91. P rogram Planning Goals The site is located in a residential and touristic area, where many hotels and restaurants are located. The different typologies, and the importance of the zone for the economic development of the country, is what makes this project important to improve the zone, activating and transforming it into a hub. Having a project with 24 hours program will promote activity in the zone and contribute to a sustainable project. Because of the ambience and qualities the area possess people from all over the Metro- politan Area of Puerto Rico, (including San Juan, Caguas, Bayamon, Guaynabo, Trujillo Alto, Carolina and Cataño) comes frequently to work, diligences or for leisure purposes. This project tries to gather people of different taste and ages. The lack of places open 24 hours and the lack of options for different user groups create the need for this unique program. The only buildings open 24 hours in the area are residential, apart from that81