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Oral Care for Cancer patients<br />By Renee Anderson, LDH.<br />
Treating Cancer Patients<br />Do you know how to treat a patient who is diagnosed with cancer?<br />What procedures should...
Cancer<br />Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body.     <br />
Chemotherapy<br />Chemotherapy----most chemotherapy drugs cause all dividing cells to die, and since the mucous membranes ...
Chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Chemo also affects the ability to salivate, causing plaque to build up rapidly, thus increasing ...
Chemo can cause drops in ANC (absolute neutrophil count) which makes it harder to fight off infections.
Low platelet counts means that brushing and flossing can cause bleeding.
In children, development of the teeth can be adversely affected by radiation and intensive chemotherapy protocols.</li></l...
Prior to Chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Patients should have a thorough exam  - at least 1month prior to chemo
Pano and FMX
Periodontal evaluation
Oral exam/cancer screening
Identify and treat existing infections, carious and other compromised teeth, and tissue injury or trauma.
Stabilize or eliminate potential sites of infection.
Conduct a prosthodontic evaluation if indicated. If a removable prosthesis is worn, make sure that it is clean and well ad...
Schedule oral surgery at least 7 to 10 days before myelosuppressive therapy begins.
Perform oral prophylaxis if indicated.
Smoking cessation!</li></li></ul><li>Studies have shown that smoking interferes with some chemotherapy treatments.<br />Sm...
Chemotherapy<br />The oral complications of chemotherapy depend upon the drugs used, the dosage, the degree of dental dise...
Consult the oncologist before conducting any oral procedures in patients with hematologic cancers; do not conduct procedur...
Questions to Ask the Medical Oncologist<br />What is the patient’s complete blood count, including absolute neutrophil and...
What is the scheduled sequence of treatments so that safe dental treatment can be planned? <br />Is radiation therapy also...
Complete Blood Count and  Chemotherapy <br /><ul><li>Neutropenia (new-troh-PEE-nee-ah) is the scientific name for a low in...
Anemia (ah-NEE-mee-ah) is the scientific name for a low red blood cell count.
Thrombocytopenia (throm-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nee-ah) is the scientific name for a low platelet count. A low platelet count may c...
Ask the oncologist to order blood work 24 hours before oral surgery or other invasive procedures. Postpone when
the platelet count is less than 75,000/mm3 or abnormal clotting factors are present
absolute neutrophil count is less than 1,000/mm3, or consider prophylactic antibiotics (www.americanheart.org/presenter.jh...
Due to the lack of saliva, the plaque builds up faster therefore cleanings may be every 2 mos. And check for mouth sores a...
Emergency treatment can be done with any hematologic status to remove source of infection,  work with oncologist,  if coun...
Use of chlorahexidine prior to treatment and after can help cut down on chance of infection.  (give chairside)</li></li></...
During chemo and radiation<br /><ul><li>To prevent mouth sores
Anti-bacterial mouth rinses
Peridex-  can prevent infections  (alcohol free peridex)
Stains teeth
Taste bad
0.63% Stannous Fluoride--  ask oncologist if can substitute for peridex
Stannous part is anti-microbial
Does not stain teeth
Taste better
Fights cavities
Stanimax,  periomed.</li></li></ul><li>During Chemo and radiation<br /><ul><li>Anti-fungal mouth rinses
Patients under intense chemo are at risk for fungal and yeast as well as bacterial infections
Nystatin to prevent fungal infections,  can be used to prevent or treat.
Mycostatin or Nilstat rinses-  “swish and swallow” because these infections can be in the throat passage as well as in the...
Mycelex lozenges.
Thrush is the most common mouth infection during chemo.</li></li></ul><li>During chemo <br />Use ultra soft toothbrush so ...
If toothpaste irritates patients mouth, use a mixture of ½ teaspoon of salt with 4 cups water.<br />Gargle regularly with ...
<ul><li>Identify and eliminate sources of oral trauma and irritation such as ill-fitting dentures, orthodontic bands, and ...
Identify and treat potential oral problems within the proposed radiation field before radiation treatment begins.
Instruct patients about oral hygiene.
Educate patients on preventing demineralization and dental caries.</li></li></ul><li>Check for oral source of viral, bacte...
During Chemo<br /><ul><li>Sores in the mouth occur because the cells of the mucous linings are not replaced as quickly as ...
Sores or lesions can occur even in the absence of bacterial or fungal infection, but once there they should be treated wit...
Glutamine—helps and lessens mucositis.
