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Dramatis Personae
                
   Duke of Venice
   Othello: Moor, married to Desdoma
   Iago: Solider in Othello’s army
   Cassio: Lieutenant in Othello’s army
   Desdemona: Othello’s wife
   Emilia: Iago’s wife
   Rodreigo: Solider, love Desdemona
Act I Scene 1
 Othello begins in the city of Venice, at night
 Roderigo is having a discussion with Iago, who is bitter at
  being passed up as Othello's lieutenant.
                              
 Though Iago had greater practice in battle and in military
  matters, Cassio, a man of strategy but of little experience,
  was named lieutenant by Othello.
 Iago says that he only serves Othello to further himself,
  and makes shows of his allegiance only for his own gain
 He admits that his nature is not at all what it seems.
 Iago is aware that the daughter of Brabantio, Desdemona ,
  has run off with Othello, the black warrior of the Moors.
 Brabantio knows nothing of this coupling
 Iago decides to enlist Roderigo, who lusts after
  Desdemona, and awaken Brabantio with screams that his
  daughter is gone.
Act I Scene 1
                   
 At first, Brabantio dismisses these cries in the dark
 He realizes his daughter is not there, he gives the
  news some credence.
 Roderigo is the one speaking most to Brabantio, but
  Iago is there too, hidden, yelling unsavory things
  about Othello
 Brabantio panics, and calls for people to try and find
  his daughter
 Iago leaves, not wanting anyone to find out that he
  betrayed his own leader
 Brabantio begins to search for his daughter.
Analysis: Friendship
 The relationship between Roderigo and Iago is
  somewhat close
                            
 Roderigo shows this in his first statement:
   Iago "hast had [Roderigo's] purse as if the strings
    were thine," he tells Iago (I.i.2-3)
 The metaphor shows how much trust Roderigo
  has in Iago, and also how he uses Iago as a
  confidante
 Does Iago share the same kind of feeling?
 As far as Roderigo knows, Iago is his friend
 Appearance is one thing and reality another, as
  Iago soon will tell.
Analysis: Trusting Appearance
 Iago tells several truths about himself to Roderigo
 He trusts Roderigo with the knowledge that he serves
                                
  Othello, but only to further himself.
 How ironic that after Iago's lengthy confession of
  duplicity, Roderigo still does not suspect him of
  doublecrossing or manipulation.
 Iago seems to do a great deal of character analysis and
  exposition for the audience
 He divulges his purpose in serving Othello, and the kind
  of man he is.
 Appearance vs. Reality is a crucial theme in Iago's story
    He enacts a series of roles, from advisor to confidante
    He appears to be helping people though he is only acting out of
     his twisted self-interest.
Analysis: Metaphors and Paradox
   "These fellows" that flatter for their own purposes "have some soul,"
    Iago says
   There is a double irony in this statement that Iago passes off as a


    truth
                                   
    People who act one way and are another are duplicitous, and
    scarcely deserve the credit that Iago is trying to give them.
   Iago, though he is one of those fellows, seems to have no soul
   He never repents, never lets up with his schemes, and never seems
    to tire of damaging whatever he is able to.
   "In following [Othello] I follow but myself," Iago also professes
   This is a paradox in terms, but is revealing of Iago's purposes in
    serving Othello.
   His language is revealing of his dark character;
   He uses the cliché "I will wear my heart upon my sleeve" to convey
    how his heart is false, and his shows of emotion are also falsified
   He turns this cliché into something more dark and fierce, when he
    adds the image of the birds tearing at this heart
   He has foreshadowed the great deceptions that he will engineer,
    and the sinister qualities that make up his core.
Analysis: Parallels
 The key to Iago's character is in the line "I am
  not what I am“
                        
 Roderigo should take this as a warning, but fails
  to.
 Everything which Iago presents himself as is a
  false show
 This first scene represents the peak of Iago's
  honesty about himself with another character.
 Iago lacks remorse and uses false
  representations of himself to gain other’s trust.
Analysis: Racism
 Racial issues and themes which are at the core of
  Othello's story and position are beginning to
  surface.
                        
