Toyogakuen University                                                                                                     ...
Toyogakuen University               18                5        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M...
Toyogakuen University                        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End...
Toyogakuen University               10                6       Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M ...
Toyogakuen University                        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End...
Toyogakuen University              12               6        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M i...
Toyogakuen University                        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End...
Toyogakuen University              14               6        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M i...
Toyogakuen University                        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End...
Toyogakuen University              16               6        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M i...
Toyogakuen University                          Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the E...
Toyogakuen University              18               6        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M i...
Toyogakuen University                        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End...
Toyogakuen University               10                7         Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the ...
Toyogakuen University                        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End...
Toyogakuen University              12               7        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M i...
Toyogakuen University                        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End...
Toyogakuen University              14               7        Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M i...
Setting Up An Extensive Reading Course: The Beginning, the Middle, and the End.
Setting Up An Extensive Reading Course: The Beginning, the Middle, and the End.
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Setting Up An Extensive Reading Course: The Beginning, the Middle, and the End.

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This article provides an outline of an extensive reading elective reading course for
second year students at Toyo Gakuen University.It describes the decisions that were made when designing the course,the in-class activities that helped foster learner confidence and motivation,and the evaluation of the course from the perspectives of both the students and the teacher.

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Bulletin of Toyo Gakuen University
東洋学園大学紀要 17 pp.157-176

Published in: Education, Technology
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Setting Up An Extensive Reading Course: The Beginning, the Middle, and the End.