Saforis-  a patented, topical, oral suspension of glutamine.
Magic mouth wash- mixture of   benadryl, maalox, nystatin, and lidocaine.
Baking soda and water- aids in healing and neutralizes acid.
Stannous fluoride.
Hot stuff  --Cayenne pepper candy.</li></li></ul><li>Bisphosphonate drugs used in chemo<br />Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ...
Osteonecrosis of the jaw.<br />
Chemo for breast cancer<br />After breast cancer chemo patients may be placed on a estrogen reducer drug femmoren and then...
After chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Chemotherapy
Once all complications of chemotherapy have resolved, patients may be able to resume their normal dental care schedule. Ho...
Head and Neck Radiation Therapy<br />
Radiation<br />Radiation----some people who get radiation to the head/neck (and sometimes chest) areas have redness and so...
Patients receiving radiation therapy to the head and neck are at risk for developing oral complications. Because of the ri...
Prior to Head/Neck Radiation<br /><ul><li>Patients should have a thorough exam  - at least 1month prior to radiation treat...
Pano and FMX
Periodontal evaluation
Oral exam/cancer screening
Identify and treat existing infections, carious and other compromised teeth, and tissue injury or trauma.
Stabilize or eliminate potential sites of infection.
Extract teeth in the radiation field that are non-restorable or may pose a future problem to prevent later extraction-indu...
Conduct a prosthodontic evaluation if indicated. If a removable prosthesis is worn, make sure that it is clean and well ad...
Perform oral prophylaxis if indicated. </li></li></ul><li>Prevent tooth demineralization and radiation caries:<br />Fabric...
Be sure that the trays cover all tooth structures without irritating the gingival or mucosal tissues.<br />Instruct the pa...
Allow at least 14 days of healing for any oral surgical procedures.<br />Conduct prosthetic surgery before treatment, sinc...
Questions to Ask the Radiation Oncologist<br />What parts of the mandible/maxilla and salivary glands are in the field of ...
How quickly does the patient need to start radiation treatment? <br />Will there be induction chemotherapy with the radiat...
During Radiation Therapy<br />Monitor the patient’s oral hygiene.<br />Watch for mucositis and infections.<br />Advise aga...
After Radiation Therapy<br />Recall the patient for prophylaxis and home care evaluation every 4 to 8 weeks or as needed f...
<ul><li>Monitor the patient for trismus: check for pain or weakness in masticating muscles in the radiation field. Instruc...
Consult with the oncology team about use of dentures and other appliances after mucositis subsides. Patients with friable ...
	Amifostine (ethyol)—protects salivary tissues against radiation damage.  Approved for reducing dry mouth. May also reduce...
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Oral care for cancer patients power point

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powerpoint over oral hygiene and care of your mouth during chemotherapy and head and neck radiation.

  • Muskan is a leading NGO for working as social awareness in Inida http://www.muskanforall.com/donate-help-support-for-cancer-patients-india.php
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  • Muskan is a leading NGO for working as social awareness in Inida
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  • Renee, do you care for patients on chemotherapy for cancer in the dental office? What is your experience level managing cases?
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  • PPT appears to be based on good evidence. There is a newer 2007 publication on management for mucositis by a professional cancer organization. They do not recommend chlorhexidine for preventing mucositis, but it is not clear if nonalcohol chlorhexidine was examined. The resource should be helpful for practitioners as well as patients.
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Oral care for cancer patients power point

  1. 1. Oral Care for Cancer patients<br />By Renee Anderson, LDH.<br />
  2. 2. Treating Cancer Patients<br />Do you know how to treat a patient who is diagnosed with cancer?<br />What procedures should be done prior to chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments?<br />What treatment can be done during chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments?<br />What to do if oral complications arise during chemotherapy and/radiation treatments?<br />
  3. 3. Cancer<br />Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. <br />
  4. 4. Chemotherapy<br />Chemotherapy----most chemotherapy drugs cause all dividing cells to die, and since the mucous membranes are composed of rapidly dividing cells, these tissues do not replenish during intense therapy.<br />Mucous membranes form a barrier against infections, and without them the mouth can become inflamed, and opportunistic bacterial, yeast and fungal infections can occur. <br />
  5. 5. Chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Chemo also affects the ability to salivate, causing plaque to build up rapidly, thus increasing the incidence of gum infections and cavities.
  6. 6. Chemo can cause drops in ANC (absolute neutrophil count) which makes it harder to fight off infections.