 When Roderigo refers to Othello, he calls him
  "the thick lips“
 This singles out one prominent characteristic of
  Othello's foreignness and black heritage
 It displays a racial distrust of Othello based on
  his color.
 Roderigo and Iago are not the only characters to
  display racism when referring to Othello
 Racism is a pervasive theme within the work,
  spreading misconceptions and lies about Othello
  by tying him to incorrect stereotypes.
Analysis: Black and White
 Another element that surfaces repeatedly in the play is
  the use of animal imagery; "an old black ram is tupping
  your white ewe," Iago yells to Brabantio
                            
 The use of animal imagery is used in many places in the
  play to convey immorality and illicit passion, as it does
  in this instance.
 Iago also compares Othello to a "Barbary horse"
  coupling with Desdemona, and uses animal imagery to
  reinforce a lustful picture of Othello
 Iago's statement is doubly potent, since it not only
  condemns Othello for his alleged lust, but also plays on
  Brabantio's misgivings about Othello's color
 The juxtaposition of black and white, in connection with
  the animal imagery, is meant to make this image very
  repellent, and to inflame Brabantio to anger and action.
Analysis: Devils
 Iago especially mentions the devil many times in
  the text
                         
 The first time here in the first scene to make
  Othello sound like a devil with:
   lust
   indiscretion
   strangeness
 The irony is that Iago is so quick to make others
  out to be evil
 The devil often takes disguises, just as Iago does
  embodying the theme of appearance vs. reality
 He is the one who looks least guilty.
Analysis: Imagery and Setting
 Important to this scene is the fact that it is held
  in darkness
                            
 Things are unsteady and eerie, and disorder
  rules - secrets.
 With Brabantio's call for light, there is a
  corresponding call for some kind of order:
     darkness vs. light
     order vs. disorder
     Both important juxtapositions within the play
     they highlight the status of situations
 These themes will appear again at the end, as
  the play returns to darkness, and chaos
Iago’s Soliloquies
                
 Soliloquy – in a drama when a character speaks to
  himself and relates thoughts and feelings
 Iago’s intensions and motives are revealed in his
  soliloquies
 It is his only opportunity to really be honest
 The other characters call him honest yet he is only
  honest with the audience
 He makes the audience his co-conspirators
Act I Scene 2
 Iago has now joined Othello, and has told Othello
  about Roderigo's betrayal of the news of his
  marriage.
                            
 He tells Othello that Brabantio is upset, and will
  probably try to tear Desdemona from him.
 Cassio comes at last, as do Roderigo and Brabantio
 Iago threatens Roderigo with violence, again
  making a false show of his loyalty to Othello.
 Brabantio swears that Othello must have bewitched
  his daughter (racial reference), and that the state
  will not decide for him in this case.
 Othello says that the Duke must hear him, and
  decide in his favor, or all is far from right in Venice.
Analysis: Janus
 Iago continues his deliberate misrepresentation:
   Swearing to Othello that he could have killed
                           
    Roderigo for what he did.
 Iago is a very skilled actor:
   He is able to successfully present a contrary
    appearance
 Ironically, Iago alludes to Janus, the two-faced
  god, in his conversation with Othello.
 Since Iago himself is two-faced Janus seems to
  be a fitting figure for Iago to invoke.
Analysis
 Iago's duplicity is again exhibited in this scene as his
  tone swings:
    friendly to backbiting as soon as Othello steps away

                                 
    back to his original friendliness when Othello returns.
 Iago acted supportive of Othello's marriage to
  Desdemona
 Cassio enters and uses a rather uncomplimentary
  metaphor to tell what Othello has done:
    "He tonight hath boarded a land-carrack"
    His diction and choice of metaphor make Othello into some
     kind of pirate
    stealing Desdemona's love
    Cassio reduces Desdemona into a mere prize to be taken.
 Iago will soon want Cassio to think of Desdemona as an
  object to be taken, and to believe Othello to be less
  honorable than he is.
Analysis: Pride
 Othello's pride first becomes visible here
 He is exceptionally proud of his achievements and his
  public stature
                               
