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Crime in South Africa (Low Bo Yang)


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Crime in South Africa (Low Bo Yang)

  1. 1. Africa Wu Po Jui Low Bo Yang Zhou Wen Tao Gao Yiming Du Han Yuan Goh Guan Xiong
  2. 2. Focus <ul><li>Focus: South Africa </li></ul>
  3. 3. Death penalty in South Africa
  4. 4. 3 Parts of History <ul><li>Time of Abuse (as in abuse of the death penalty) </li></ul><ul><li>Time of Restriction </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Abuse Time <ul><li>The history of death penalty started in 17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravated Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Kidnapping </li></ul><ul><li>Theft of Children </li></ul>
  6. 6. Background <ul><li>Carried out in public </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: decapitation or hanging. </li></ul><ul><li>Other means: being burnt to death (A.K.A Necklacing) etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Necklacing <ul><li>Necklacing is a kind of death penalty that was used by Africa as a form of execution </li></ul><ul><li>Kills by burning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Time of Abuse <ul><li>during 1840-1910 , the number of death penalty crime decreased. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of executions in South Africa at the time accounted for 47% of the world </li></ul>
  9. 9. Time of Restriction <ul><li>Death penalty was limited to 3 crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Treason during times of war </li></ul>
  10. 10. Abolition of death penalty <ul><li>Constitutional Court of South Africa studied the case of T.Makwanyane and M.Mchunu. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa, Congress repealed all provisions for death penalty . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Statistics
  12. 12. Graph
  13. 13. Statistics <ul><li>Expectations that violent crime would decrease after 1994 have not materialized </li></ul><ul><li>The annual increase in the overall number of recorded crimes was greater in 1999 than in any previous year after 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Violent crimes increased at a greater rate than the total over this period </li></ul><ul><li>According to the latest available statistics at the time of writing, levels of recorded crime continued to increase during much of the first half of 2000. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Graph
  15. 15. Statistics <ul><li>Crimes in 1999 is at all time high </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in the overall number of recorded crimes, including the number of violent crimes, was greater between 1998 and 1999 than in any previous year after 1994. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Statistics <ul><li>South Africa has had some of the highest crime rates in the world in the ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2006, 72% of South Africans want the death penalty back </li></ul>
  17. 17. Crimes punishable by DEATH
  18. 18. Crimes Punishable by Death <ul><li>in 1910, during British Colonization, there’s only one crime punishable by death – Murder </li></ul><ul><li>In 1948, the list grew bigger, and there are follows – aggravated robbery, burglary, sabotage, terrorism, and kidnapping </li></ul>
  19. 19. Case Study Death Penalty on Gays
  20. 20. Uganda <ul><li>In Uganda, homosexual people are being executed </li></ul><ul><li>Family members and friends who fail to report them to the authorities will face up to 7 years of jail </li></ul>
  21. 21. Video <ul><li>Uganda’s New Death Penalty Bill </li></ul>
  22. 22. Case Study Mengistu Haile Mariam
  23. 23. Case Study <ul><li>Mengistu Haile Mariam,71 </li></ul><ul><li>Army lieutenant colonel; </li></ul><ul><li>Former leader of Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>December 2006, he was </li></ul><ul><li>convicted of 211 counts of genocide, homicide, illegal imprisonment and illegal property seizure </li></ul><ul><li>Sentenced to death in absentia on genocide charges by the country's supreme court </li></ul>
  24. 24. Who? <ul><li>1806 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and &quot; . . . any offence, either at Common Law, or under any statute, or housebreaking, or attempted housebreaking with intent to commit an offence if aggravating circumstances are found to have been present.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Exceptions of the Death Penalty <ul><li>1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishments for Murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children under 16 y.o </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women who had murdered her newly born child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1935 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An amendment to the law in 1935 makes it possible for a jury or judge to find a person guilty of murder &quot; with extenuating circumstances,&quot; in which case the death penalty is not passed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More common law crimes are placed in the death penalty category </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Punishment Abolished </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Philosophy of Law
  27. 27. Law in South Africa <ul><li>Hybrid Legal System </li></ul><ul><li>Common Law system from the British </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Law system from the Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Law system from indigenous Africans </li></ul>
  28. 28. Law in South Africa <ul><li>Follow the English Law in the areas of Procedural Law, Company Law and the Law of Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the Dutch Civil Law in the areas of South African Law of Contract, Law of Delict, Law of Persons, Law of Things, Family Law </li></ul>
  29. 29. Court System in South Africa <ul><li>Court system Organized hierarchically </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest to highest legal authority </li></ul><ul><li>Magistrates’ Court </li></ul><ul><li>High Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court of appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Court </li></ul><ul><li>African Indigenous Court </li></ul>
  30. 30. Philosophy of Law <ul><li>Rehabilitation philosophy </li></ul>
  31. 31. Philosophy of Law <ul><li>No death penalty </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory sentences for violent crimes (imprisonment with counselling) </li></ul><ul><li>After 25 years of sentence, all prisoners will be considered for parole including those serving life sentences </li></ul>
  32. 32. Philosophy of Law <ul><li>All men deserve a chance to repent </li></ul><ul><li>Death penalty removes that chance </li></ul><ul><li>Death penalty – as a means of tool for the government </li></ul>
  33. 33. Classroom Discussion <ul><li>Was the abolition of the death penalty justified? </li></ul><ul><li>If you had a choice, would you bring back death penalty to South Africa? </li></ul>
  34. 34. THE END <ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>