  7. 7. Low platelet counts means that brushing and flossing can cause bleeding.
  8. 8. In children, development of the teeth can be adversely affected by radiation and intensive chemotherapy protocols.</li></li></ul><li> Before Chemotherapy Begins! <br />What we need to do in the dental office.<br />
  9. 9. Prior to Chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Patients should have a thorough exam - at least 1month prior to chemo
  10. 10. Pano and FMX
  11. 11. Periodontal evaluation
  12. 12. Oral exam/cancer screening
  13. 13. Identify and treat existing infections, carious and other compromised teeth, and tissue injury or trauma.
  14. 14. Stabilize or eliminate potential sites of infection.
  15. 15. Conduct a prosthodontic evaluation if indicated. If a removable prosthesis is worn, make sure that it is clean and well adapted to the tissue. Instruct the patient not to wear the prosthesis during treatment, if possible; or at the least, not to wear it at night. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Schedule dental treatment in consultation with the oncologist to do fillings.
  16. 16. Schedule oral surgery at least 7 to 10 days before myelosuppressive therapy begins.
  17. 17. Perform oral prophylaxis if indicated.
  18. 18. Smoking cessation!</li></li></ul><li>Studies have shown that smoking interferes with some chemotherapy treatments.<br />Smoking slows recovery.<br />Smoking can cause recurring head and neck cancers.<br />Oncologist may not want drugs used to help with smoking cessation, patient may need to quit cold turkey.<br />
  19. 19. Chemotherapy<br />The oral complications of chemotherapy depend upon the drugs used, the dosage, the degree of dental disease, and the use of radiation. Chemoradiation therapy carries a significant risk for mucositis.<br />
  20. 20. Consult the oncologist before conducting any oral procedures in patients with hematologic cancers; do not conduct procedures in patients who are immunosuppressed or have thrombocytopenia. <br />
  21. 21. Questions to Ask the Medical Oncologist<br />What is the patient’s complete blood count, including absolute neutrophil and platelet counts? <br />If an invasive dental procedure needs to be done, are there adequate clotting factors? <br />Does the patient have a central venous catheter? <br />
  22. 22. What is the scheduled sequence of treatments so that safe dental treatment can be planned? <br />Is radiation therapy also planned? <br />
  23. 23. Complete Blood Count and Chemotherapy <br /><ul><li>Neutropenia (new-troh-PEE-nee-ah) is the scientific name for a low infection-fighting white blood cell count
  24. 24. Anemia (ah-NEE-mee-ah) is the scientific name for a low red blood cell count.
  25. 25. Thrombocytopenia (throm-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nee-ah) is the scientific name for a low platelet count. A low platelet count may cause you to experience bruising or excessive bleeding.</li></li></ul><li>During Chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Consult the oncologist before any dental procedure, including prophylaxis.
  26. 26. Ask the oncologist to order blood work 24 hours before oral surgery or other invasive procedures. Postpone when
  27. 27. the platelet count is less than 75,000/mm3 or abnormal clotting factors are present
  28. 28. absolute neutrophil count is less than 1,000/mm3, or consider prophylactic antibiotics (www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=1200000</li></li></ul><li>During Chemotherapy <br /><ul><li>The oncologist may want patient to be seen by the dentist more often than every 6 months.
  29. 29. Due to the lack of saliva, the plaque builds up faster therefore cleanings may be every 2 mos. And check for mouth sores and decay. (ANC and WBC Count permitting)
  30. 30. Emergency treatment can be done with any hematologic status to remove source of infection, work with oncologist, if count under 40,000mm consider platelet replacement.
  31. 31. Use of chlorahexidine prior to treatment and after can help cut down on chance of infection. (give chairside)</li></li></ul><li>Try to schedule dental work a few days prior to chemo treatment. This is the time when the patient feels best. After treatment they are weak.<br />
  32. 32. During chemo and radiation<br /><ul><li>To prevent mouth sores
  33. 33. Anti-bacterial mouth rinses
  34. 34. Peridex- can prevent infections (alcohol free peridex)
  35. 35. Stains teeth
  36. 36. Taste bad
  37. 37. 0.63% Stannous Fluoride-- ask oncologist if can substitute for peridex
  38. 38. Stannous part is anti-microbial
  39. 39. Does not stain teeth
  40. 40. Taste better
  41. 41. Fights cavities
  42. 42. Stanimax, periomed.</li></li></ul><li>During Chemo and radiation<br /><ul><li>Anti-fungal mouth rinses
  43. 43. Patients under intense chemo are at risk for fungal and yeast as well as bacterial infections
  44. 44. Nystatin to prevent fungal infections, can be used to prevent or treat.