 Pride is a huge theme of Othello's story.
 He is proud of Desdemona's affection for him
 He would not give her up "for the seas' worth," he says
  (l. 28).
 Othello is very confident in his worth, and in the respect
  he commands
 If the leaders of the city decide to deny a worthy man
  like him his marriage to Desdemona, then he believes:
    "bondslaves and pagans shall our statesmen be."
 This statement of paradox betrays Othello's faith in the
  state and in the Duke's regard for him; hopefully, neither
  will fail him.
Analysis: Racism and Magic
 The issue of race comes to the forefront, as Brabantio
  confronts Othello about his marriage to Desdemona.
 Desdemona never would have "run from her guardage
                              
  to the sooty bosom of a thing such as thou," Brabantio
  says (l. 71-2).
 Brabantio assumes that Desdemona must have been
  "enchanted" to marry Othello merely because Othello is
  black
 Brabantio ignores all of Othello's good qualities, and
  gives into his racist feelings.
 Magic is another recurrent theme, and here is linked to
  stereotypes of African peoples as:
   knowing the black arts of magic
   being pagans
   being lusty
 The theme of magic does not always play into the theme
  of race within the play
Analysis: Stereotypes and History
 At the time Shakespeare was writing, there were
  in fact free blacks in England
                        
 However, racism was even more pronounced in
  Shakespeare's England than it is in Othello
 A character like Othello could not have risen to
  such ranks in England at the time
 Shakespeare's play is much more progressive
  than the time in which it was written.
 Stereotypes are linked to Othello by other
  characters, but he manages to evade them
  through his nobility and individuality.
Act I Scene 3
 Military conflict is challenging the Venetian stronghold of
  Cyprus
 There are reports that Turkish ships are heading toward the
  island, which means some defense will be necessary.
                             
 Brabantio and Othello enter the assembled Venetian leaders,
  who are discussing this military matter
 Brabantio announces his grievance against Othello for
  marrying his daughter.
 Othello addresses the company, admitting that he did marry
  Desdemona, but wooed her with stories, and did her no
  wrongs.
 Desdemona comes to speak, and she confirms Othello's
  words:
    Brabantio's grievance is denied
    Desdemona will indeed stay with Othello.
 Othello is called away to Cyprus, to help with the conflict
  there
 Othello and Desdemona win their appeal, and Desdemona is
  to stay with Iago, until she can come to Cyprus and meet
  Othello there.
Act I Scene 3
 Roderigo is upset that Desdemona and Othello's
  union was allowed to stand
                       
 He lusts after Desdemona.
 Iago assures him that the match will not last
  long, and at any time, Desdemona could come
  rushing to him.
 Iago wants to break up the couple, using
  Roderigo as his pawn, out of malice and his
  wicked ability to do so.
 Watch movie scene
Analysis: Brabantio
 Brabantio again accuses Othello of bewitching
  his daughter, and airs his racism-based views.
                          
 He is not against the match because of any
  incompatibility of the couple
 His metaphor of his grief as a flood, that
  "engluts and swallows other sorrows, and is still
  itself," means that he feels very strongly on this
  issue.
 His strong objection foreshadows a
  confrontation between him and his daughter
 If Desdemona does choose to stay with Othello,
  it seems likely that she will risk her father's love.
Analysis: Desdemona
             
 In this scene Desdemona both reinforces and breaks the
  stereo type of women at the time
 First she demonstrates she can not be trusted – her father
  warns Othello about this later
 She then supports her “master” – her husband as her
  mother supported her father
 She requests to go to Cypress with Othello
 It was very unusual for women to accompany their
  husbands during a war
 Othello states, “she wished/ That heaven had made her
  such a man.”
Analysis: Tragedy
 Othello's appointment to Cyprus marks the true
  beginning of his tragedy
                           
 He will be much more vulnerable to Iago's vicious
  attacks on his love and jealousy.
 This battle between order and chaos is a theme running
  throughout the play
 As Othello sinks deeper into distrust of Desdemona and
  is more consumed by his jealousy, chaos increases and
  threatens to devour him.
Analysis: Verse vs. Couple
 The Duke's words of advice to the couple also
  mark the beginning of their tragic story
 The Duke foretells trouble between the couple if
                         
  they do not let grievances go, which ends up
  being a reason for Othello's fall.
 The change of the verse into couplets signals the
  importance of the advice being offered.
 The words of the Duke, and Brabantio's words
  that follow, are set off from the rest of the text
  and emphasized by this technique
 The reader is notified, through the couplet
  rhyme, which hasn't appeared before in the text,
  that these are words that must be marked.
Analysis: Othello’s Tragic Flaw
 The only magic that Othello possesses is in his
  power of language.
                        
