DyadicThe textbook translation of dyadic is: the individualized relationship between a leader and each follower in a work unit In turn, the dyadic theory: is an approach toleadership that attempts to explain why leaders vary their behaviour with different followersThis theory argues that there is not one leadership quality that will get the same reaction from every follower in the work unit.Instead, there is separate relationships between a leader and followers that will motivate different reactions to the leader, whether it be positive or negative or everything in between
Dyadic The dyadic approach has four stages of development:The Vertical Dyadic Linkage Theory (VDL) The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Team Building Systems and Network
Workplace WebThrow ball of yarn around the class until all participating students have a ‘corner’. When you catch the yarn, identify your position within the school. Pick a position to be eliminated, designated student will let go of their corner. Positions on either side of released yarn must also let go of their corner. What is the result of this chain reaction?
Vertical Dyadic Linkage TheoryA leader creates a one-on-one relationship with followersOften leads to: - In groups - Out groups
In Groups - Strong social ties - High mutual trust - Respect - Loyalty - Inﬂuence
Out Groups- Few or no social ties - Strictly work related- Task-centred
Delegation- To assign tasks and responsibility to accomplish objectives Delegating - Giving employees new tasks
Helium Stick Now it’s your turn to play ! Only the leader is allowed to speak and can administer one other person to talk at a time. Line up in two rows which face each other. Ask participants to point their index ﬁngers and hold their arms out. Lay the Helium Stick down on their ﬁngers. Get the group to adjust their ﬁnger heights until the Helium Stick is horizontal and everyones index ﬁngers are touching the stick.
Pros for Manager- more time for high-priority task- lessen work load- increased communication with employee
Pros for Employeetrains employeeimproves self-esteemincrease communication with manageropportunity to prove capability
LMX TheoryLeader - Member Exchange Theory The quality of exchange relationship between an employee and his/her superior.
LMX Theory High Quality Exchange • Better social support • More recourses • More guidance for Career DevelopmentLow QualityExchange • Less support • More formal supervision • Little or no involvement in decision making
LMX TheoryUnderlying Assumption • Leaders do not interact with everyone EQUALLY • Leads to different qualities of exchanges
LMX Theory Strong Social Ties (In group) • Receive higher performance ratingWeak Social Ties (Out group) • Provide higher positive feedback• Receive Lower (about the company) performance rating• Provide lesser positive feedback (about the company)
LMX TheorySocial Capital Follower(s) Leader(s) • are expected to • Have to pay attention work harder • be loyal • Remain responsive • have more admin to needs and feelings duties • Cannot resort to • This helps them get coercion ahead • Have to pursue and
LMX TheoryThree Stage Process to Developing Posi5ve LMX Rela5ons
Three Stage ProcessFirst Stage• Tes5ng (acceptable limits)• Impressions Management (Performance vs Impression driven)• Ingra5a5on (appear suppor5ve, apprecia5ve and respecBul)• Self Promo5on (eﬀort to appear competent and dependable)
Three Stage ProcessSecond Stage • Leader and Follower became acquainted (stage 1) • Reﬁning the roles • Perceived fairness of Leader (crucial)
Three Stage ProcessThird Stage • Only some relationships advance to this stage • Roles reach Maturity • Self-Interest turns into mutual commitment
Factors that Determine LMX Quality1. Followers attribution2. Leader-follower Perceptions of each other3. Situational factors
Effective leader-follower feedback - a feeling of significance - a sense of belonging
Limitations to LMX Theory Measurement – attitudes and perceptions Instrumentation ◦ A questionnaire filled out by followers (LMX-7) ◦ LMSX – asses different aspects of the LMX theory Perceived competence or behaviour of the other person ◦ Further research on instrumentation is needed
Bias in LMXEmployee career implications Followers win the liking of their leader ◦ Higher performance rating History of high performance rating Promotion
FollowershipFollowership refers to the behaviour of followers, that results from the leader-followerinﬂuence relationships.
Followershipnew trend shifting away from early theories that solely focused on leaders, now there is more attention given tofollowers and the leader-follower relationshipsfrom an early age we are taught to be leaders, not followers, but effective leadership requiresboth leaders and followerssocietal views on followers have contributed to our limited knowledge of followershipfollowers are often ignored in explaining organizational success or failureleadership is a correlation that is jointly produced by leaders and followers
Followership Leaders are just one part of the duality.Effective leadership requires effective followership no work unit or organization can be successful without sufﬁcient followers good followers who give input that inﬂuence managers are crucial to the success of any organization Without followers there are no leaders.
5 Types of FollowersAlienated Follower: is someone who is low on involvement, yet high on critical thinking. individual who feels mislead and unappreciated by his of her own organization of work completely capable but unwilling to participate in developing solutions to problems happy dwelling on the negative and ignoring the positives as far as organizational life goes
5 Types of Followers Conformist Follower: is someone who is high on involvement, yet low on critical thinking. Conformist’s are the people who always say yes in the organization but they carry out orders without considering the consequences ﬁrst. A conformist will do anything to avoid conﬂict.
5 Types of FollowersPassive Follower: is someone who is neither high on critical thinking nor involvement. looks to others to do all the thinking and does not get involved in any way also called the invisible follower need constant supervision never go beyond the job description They are often described as lazy, incompetent and unmotivated.
5 Types of Followers Effective Follower: is someone who is high on critical thinking and involvement. not afraid to take risks do not shy away from conﬂict have the courage to initiate change put themselves as risk of conﬂict even with their leaders to serve the best interest of the organization act very well in self managed teamsManagers best asset because they are reliable and competent.
5 Types of FollowersPragmatic Follower: exhibits a little of all four styles-depending on prevailed situation. tend to be “stuck in the middle” most of the time personality with both positive and negative sides Positive : when the group is going through desperate times, the pragmatic follower knows how to work the system to get things done Negative: this behaviour can be seen as adjusting to try and maximize self-interest
Adventure Race In the water section, teams will have to work TOGETHER to paddle a kayak across the lake. This will help build on both communication and teamworktechniques as they will be having to co-ordinate rowing patterns and constantly be working together. Additionally, the team-mate at the back will be blindfolded.
Adventure RaceWhen teams reach the other side of the lake: groups of 2 combine to make groups of 4. members previously blindfolded,blindfold unblinded members teams will race up a mountain while strapped together (Every other member being blindfolded)This is going to be a difﬁcult challenge asteammates will have to really rely on one anotherin order to get to the desired CHECKPOINTS.
Adventure Race There will be 3 checkpoints along the way:Blindfolded members may remove their blindfolds only at a checkpoint, to assist the otherteammates in completing the puzzle. The puzzles will require patience and communication.Teammates may decide to step up and become leader, this may cause tension within the group. Puzzles can become very frustrating and time consuming but will help build on their teamwork while under pressure. The first team to reach the finish line wins !!
Final CeremonyTo ﬁnish off the retreat there will be an awardceremony, recognizing the best teamwork,communication and trust exhibited throughout theentirety of the trip.