  45. 45. Mycostatin or Nilstat rinses- “swish and swallow” because these infections can be in the throat passage as well as in the mouth.
  46. 46. Mycelex lozenges.
  47. 47. Thrush is the most common mouth infection during chemo.</li></li></ul><li>During chemo <br />Use ultra soft toothbrush so patient does not damage tissue (run under warm water)<br />Change toothbrush every 3 months or after any infection.<br />Floss at least once a day. (can use water pik on lowest setting.<br />Toothpaste should be a mild gel. Stay away from strong flavors like mint, cinnamon, do not use whitening toothpaste.<br />
  48. 48. If toothpaste irritates patients mouth, use a mixture of ½ teaspoon of salt with 4 cups water.<br />Gargle regularly with a solution made up of:<br />1quart of plain water<br />½ teaspoon table salt<br />½ teaspoon baking soda<br />
  49. 49. <ul><li>Identify and eliminate sources of oral trauma and irritation such as ill-fitting dentures, orthodontic bands, and other appliances.
  50. 50. Identify and treat potential oral problems within the proposed radiation field before radiation treatment begins.
  51. 51. Instruct patients about oral hygiene.
  52. 52. Educate patients on preventing demineralization and dental caries.</li></li></ul><li>Check for oral source of viral, bacterial, or fungal infection in patients with fever of unknown origin. <br />Encourage consistent oral hygiene measures. <br />Consult the oncologist about the need for antibiotic prophylaxis before any dental procedures in patients with central venous catheters. <br />
  53. 53. During Chemo<br /><ul><li>Sores in the mouth occur because the cells of the mucous linings are not replaced as quickly as needed due to the chemotherapy.
  54. 54. Sores or lesions can occur even in the absence of bacterial or fungal infection, but once there they should be treated with anti-bacterial agents to prevent infection.
  55. 55. Glutamine—helps and lessens mucositis.
  56. 56. Saforis- a patented, topical, oral suspension of glutamine.
  57. 57. Magic mouth wash- mixture of benadryl, maalox, nystatin, and lidocaine.
  58. 58. Baking soda and water- aids in healing and neutralizes acid.
  59. 59. Stannous fluoride.
  60. 60. Hot stuff --Cayenne pepper candy.</li></li></ul><li>Bisphosphonate drugs used in chemo<br />Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) is a condition that has been observed in cancer patients who undergo invasive dental procedures such as dental implants or tooth extractions while receiving treatment with intravenous bisphosphonates or by irradiated bone. ONJ can cause severe, irreversible and often debilitating damage to the jaw. <br />
  61. 61. Osteonecrosis of the jaw.<br />
  62. 62. Chemo for breast cancer<br />After breast cancer chemo patients may be placed on a estrogen reducer drug femmoren and then on IV bisphosphantates <br />
  63. 63. After chemotherapy<br /><ul><li>Chemotherapy
  64. 64. Once all complications of chemotherapy have resolved, patients may be able to resume their normal dental care schedule. However, if immune function continues to be compromised, determine the patient’s hematologic status before initiating any dental treatment or surgery. This is particularly important to remember for patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation. Ask if the patient has received intravenous bisphosphonate therapy</li></li></ul><li>Complications Specific to Chemotherapy<br />Neurotoxicity: Provide analgesics or systemic pain relief.<br />Bleeding: Advise the patient to clean teeth thoroughly with a toothbrush softened in warm water; avoid flossing the areas that are bleeding but to keep flossing the other teeth.<br />
  65. 65. Head and Neck Radiation Therapy<br />
  66. 66. Radiation<br />Radiation----some people who get radiation to the head/neck (and sometimes chest) areas have redness and soreness in the mouth, a dry mouth, trouble swallowing, changes in taste, or nausea. Other possible side effects include a loss of taste, earaches, and swelling, jaw stiffness and jaw bone changes. <br />
  67. 67. Patients receiving radiation therapy to the head and neck are at risk for developing oral complications. Because of the risk of osteonecrosis in irradiated fields, oral surgery should be performed before radiation treatment begins.<br />
  68. 68. Prior to Head/Neck Radiation<br /><ul><li>Patients should have a thorough exam - at least 1month prior to radiation treatments.