 His language shows his pride in his
  achievements
 Othello portrays himself as a tested, honorable
  warrior, and indeed is such.
 This view of himself will prove troublesome
  when he is hard pressed to recognize his
  jealousy and his lust
 His inability to reconcile himself with these two
  aspects of his personality means that his doom is
  almost certain.
 Othello's lack of self-knowledge means that he
  will be unable to stop himself once Iago begins
  to ignite his jealousy
Analysis: Allusions
 Othello's speech before the assembly shows
  what he believes Desdemona's love to be:
                            
   He thinks that Desdemona's affection is a form of
    hero-worship
   She loves him for the stories he tells, and the things
    he has done.
 He believes it is his allusions to strange peoples
  and places, like the "Anthropophagi," that
  fascinate her
 Indeed, his powers of language successfully win
  the Duke over, and soften Brabantio's
  disapproval.
Analysis: White and Black
 Light and dark are again juxtaposed in the Duke's
  declaration to Brabantio, that:
   "if virtue no delighted beauty lack/ your son-in-
                          
     law is far more fair than black."
 Black is associated with sin, evil, and darkness;
 These negative things are also associated to black
  people, merely because of the color of their skin.
 The Duke's statement is ironic, since Othello is
  black, but truthful, because his soul is good and
  light.
 Light/white/fairness all convey innocence,
  goodness, any symbol that is white has these
  qualities.
 The juxtaposition of black and white, light and dark
  shows up again and again in the play, as the colors
  become symbolic within the story.
Analysis: Origin of Chaos
 "Our bodies are our gardens," Iago tells Roderigo
 Iago is a very good judge of human nature, and easily
                            
  able to manipulate people in ways that will benefit him
  most
 This cleverness also means that he is a source of wisdom
  in the play
 Iago's metaphor is particularly applicable to many in
  this play, himself excluded; characters do have vices that
  they allow to grow in themselves
 They also have aspects of themselves which balance
  these vices out.
 Iago's knowledge of this allows him to do away with
  this balance and set chaos into motion
Analysis: Cross Purposes
 Iago's purpose becomes plain:
   He sees that Othello and Desdemona's marriage is
    less than solid
                          
   He seeks to use his powers to break this marriage
    apart.
 Iago is again "honest" about his intent, but only
  to a person whose involvement will help him
  greatly.
 The words "honest" and "honesty" appear
  repeatedly in the play, and are usually used by
  Iago, or in reference to him
 Ironically, Iago is the only person in the play
  whom Othello trusts to judge who is and is not
  honest

