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Types of Power

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Types of Power

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Types of Power

  1. 1. Referent Power Chloe Aveyard
  2. 2. • Referent power is power of an individual over the Team or Followers, based on a high level of identification with, admiration of, or respect for the powerholder/ leader. • Nationalism, patriotism, celebrities, mass leaders and widely-respected people are examples of referent power in effect. • Referent power is one of the Five Bases of Social Power, as defined by Bertram Raven and his colleagues in 1959. • Definition: Referent power refers to the ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the follower's loyalty, respect, friendship, admiration, affection, or a desire to gain approval. • Referent power is gained by a leader who has strong interpersonal relationship skills. • Referent power, as an aspect of personal power, becomes particularly important as organizational leadership is increasingly about collaboration and influence rather than command and control.
  3. 3. Negatives • To be able to have this kind of leadership you need to be able to have a friendly yet business like relationship with your employers, so a Boss that doesn’t have that relationship wont be able to have a reference relationship with their employers.
  4. 4. Advantages • The advantages to reference power means that people want to follow you because they like a respect you. • It will show that you have a very loyal band of followers.
  5. 5. Examples • Stephen Fry Is a classic example he has a fan base of over 6.68Milion followers. These people respect him and want to find out what he’s doing. He has Power over his followers. • Lady gaga is also one she has 41.1 million followers on twitter ‘little monsters’
  6. 6. Business Example • A business man that has this kind of power is Nev Wilshire the welsh business man, he has a loyal band of followers within his company because of his amazing business skills But also his attitude towards his staff, his staff love and respect him, which also adds up to a happy • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xza0p28vC t4
  7. 7. Sources of Power: Coercive
  8. 8. Definition... Coercive power is based on the subordinates fear of the leader; maintained by the use of threats and punishment.
  9. 9. ... It’s often considered the most extreme form of autocratic leaders. Frequent use of reprimands and a hostile attitude, threatening subordinates with the loss of status, loss of employment or in extreme cases physical force. Staff are often scared of being shouted at or being sacked. This fear empowers the manager.
  10. 10. Advantages Disadvantages • Some (however few), can be motivated to work hard under these conditions. • If employees respond positively then the workforce can have a very positive, productive output. • Employees can be motivated to acquire similar levels of power. • Few people can handle it. Some will not tolerate it, leading to a high labour turnover • Subordinates feel isolated and unable to communicate any ideas. • Limited communication • No sense of positive motivation and reinforcement • Employees often don’t feel wanted or appreciated
  11. 11. Business Context A manager whose position is based on coercive power can often be effective on labour intensive environments, such as in factories or call centers, where the mundane nature of the job requires extreme motivation!
  12. 12. An example Although this may not be the case in the actual day to day business environment, on the television show ‘The Apprentice,’ Lord Alan Sugar has created an image based on coercive power. He uses a very aggressive tone and threatens candidates with the sack.
  13. 13. Legitimate power
  14. 14. Definition The sense of power based on law and other formal authority such as terms of reference for a specific role or position.
  15. 15. Legitimate power is power you derive from your formal position or office held in your organisation’s hierarchy of authority. For example, the leader of an organisation had certain powers because of the position they holds within the organisation.
  16. 16. Advantages and disadvantages Advantages - enables for a clear hierarchy/organisational structure so subordinates know exactly - can often increase leaders effectiveness, in the way of being a strong role model, a sense of trust and vision, strong moral code and high expectations which can create a very productive workforce - many people are used to accepting and using legitimate power Disadvantages - leaders can sometime abuse their powers, for example miss deadlines or tries to exercise their power over those whom they do not have legitimate power over - It does not alway result in effective and flexible organisations, it gives employees power because of their role, rather than because they have particular skills and talents.
  17. 17. Examples - when the CEO determines the overall direction of the business and the resources needed - when a senior pastor uses their legitimate power to cast vision, set the agenda and organise staff effectively - when an executive pastor sets deadlines for subordinates to submit annual goals - when a receptionist insists visitors check in before proceeding to the managers office
  18. 18. By Rupert Burnard
  19. 19.  Reward power is when someone is given an reward for good work. To motivated employees to work harder.
  20. 20.  Reward power is the power to give someone a reward. This could be because they have done a good job or all employees get a basic level of rewards. Rewards can be given in bonus or money off products that the business, that they work for make.
  21. 21.  Advantages: ◦ Promotes good behaviour ◦ Increases sales ◦ Promotes loyalty to the business they work for  Disadvantages: ◦ Rewards can loses value if the same reward is keep given out ◦ Some things which people may consider a reward others may not ◦ It also costs the business money as it pays for the rewards
  22. 22. Mole valley framers: • 20% discounted on mole valley products • Easy movement within the business • Work place pension • Respected pay
  23. 23. P O WE R EXPERT
  24. 24. EXPERT • a person who is very knowledgeable about or skilful in a particular area. • Expert power • Possession of particular expertise, skills and knowledge can give power. • personal expertise and knowledge
  25. 25. EXPERT POWER • Ability to influence other parties based on expertise and knowledge. Expert power in an organization is the ability to influence the behavior of others in the organization based solely on past experience and expertise in a specific area. Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition /expert-power.html#ixzz2wt9g57S4
  26. 26. ADVANTAGE • prevent other employees acquiring their particular knowledge and skills • Offer subordinates some elements of their particular knowledge and skills to gain their support and respect • Staff are more willing to accept instruction
  27. 27. DISADVANTAGE • Too bossy • overconfidence • if the expert's knowledge is shared, his power will probably diminish over time • if the expert does not share his knowledge, then the organization will not be as effective.
  28. 28. EXAMPLE -software engineer recently hired to lead the development of a new interactive 3-D action video game. great deal of experience and have developed some new techniques that will bring gaming up a notch. Your team, and even your direct supervisor, is in awe of your skills. They come to you for help in writing the programming code they have been assigned to compose. You teach them some of your techniques, and you become the go-to guy on the team and in the department. However, after about six months, almost all of your team members, and quite a view of the department members, have learned your tricks, and you are no longer sought out or listened to as much as you were before you shared your knowledge. You once were able to exert expert power, but that power has been severely diminished as you shared the knowledge.
  29. 29. VIDEO • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5thkrGlq-M0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9hUKxcPqHU

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