  69. 69. Pano and FMX
  70. 70. Periodontal evaluation
  71. 71. Oral exam/cancer screening
  72. 72. Identify and treat existing infections, carious and other compromised teeth, and tissue injury or trauma.
  73. 73. Stabilize or eliminate potential sites of infection.
  74. 74. Extract teeth in the radiation field that are non-restorable or may pose a future problem to prevent later extraction-induced osteonecrosis.
  75. 75. Conduct a prosthodontic evaluation if indicated. If a removable prosthesis is worn, make sure that it is clean and well adapted to the tissue. Instruct the patient not to wear the prosthesis during treatment, if possible; or at the least, not to wear it at night.
  76. 76. Perform oral prophylaxis if indicated. </li></li></ul><li>Prevent tooth demineralization and radiation caries:<br />Fabricate custom gel-applicator trays for the patient.<br />Prescribe a 1.1% neutral PH sodium fluoride gel or a 0.4% stannous, unflavored fluoride gel (not fluoride rinses.)<br />Use a neutral fluoride for patients with porcelain crowns or resin or glass ionomer restorations. NO APF<br />
  77. 77. Be sure that the trays cover all tooth structures without irritating the gingival or mucosal tissues.<br />Instruct the patient in home application of fluoride gel. Several days before radiation therapy begins, the patient should start a daily 10-minute application.<br />Have patients brush with a flouride gel if using trays is difficult.<br />
  78. 78. Allow at least 14 days of healing for any oral surgical procedures.<br />Conduct prosthetic surgery before treatment, since elective surgical procedures are contraindicated on irradiated bone.<br />
  79. 79. Questions to Ask the Radiation Oncologist<br />What parts of the mandible/maxilla and salivary glands are in the field of radiation? <br />What is the total dose of radiation the patient will receive, and what will be the impact on these areas? <br />Has the vascularity of the mandible been previously compromised by surgery? <br />
  80. 80. How quickly does the patient need to start radiation treatment? <br />Will there be induction chemotherapy with the radiation treatment? <br />
  81. 81. During Radiation Therapy<br />Monitor the patient’s oral hygiene.<br />Watch for mucositis and infections.<br />Advise against wearing removable appliances during treatment.<br />
  82. 82. After Radiation Therapy<br />Recall the patient for prophylaxis and home care evaluation every 4 to 8 weeks or as needed for the first 6 months after cancer treatment. <br />Reinforce the importance of optimal oral hygiene<br />
  83. 83. <ul><li>Monitor the patient for trismus: check for pain or weakness in masticating muscles in the radiation field. Instruct the patient to exercise three times a day, opening and closing the mouth as far as possible without pain; repeat 20 times.
  84. 84. Consult with the oncology team about use of dentures and other appliances after mucositis subsides. Patients with friable tissues and xerostomia may not be able to wear them again. </li></li></ul><li>Watch for demineralization and caries. Lifelong, daily applications of fluoride gel are needed for patients with xerostomia. <br />Advise against elective oral surgery on irradiated bone because of the risk of osteonecrosis. Tooth extraction, if unavoidable, should be conservative, using antibiotic coverage and possibly hyperbaric oxygen therapy. <br />
  85. 85. Amifostine (ethyol)—protects salivary tissues against radiation damage. Approved for reducing dry mouth. May also reduce mouth sores: research is ongoing.<br /> N-acetylcysteine (RK-0202) - prevents inflammation due to radiation therapy.<br />
  86. 86. What are the common side effects of radiation <br />Reduced resistance to bacterial, viral or fungal infections which allows them to become opportunistic<br />Dry mouth/ altered taste sensations-including a burning sensation<br />Sore/stiff jaw<br />Damage to tooth enamel<br />Swallowing difficulties<br />
  87. 87. Complications Specific to Radiation<br /><ul><li>Demineralization and radiation caries: Prescribe daily fluoride gel applications before treatment starts. Continue for the patient’s lifetime if changes in quality or quantity of saliva persist.
  88. 88. Trismus/tissue fibrosis: Instruct the patient on stretching exercises for the jaw to prevent or reduce the severity of fibrosis.