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Othello notespp act1

  • 1.
  • 2. Dramatis Personae   Duke of Venice  Othello: Moor, married to Desdoma  Iago: Solider in Othello’s army  Cassio: Lieutenant in Othello’s army  Desdemona: Othello’s wife  Emilia: Iago’s wife  Rodreigo: Solider, love Desdemona
  • 3. Act I Scene 1  Othello begins in the city of Venice, at night  Roderigo is having a discussion with Iago, who is bitter at being passed up as Othello's lieutenant.   Though Iago had greater practice in battle and in military matters, Cassio, a man of strategy but of little experience, was named lieutenant by Othello.  Iago says that he only serves Othello to further himself, and makes shows of his allegiance only for his own gain  He admits that his nature is not at all what it seems.  Iago is aware that the daughter of Brabantio, Desdemona , has run off with Othello, the black warrior of the Moors.  Brabantio knows nothing of this coupling  Iago decides to enlist Roderigo, who lusts after Desdemona, and awaken Brabantio with screams that his daughter is gone.
  • 4. Act I Scene 1   At first, Brabantio dismisses these cries in the dark  He realizes his daughter is not there, he gives the news some credence.  Roderigo is the one speaking most to Brabantio, but Iago is there too, hidden, yelling unsavory things about Othello  Brabantio panics, and calls for people to try and find his daughter  Iago leaves, not wanting anyone to find out that he betrayed his own leader  Brabantio begins to search for his daughter.
  • 5. Analysis: Friendship  The relationship between Roderigo and Iago is somewhat close   Roderigo shows this in his first statement:  Iago "hast had [Roderigo's] purse as if the strings were thine," he tells Iago (I.i.2-3)  The metaphor shows how much trust Roderigo has in Iago, and also how he uses Iago as a confidante  Does Iago share the same kind of feeling?  As far as Roderigo knows, Iago is his friend  Appearance is one thing and reality another, as Iago soon will tell.
  • 6. Analysis: Trusting Appearance  Iago tells several truths about himself to Roderigo  He trusts Roderigo with the knowledge that he serves  Othello, but only to further himself.  How ironic that after Iago's lengthy confession of duplicity, Roderigo still does not suspect him of doublecrossing or manipulation.  Iago seems to do a great deal of character analysis and exposition for the audience  He divulges his purpose in serving Othello, and the kind of man he is.  Appearance vs. Reality is a crucial theme in Iago's story  He enacts a series of roles, from advisor to confidante  He appears to be helping people though he is only acting out of his twisted self-interest.
  • 7. Analysis: Metaphors and Paradox  "These fellows" that flatter for their own purposes "have some soul," Iago says  There is a double irony in this statement that Iago passes off as a  truth  People who act one way and are another are duplicitous, and scarcely deserve the credit that Iago is trying to give them.  Iago, though he is one of those fellows, seems to have no soul  He never repents, never lets up with his schemes, and never seems to tire of damaging whatever he is able to.  "In following [Othello] I follow but myself," Iago also professes  This is a paradox in terms, but is revealing of Iago's purposes in serving Othello.  His language is revealing of his dark character;  He uses the cliché "I will wear my heart upon my sleeve" to convey how his heart is false, and his shows of emotion are also falsified  He turns this cliché into something more dark and fierce, when he adds the image of the birds tearing at this heart  He has foreshadowed the great deceptions that he will engineer, and the sinister qualities that make up his core.
  • 8. Analysis: Parallels  The key to Iago's character is in the line "I am not what I am“   Roderigo should take this as a warning, but fails to.  Everything which Iago presents himself as is a false show  This first scene represents the peak of Iago's honesty about himself with another character.  Iago lacks remorse and uses false representations of himself to gain other’s trust.
  • 9. Analysis: Racism  Racial issues and themes which are at the core of Othello's story and position are beginning to surface.   When Roderigo refers to Othello, he calls him "the thick lips“  This singles out one prominent characteristic of Othello's foreignness and black heritage  It displays a racial distrust of Othello based on his color.  Roderigo and Iago are not the only characters to display racism when referring to Othello  Racism is a pervasive theme within the work, spreading misconceptions and lies about Othello by tying him to incorrect stereotypes.
  • 10. Analysis: Black and White  Another element that surfaces repeatedly in the play is the use of animal imagery; "an old black ram is tupping your white ewe," Iago yells to Brabantio   The use of animal imagery is used in many places in the play to convey immorality and illicit passion, as it does in this instance.  Iago also compares Othello to a "Barbary horse" coupling with Desdemona, and uses animal imagery to reinforce a lustful picture of Othello  Iago's statement is doubly potent, since it not only condemns Othello for his alleged lust, but also plays on Brabantio's misgivings about Othello's color  The juxtaposition of black and white, in connection with the animal imagery, is meant to make this image very repellent, and to inflame Brabantio to anger and action.
