Sc & the battles of the revolutionary war

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Sc & the battles of the revolutionary war

  1. 1. SC & THE BATTLES OFTHE REVOLUTIONARYWAR8-2.5—Summarize the role of South Carolinians inthe course of the American Revolution, includingthe use of partisan warfare & the battles ofCharleston, Camden, Cowpens, Kings Mountain, &Eutaw Springs
  2. 2. SC CONFLICTS THAT EFFECTED THE WAR American forces thwarted the British attempt thesplit the colonies & won the a victory at Saratoga,NY A turning point in the war for the Americans Victory resulted in an American alliance with France Afterward, the British turned to SC in hopes finding alarge number of Loyalists Video: Battle of Saratoga (9:55)
  3. 3. BATTLE OF CHARLESTON 1st British attempt to take Charlestonfailed due to tides & resistance fromthe palmetto log fort protecting theport (Fort Moultrie) 2nd attempt was successful after sieging for severaldays The British blockaded and cut off supply lines thatlead from Charleston Harbor Patriot troops who were trapped on the peninsulawere forced to surrendered in May 1780 Other Patriot soldiers surrenders and were paroled
  4. 4. BRITISH RESPONSE TO SC British hoped that they would gain control of thestate through large numbers of state Loyalists andthe neutral colonists to help win the war But, the British changed their parole terms andforced paroled Patriots to take up arms against theircountrymen At the same time, The British, along with AmericanTories, treated SC harshly: they burned churches,looted & confiscated homes, harassed and exiledcitizens This behavior turned South Carolinians against theBritish. Partisan bands were formed as a result.
  5. 5. Patriot partisansled by FrancisMarion, ThomasSumter, AndrewPickens, & WilliamHarden werefighting both theBritish regulartroops and theLoyalists forcesusing hit & runtactics all over thestate
  6. 6. BATTLE OF CAMDEN Major defeat for the Continental Army It signified that almost all of SC was controlled by theBritish The SC partisans were not prepared & turned and ranwhen faced with the regular British troops Resulted in Horatio Gate’s command of the southern armof the Continental Army be transferred to NathanielGreene Greene coordinated work withthe state’s partisans in order tofight a destructive war of attrition(“mobile war”) that wouldunbalance & eventually destroythe British war efforts
  7. 7. BATTLE OF KINGS MOUNTAINVideo (8:16)
  8. 8. BATTLE OF KINGS MOUNTAIN British & Loyalist forces had stopped on the top ofKings Mountain in a place they thought was safe toset up camp Mountain men from North and South Carolina werefed up with the harsh behavior of the Tories andBritish decided to put a stop to it The “Over Mountain Men” (Patriots) fought Guerillawarfare against the camp on Kings Mountain frombehind the same rocks and trees the British thoughtwere keeping them safe The British & Tories sustained heavy casualties
  9. 9. BATTLE OF KINGS MOUNTAIN The British tried to surrender, but were offered noquarter by the Patriots in retaliation of the harshtreatment the British had bestowed upon thePatriots throughout SC The Battle of Kings Mountain is considered aturning point in the Revolutionary War because theBritish forces began to retreat from the upcountry
  10. 10. Video 2:18
  11. 11. THE BATTLE OF COWPENS Showed a cooperation between the ContinentalArmy and the partisan forces Partisans had a reputation among the British forturning tail and running The American commander (Andrew Pickens)counted on this reputation for his battle plans Pickens led the attack and fled back into the field He tricked the British forces into thinking they wereretreating again Instead, the partisans lured the British forces intotheir guns, taking a victory! Resulting in the first time a British force of mostlyregular troops had been defeated by the Americans
  12. 12. THE BATTLE OF COWPENS Cornwallis and the British retreated to NorthCarolina to fight and wait for supplies Eventually they retreated back to Virginia leavingtheir remaining forces in the SC backcountry to beevacuated or reclaimed by the partisan forcesand/or Greene’s Continental Army that was pushingtoward the coast
  13. 13. COLONEL ISAAC HAYNE Partisan parolee Colonel IsaacHayne was captured nearCharleston in July 1781 The British used his punishmentas an example to help stem thePatriot advance They hanged him as a traitor ofthe British crown after only a brieftrial Nathaniel Greene issued aproclamation stated that he wouldretaliate against the British forces
  14. 14. BATTLE OF EUTAW SPRINGS After the Battle of Eutaw Springs, Greene had capturedenough British officers to ensure that no more Patriotexecutions would occur This battle was not one of the last 137 battles fought inSC, nor a technical victory( b/c of the unsoldierlyplundering behavior of the hungry and nearly nakedContinental soldiers) Irreplaceable British troop loses made this battlestrategically the major final battle in the beleagueredstate American contemporaries view this battle as a Pyrrhicvictory for the British b/c it marks the clearance of theBritish from the battleground state and region (except forfew enclaves near the coast that evacuated after peaceproceedings in 1782)
  15. 15. BATTLE OF EUTAW SPRINGS Americans viewed the battle as a victory b/c of itspositive tactical results This can be seen both in the striking of acommemorative medal and the commissioning of atribute door panel of the Capital building in the earlyyears of the new republic

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