  89. 89. Osteonecrosis: Avoid invasive procedures involving irradiated bone, particularly the mandible</li></li></ul><li>Advice for Your Patients<br />Brush teeth, gums, and tongue gently with an extra-soft toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste after every meal and at bedtime. If brushing hurts, soften the bristles in warm water. <br />Floss teeth gently every day. If your gums bleed and hurt, avoid the areas that are bleeding or sore but keep flossing your other teeth. <br />
  90. 90. Follow instructions for fluoride gel applications. <br />Avoid mouthwashes containing alcohol. <br />Rinse the mouth several times a day with a baking soda and salt solution, followed by a plain water rinse. Use ¼ teaspoon each of baking soda and salt in 1 quart of warm water. <br />
  91. 91. Try the following if dry mouth is a problem: <br />Sip water frequently. <br />Suck ice chips or use sugar-free gum or candy. <br />Use saliva substitute spray or gel or a prescribed saliva stimulant if appropriate. <br />Avoid glycerin swabs. <br />
  92. 92. Exercise the jaw muscles three times a day to prevent and treat jaw stiffness from radiation treatment. <br />Avoid candy, gum, and soda unless they are sugar-free. <br />Avoid spicy or acidic foods, toothpicks, tobacco products, and alcohol. <br />
  93. 93. Taste changes: Refer to a dietitian.<br />Etched enamel: Advise the patient to rinse the mouth with water and baking soda solution after vomiting to protect enamel.<br />
  94. 94. Special Care for Children<br />Children receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are at risk for the same oral complications as adults. Other actions to consider in managing pediatric patients include the following:<br />
  95. 95. <ul><li>Extract loose primary teeth and teeth expected to exfoliate during cancer treatment.
  96. 96. Remove orthodontic bands and brackets if highly stomatotoxic chemotherapy is planned or if the appliances will be in the radiation field.
  97. 97. Monitor craniofacial and dental structures for abnormal growth and development</li></li></ul><li>Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation<br />Most stem cell transplant patients develop acute oral complications, especially patients with graft-versus host disease.<br />
  98. 98. Before Transplantation<br /><ul><li>Conduct a pretreatment oral health examination and prophylaxis.
  99. 99. Consult the oncologist about scheduling dental treatment.
  100. 100. Schedule oral surgery at least 7 to 10 days before myelosuppressive therapy begins.
  101. 101. Prevent tooth demineralization and radiation caries:
  102. 102. Instruct the patient in home application of fluoride gel (not fluoride rinses).
  103. 103. Instruct the patient about an oral hygiene regimen. </li></li></ul><li>After Transplantation<br /><ul><li>Consult the oncologist before any dental procedure, including prophylaxis.
  104. 104. Monitor the patient’s oral health for plaque control, tooth demineralization, dental caries, and infection.
  105. 105. Watch for infections on the tongue and oral mucosa. Herpes simplex and Candida albicans are common oral infections. </li></li></ul><li>Delay elective oral procedures for 1 year. <br />Follow patients for long-term oral complications. Such problems are strong indicators of chronic graft-versus-host disease. <br />Monitor transplant patients carefully for second malignancies in the oral region. <br />
  106. 106. What is mucositis?<br />Mucositis refers to the breakdown of mouth tissues.<br />It can range in severity from a red sore mouth and gums to open sores in the mouth.<br />Chemotherapy and radiation therapy kill not only cancer cells, but other rapidly dividing cells including the lining of the mouth and throat.<br />
  107. 107. Oral mucositis leads to several problems:<br />Pain<br />Nutritional problems/inability to eat<br />Increased risk of infection due to open sores in the mucosa<br />
  108. 108. What are the signs and symptoms of mucositis?<br /><ul><li>Red, shiny or swollen mouth and gums
  109. 109. Blood in the mouth
  110. 110. Sores in the mouth or on the gums or tongue
  111. 111. Soreness or pain in the mouth or throat
  112. 112. Difficulty swallowing or talking
  113. 113. Feeling of dryness, mild burning or pain when eating food
  114. 114. Soft, whitish patches or pus in the mouth or on the tongue
  115. 115. Increased mucus or thicker saliva in the mouth</li></li></ul><li>Who gets mucositis?<br />40% or more of patients who receive chemotherapy will develop some degree of mucositis.<br />Patients receiving radiation to the head, neck, and chest areas, patients who undergo bone marrow or stem cell transplant, are at a greater risk (80%) of developing a mucositis.<br />**certain chemotherapy agents are more likely to cause this side effect.<br />
  116. 116. Course of a mouth sore<br />Not everyone undergoing treatment for cancer develops mouth sores.<br />1st day of treatment ---no noticeable change, but injury is beginning to accumulate.<br />3-5 days after treatment---damage to genetic material in mouth cells, soft tissue starts to feel warm.<br />7-10 days after treatment---Inflammation and sores appear.<br />
  117. 117. During treatment period---sores can become painful and infected. Eating and swallowing can become difficult.<br />2-9 weeks after treatment---sores heal and disappear.<br />
  118. 118. There are 3 stages of Oral Mucositis<br /><ul><li>(1) Inflammation accompanied by painful mucosal erythema, which can respond to local anesthetics.