  • 11. Analysis: Devils  Iago especially mentions the devil many times in the text   The first time here in the first scene to make Othello sound like a devil with:  lust  indiscretion  strangeness  The irony is that Iago is so quick to make others out to be evil  The devil often takes disguises, just as Iago does embodying the theme of appearance vs. reality  He is the one who looks least guilty.
  • 12. Analysis: Imagery and Setting  Important to this scene is the fact that it is held in darkness   Things are unsteady and eerie, and disorder rules - secrets.  With Brabantio's call for light, there is a corresponding call for some kind of order:  darkness vs. light  order vs. disorder  Both important juxtapositions within the play  they highlight the status of situations  These themes will appear again at the end, as the play returns to darkness, and chaos
  • 13. Iago’s Soliloquies   Soliloquy – in a drama when a character speaks to himself and relates thoughts and feelings  Iago’s intensions and motives are revealed in his soliloquies  It is his only opportunity to really be honest  The other characters call him honest yet he is only honest with the audience  He makes the audience his co-conspirators
  • 14. Act I Scene 2  Iago has now joined Othello, and has told Othello about Roderigo's betrayal of the news of his marriage.   He tells Othello that Brabantio is upset, and will probably try to tear Desdemona from him.  Cassio comes at last, as do Roderigo and Brabantio  Iago threatens Roderigo with violence, again making a false show of his loyalty to Othello.  Brabantio swears that Othello must have bewitched his daughter (racial reference), and that the state will not decide for him in this case.  Othello says that the Duke must hear him, and decide in his favor, or all is far from right in Venice.
  • 15. Analysis: Janus  Iago continues his deliberate misrepresentation:  Swearing to Othello that he could have killed  Roderigo for what he did.  Iago is a very skilled actor:  He is able to successfully present a contrary appearance  Ironically, Iago alludes to Janus, the two-faced god, in his conversation with Othello.  Since Iago himself is two-faced Janus seems to be a fitting figure for Iago to invoke.
  • 16. Analysis  Iago's duplicity is again exhibited in this scene as his tone swings:  friendly to backbiting as soon as Othello steps away   back to his original friendliness when Othello returns.  Iago acted supportive of Othello's marriage to Desdemona  Cassio enters and uses a rather uncomplimentary metaphor to tell what Othello has done:  "He tonight hath boarded a land-carrack"  His diction and choice of metaphor make Othello into some kind of pirate  stealing Desdemona's love  Cassio reduces Desdemona into a mere prize to be taken.  Iago will soon want Cassio to think of Desdemona as an object to be taken, and to believe Othello to be less honorable than he is.
  • 17. Analysis: Pride  Othello's pride first becomes visible here  He is exceptionally proud of his achievements and his public stature   Pride is a huge theme of Othello's story.  He is proud of Desdemona's affection for him  He would not give her up "for the seas' worth," he says (l. 28).  Othello is very confident in his worth, and in the respect he commands  If the leaders of the city decide to deny a worthy man like him his marriage to Desdemona, then he believes:  "bondslaves and pagans shall our statesmen be."  This statement of paradox betrays Othello's faith in the state and in the Duke's regard for him; hopefully, neither will fail him.
  • 18. Analysis: Racism and Magic  The issue of race comes to the forefront, as Brabantio confronts Othello about his marriage to Desdemona.  Desdemona never would have "run from her guardage  to the sooty bosom of a thing such as thou," Brabantio says (l. 71-2).  Brabantio assumes that Desdemona must have been "enchanted" to marry Othello merely because Othello is black  Brabantio ignores all of Othello's good qualities, and gives into his racist feelings.  Magic is another recurrent theme, and here is linked to stereotypes of African peoples as:  knowing the black arts of magic  being pagans  being lusty  The theme of magic does not always play into the theme of race within the play
  • 19. Analysis: Stereotypes and History  At the time Shakespeare was writing, there were in fact free blacks in England   However, racism was even more pronounced in Shakespeare's England than it is in Othello  A character like Othello could not have risen to such ranks in England at the time  Shakespeare's play is much more progressive than the time in which it was written.  Stereotypes are linked to Othello by other characters, but he manages to evade them through his nobility and individuality.
  • 20. Act I Scene 3  Military conflict is challenging the Venetian stronghold of Cyprus  There are reports that Turkish ships are heading toward the island, which means some defense will be necessary.   Brabantio and Othello enter the assembled Venetian leaders, who are discussing this military matter  Brabantio announces his grievance against Othello for marrying his daughter.  Othello addresses the company, admitting that he did marry Desdemona, but wooed her with stories, and did her no wrongs.  Desdemona comes to speak, and she confirms Othello's words:  Brabantio's grievance is denied  Desdemona will indeed stay with Othello.  Othello is called away to Cyprus, to help with the conflict there  Othello and Desdemona win their appeal, and Desdemona is to stay with Iago, until she can come to Cyprus and meet Othello there.