  119. 119. (2) Painful ulceration with pseudomembrane formation and, in the case of myelosuppressive treatment, potentially life-threatening sepsis, requiring antimicrobial therapy. Pain is often of such intensity as to require treatment with parenteral opiate analgesics.
  120. 120. (3) Spontaneous healing, occurring about 2 - 3 weeks after cessation of anti neoplastic therapy. </li></li></ul><li>What does it look like?<br />
  121. 121. What early intervention strategies should the health team follow?<br /><ul><li>The team should begin care planning and intervention strategies prior to the individual noting pain, or staff notice sores, white patches, pus or bleeding, in the mouth or surrounding tissues.
  122. 122. Patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation to the chest/head/neck area should have their mouths checked daily for redness, sores, or signs of infection.
  123. 123. If the individual develops a fever (temperature greater than 100.4) with some or all of the above side effects implement protocols as soon as possible. (contact oncologist)</li></li></ul><li>Pain Control<br />Cryotherapy-sucking on ice chips has some effect on pain management<br />Mucosal protectants work by coating mucosa, forming a protective barrier for exposed nerve endings.<br />There are some drugs that protect against the damage to the mucosa. They have demonstrated that they reduce dry mouth and may prevent mouth sores.<br />
  124. 124. Pain Control<br />--Ibuprofen (such as motrin) or acetaminophen(tylenol) for mild pain.<br />--over-the –counter anesthetics, such as xylocaine, anbesol, or orajel. <br />--Difflam- benzydamine mouthwash is a local anesthetic<br />---Gelclair- an oral gel designed to coat and soothe mouth sores by forming a protective barrier in the mouth. Gelclair contains 3 key ingredients:<br /> one to coat raw tissue with protective film, a second to moisten and lubricate the tissues and licorice root extract for flavoring. RX only.<br />
  125. 125. Pain Control<br /><ul><li>Pain causes stress, depression, and fatigue. It can ruin the quality of life and slow progress towards better health.
  126. 126. Opiates (ex. morphine)—are an important tool for controlling pain and not something to be shunned or feared.
  127. 127. Pills
  128. 128. Liquids
  129. 129. Patches
  130. 130. IV for sever pain</li></li></ul><li>Pain Control<br /><ul><li>Pain causes stress, depression, and fatigue. It can ruin the quality of life and slow progress towards better health.
  131. 131. Opiates (ex. morphine)—are an important tool for controlling pain and not something to be shunned or feared.
  132. 132. Pills
  133. 133. Liquids
  134. 134. Patches
  135. 135. IV for sever pain</li></li></ul><li>Oral Care Do’s for chemo and radiation <br />Moisturize lips (non-petroleum products) at least 2x a day up to 6x a day.<br />Use a dry mouth product at least 2x a day up to 6x a day.<br />Rinse mouth before and after meals and at bed time.<br />Saline solution<br />Soda water<br />Non-alcohol fluoride rinse<br />
  136. 136. Oral Care Do’s<br />Use an ultra-soft bristle toothbrush after meals and a bedtime.<br />Use gauze or washcloth if patient has difficulty swallowing or ANC or WBC counts are low.<br />
  137. 137. Oral Care Don’ts<br />No mouthwashes with alcohol<br />No dental floss if counts below 40,000<br />No lemon or glycerine swabs<br />No hard or medium toothbrushes<br />No petroleum based products for lip care because they can promote infection<br />Do not use water pik during treatment<br />
  138. 138. Oral Care Don’ts<br />No mouthwashes with alcohol<br />No dental floss if counts below 40,000<br />No lemon or glycerine swabs<br />No hard or medium toothbrushes<br />No petroleum based products for lip care because they can promote infection<br />Do not use water pik during treatment<br />
  139. 139. Nutritional and lifestyle interventions<br /><ul><li>Increase fluid intake.
  140. 140. Include foods high in protein in the diet
  141. 141. Avoid hot, spicy or acidic foods, alcohol, hard or coarse foods (crusty bread, chips, crackers), soda.
  142. 142. Do not smoke cigarettes, cigars or pipes.