  • 21. Act I Scene 3  Roderigo is upset that Desdemona and Othello's union was allowed to stand   He lusts after Desdemona.  Iago assures him that the match will not last long, and at any time, Desdemona could come rushing to him.  Iago wants to break up the couple, using Roderigo as his pawn, out of malice and his wicked ability to do so.  Watch movie scene
  • 22. Analysis: Brabantio  Brabantio again accuses Othello of bewitching his daughter, and airs his racism-based views.   He is not against the match because of any incompatibility of the couple  His metaphor of his grief as a flood, that "engluts and swallows other sorrows, and is still itself," means that he feels very strongly on this issue.  His strong objection foreshadows a confrontation between him and his daughter  If Desdemona does choose to stay with Othello, it seems likely that she will risk her father's love.
  • 23. Analysis: Desdemona   In this scene Desdemona both reinforces and breaks the stereo type of women at the time  First she demonstrates she can not be trusted – her father warns Othello about this later  She then supports her “master” – her husband as her mother supported her father  She requests to go to Cypress with Othello  It was very unusual for women to accompany their husbands during a war  Othello states, “she wished/ That heaven had made her such a man.”
  • 24. Analysis: Tragedy  Othello's appointment to Cyprus marks the true beginning of his tragedy   He will be much more vulnerable to Iago's vicious attacks on his love and jealousy.  This battle between order and chaos is a theme running throughout the play  As Othello sinks deeper into distrust of Desdemona and is more consumed by his jealousy, chaos increases and threatens to devour him.
  • 25. Analysis: Verse vs. Couple  The Duke's words of advice to the couple also mark the beginning of their tragic story  The Duke foretells trouble between the couple if  they do not let grievances go, which ends up being a reason for Othello's fall.  The change of the verse into couplets signals the importance of the advice being offered.  The words of the Duke, and Brabantio's words that follow, are set off from the rest of the text and emphasized by this technique  The reader is notified, through the couplet rhyme, which hasn't appeared before in the text, that these are words that must be marked.
  • 26. Analysis: Othello’s Tragic Flaw  The only magic that Othello possesses is in his power of language.   His language shows his pride in his achievements  Othello portrays himself as a tested, honorable warrior, and indeed is such.  This view of himself will prove troublesome when he is hard pressed to recognize his jealousy and his lust  His inability to reconcile himself with these two aspects of his personality means that his doom is almost certain.  Othello's lack of self-knowledge means that he will be unable to stop himself once Iago begins to ignite his jealousy
  • 27. Analysis: Allusions  Othello's speech before the assembly shows what he believes Desdemona's love to be:   He thinks that Desdemona's affection is a form of hero-worship  She loves him for the stories he tells, and the things he has done.  He believes it is his allusions to strange peoples and places, like the "Anthropophagi," that fascinate her  Indeed, his powers of language successfully win the Duke over, and soften Brabantio's disapproval.
  • 28. Analysis: White and Black  Light and dark are again juxtaposed in the Duke's declaration to Brabantio, that:  "if virtue no delighted beauty lack/ your son-in-  law is far more fair than black."  Black is associated with sin, evil, and darkness;  These negative things are also associated to black people, merely because of the color of their skin.  The Duke's statement is ironic, since Othello is black, but truthful, because his soul is good and light.  Light/white/fairness all convey innocence, goodness, any symbol that is white has these qualities.  The juxtaposition of black and white, light and dark shows up again and again in the play, as the colors become symbolic within the story.
  • 29. Analysis: Origin of Chaos  "Our bodies are our gardens," Iago tells Roderigo  Iago is a very good judge of human nature, and easily  able to manipulate people in ways that will benefit him most  This cleverness also means that he is a source of wisdom in the play  Iago's metaphor is particularly applicable to many in this play, himself excluded; characters do have vices that they allow to grow in themselves  They also have aspects of themselves which balance these vices out.  Iago's knowledge of this allows him to do away with this balance and set chaos into motion
  • 30. Analysis: Cross Purposes  Iago's purpose becomes plain:  He sees that Othello and Desdemona's marriage is less than solid   He seeks to use his powers to break this marriage apart.  Iago is again "honest" about his intent, but only to a person whose involvement will help him greatly.  The words "honest" and "honesty" appear repeatedly in the play, and are usually used by Iago, or in reference to him  Ironically, Iago is the only person in the play whom Othello trusts to judge who is and is not honest