  143. 143. Do not use smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco or snuff)
  144. 144. Let food cool to room temperature
  145. 145. Moisten food with gravy if difficulty swallowing.</li></li></ul><li>DO Eat Don’t eat<br /><ul><li>Ice cream
  146. 146. Milkshakes
  147. 147. Baby food
  148. 148. Bananas and applesauce
  149. 149. Mashed potatoes
  150. 150. Cooked cereal
  151. 151. Cottage cheese
  152. 152. Pudding/gelatin
  153. 153. Cooked meats pureed in blender, with gravy or broth added
  154. 154. Tomatoes
  155. 155. Citrus fruits or juice
  156. 156. Salty or spicy foods
  157. 157. Raw vegetables
  158. 158. Raw fruits (unless soft)
  159. 159. Drinks with caffeine or alcohol
  160. 160. Pickles
  161. 161. Vinegar
  162. 162. Chocolate
  163. 163. Rough dry foods</li></li></ul><li>Over the counter products for optimal oral health<br />
  164. 164. Points to remember<br /><ul><li>High-dose radiation treatment carries a lifelong risk of xerostomia, dental caries, and osteonecrosis.
  165. 165. Because of the risk of osteonecrosis, principally in the mandible, patients should avoid invasive surgical procedures, including extractions that involve irradiated bone. If an invasive procedure is required, use of antibiotics and hyperbaric oxygen therapy before and after surgery should be considered.
  166. 166. Lifelong daily fluoride application, good nutrition, and conscientious oral hygiene are especially important for patients with salivary gland dysfunction. </li></li></ul><li>Points to remember<br /><ul><li>Dentures may need to be reconstructed if treatment altered oral tissues. Some people can never wear dentures again because of friable tissues and xerostomia.
  167. 167. Dentists should closely monitor children who have received radiation to craniofacial and dental structures for abnormal growth and development.
  168. 168. Dentists should be mindful about the recurrence of malignancies in patients with oral and head and neck cancers, and thoroughly examine all oral mucosal tissues at recall appointments</li></li></ul><li>Points to Remember<br /><ul><li>Chemotherapy and Radiation treatments both pose problems with dental treatments.
  169. 169. Mouth sores can be extremely painful, cause malnutrition, delay cancer treatments and can cause serious infections.
  170. 170. The oral cavity usually goes back to normal after chemotherapy, but has life long complications after head and neck radiation treatments.
  171. 171. Dental appointments should be scheduled 2 days prior to chemo therapy, when patient feels best.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Dental exam should be scheduled one month prior to chemotherapy or head and neck radiation treatments.
  172. 172. Dental extractions, root plane and scales, should be done 10days to 2 wks prior to chemotherapy or radiation treatments.
  173. 173. Pain management is very important to patient recovery.
  174. 174. Use water pik on lowest setting during treatment. Do not push bacteria into bloodstream when ANC is low. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Always work with oncologist and their staff. He or she is the primary care provider. If you are unsure of treatment always ASK oncologist. You can refer patient out to a specialist for emergency dental work and you can refer patient to oncologist for most medicines needed for mouth infections.</li></ul>** You should know what your role is. Working as a team will be the best way to help your patient’s recovery !!!!!<br />
  175. 175. The patient<br />Do not lecture the patient on oral care.<br />This patient already has a lot on their mind. New instructions to follow every day and may not physically be able to get up and brush properly!!<br />Encourage good oral hygiene. <br />Have a written instruction sheet <br />Give booklet from cancer care.<br />
  176. 176. Web sites<br />http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/CancerTreatment/OralComplicationsCancerOral.htm<br />American Oncology Nursing Association Customer.service@ons.org<br />OncoLink Abranson Centre Cancer Centre University of Pensylvania http://www.oncolink.com<br />National Cancer institute website, www.cancer.gov<br />http://www.nursing.upenn.edu<br />http://www.cancer.org/docroot/MBC/content...<br />http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/resourcessupport/symptomssideeffects/mouthcare/chemotherapy<br />http://ONJ.net.org /fosamax <br />
  177. 177. Reference sources<br /><ul><li>Cancer care Connect ---booklet Mouth Pain and Discomfort. All you need to know about oral mucositis
  178. 178. Eilers J. nursing intrventions and supportive care for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis associated with cancer treatment, Oncology nursing forum online 31(4suppl):13-23 2004 July.
  179. 179. Sonis ST, oral mucositis in cancer therapy. The Journal of Supportive Oncology 2(6 suppl3) 3-8, Nove 2004</li></li></ul><li>Thank You!<br />

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