  1. 1. Toyogakuen University 17 5 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course: The Beginning, the Middle, and the End Andre BOON w Abstract This artic provide an outline of an e le s xtensive reading elective reading course for second y ar stude at Toy Gakuen University describes the decisions that were made e nts o .It whe de n signing the course,the in- class activities that helped foster learner confidence and motivation,and the evaluation of the course from the perspectives of both the stude and nts the teache . r 1. Introduction Extensive Reading (ER)aims at building learner fluenc and motivation f reading so that y or students may e ntually be ome compe ve c tent, enthusiastic and indepe , ndent readers of the L2 In . an ER program, learne are e rs ncourage to re as muc as possible and as quic d ad h kly as possible from a range of materials within the spe ifi language level f inf ir c c or ormation or entertainment, general understanding of the text, and f pleasure Through exposure to large quantities of or . comprehensible text, ER can he le lp arners to develop automatic recognition of lexical items, increase their lexical knowledge, inc ase the f re ir ormal and content schemata, and also, provide them with initial and ongoing opportunitie to e rienc succ ss in and deve s xpe e e lop more positive attitudes towards L2 reading (Day& Bamford,1998;Grabe 991) ,1 .This artic provides an outline le of an ER e tive c lec ourse f se or cond y ar students at Toy Gakuen Unive e o rsity It de ribes the . sc decisions that were made by the te her while designing the course the in-lass activities that ac , c helped foste learne c de e and motivation, and the e r r onfi nc valuation of the course from the perspectives of both the students and the te he Just like a story ac r. ,the ER course has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Le me be t gin. 2 The beginning . 2.1 Introducing ER to the students As Japane stude se nts may be unfamiliar with ER having usually expe nced intensive rie reading or grammar- translation reading programs, it is important to begin the fi lesson by rst NII-Electronic Library Service
  2. 2. Toyogakuen University 18 5 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , orienting the learners of the course to the maj diff or erenc be es twe ER and the more traditional en approache to the te hing of L2 re s ac ading. To do this, Welc ( h 1997)suggests building up a chart on the chalkboard to contrast the ty al goals of an intensive c pic ourse with an ER course in order to help: students come to understand that the class will be conducted differently from the othe ir r reading classes (but)will he the de lp m velop into more fluent f ign language re ore aders (p.53 . ) Adapting this ide I cre d a Powe a, ate rPoint slide show to bring to students attention the main diff nces of ER and inte ere nsive reading.In slide one,students we aske what e re d xtensive reading is to help me disc r whe ove ther anyone in the class had any previous knowledge or e rience of xpe ER. As expecte although having had prior ac ss to a course sy d, ce llabus and having had decided to selec the c t ourse the students who atte d knew ve little if not any , nde ry thing about ER. In the next two slides,to build understanding,students we shown dic re tionary definitions of the lexical items intensive and extensive . In slide four, I tried to elicit from students the diff rent e purpose of an intensive reading and ER c s ourse;the forme being to f r ocus on formal language study and the latte to f , r ocus on ge ral text unde ne rstanding and e oy nt. The ne slide nj me xt contrasted the diff nc in the leve of reading mate ere e l rial of the two courses with intensive reading often involving the use of texts that have be written f native speakers while ER courses te en or nd to use graded readers. In slide six, students we asked about the amount of te re xts they would expe to read in both courses. From the earlie dic ct r tionary definitions, students we able to re determine that in intensive reading courses learne f rs ocus on one or two books while in ER course they re many Slide se n introduced stude s ad . ve nts to the spee of re d ading to be expec d te in an ER course. Whe as in intensive reading classe students may read slowly translating or re s , looking up unknown le al ite as the go,ER is conc xic ms y erned with students reading texts quickly and fluently The fi slide introduc d students to the class goal f the course ( e fi . nal e or Se gure 2.1. 1). How many books can we read? 1? 2? 10? 15? 20? More than 2 ? 0 As a class ― 4 books in one semeste 00 r! Figure 2 .1 .1 :PowerPoint Slide 8 ― Setting the class goal NII-Electronic Library Service
  3. 3. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 19 5 As I clicked on the mouse to reveal e h of the fi ac gures one by one on the sc n, I e ree licited responses of more from the students until we re hed the fi ac gure of 20.With 20 students having registered f the c or ourse I set a re , alistic target of requiring e h student to re 20 grade ac ad d readers thus creating an e of se ste group goal of 4 0 books in total. This class goal could nd me r 0 then be use throughout the seme r as a critic motivating tool ( d ste al Boon,20 7 41)helping to 0 ,p. focus the ER group s attentions, e orts, and pe ff rsistence on its successf attainme by the ul nt completion of the course. Throughout the PowerPoint slide show, students were aske to write d down the information regarding the obj c e tives and methodology of the ER course on a separate handout I provide ( e fi d Se gure 2.1 ) .2 . What is e nsive reading? xte 1. Purpose: 2. Le l: ve 3. Amount: 4. Spe d: e 5. How many books c y re in one se ster? an ou ad me Figure 2.1 :Exce .2 rpt from lesson one handout Students then had a writte re n cord whic they could ref bac to at any time during the c h er k ourse. 2.2 Introducing students to graded re rs ade Af orienting students to the princ ter iple of ER,I passe around a numbe of graded re s d r aders that I had borrowe f d rom the university library or rec ived as sample c e opie in order to f s amiliar- ize students with the various le ls,publishe ve rs,and types of books available.Then,at the e of nd the fi lesson, I took the stude rst nts to the university library in orde to show the where r m additional graded reading materials f the course could be located, if ne ded. or e 2.3 Introducing students to book swap Unlike normal English e c le tive courses which of n re te quire students to purchase one set coursebook f the c or lass, the ER course involves establishing a substantial library of material. From this, students c c an hoose what the would like to re f y ad rom a range of diff rent books. e However, with only a limite supply of graded readers in the university library and no spe c d cifi budget available,buying materials f the exclusive use and convenient ac ess of the stude of or c nts the ER class throughout the duration of the course appeared problematic at fi Howeve rst. r,Day and Bamford ( 998)sugge asking: 1 st NII-Electronic Library Service
  4. 4. Toyogakuen University 10 6 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , students to contribute the cost of one or two books.. return f this individual outlay the .in or , students are able to read a whole library of books ( 10 . p. 8) Taking this ide on board, at the end of the fi lesson, I e a rst xplained to students that the would y each pay f one grade re r to he e or d ade lp stablish a class library and aske them to bring 75 y n d 0 e along to the ne c xt lass. I told the that f this small, one- pay nt, the would have the m or off me y opportunity to read not one but many books.Betwe lessons one and two,I went to a bookstore en to obtain the class re rs and by purc ade hasing graded re rs in spec disc ade ial ount packs,I was able to re e the ove duc rall c f e h student to 500 y n.At the beginning of lesson two,I spread the ost or ac e readers out on a table at the bac of the classroom and asked eac student to browse through the k h books and choose one the c .I n olle ted the mone f c y rom eac stude recording the name and the h nt ir title of the book the had chose and c c y n he king offtheir pay nt on a f me orm I had created to act as a re eipt ( e fi c Se gure 2.3.1 . ) NAM E: BOOK TITLE: PAID: Ke i Suzuki nj Escape Figure 2 .1: Example of receipt of stude pay .3 nt ment I then explaine the book swap rules to the class and provided stude d nts with writte instruc- n tions on a handout ( e fi Se gure 2 .2 .First,I asked students to write the names on the inside of .3 ) ir the front cover of the graded re r the had sele ade y cted.I told them that af r reading the book and te completing their book report ( e fi Se gure 2 .1 ,the we to return the re .4 ) y re ader to me eithe in class r time or at my offic ,c e hoose anothe book f r rom the ER class library,and write the name unde ir s r the name of the pre s vious stude who had read the book.In this way nts ,the grade re rs would d ade be in constant circulation amongst the course members and also,the would be a writte rec re n ord of which students had re whic books.To e ad h nsure that the we alway e re re s nough ne books in w the class library f stude or nts who we re re ading at a quicker pace or f those students who or occasionally forgot to bring the books to c ir lass, I purchased 3 graded readers f a class of 2 0 or 0 students. The cost of the additional 1 re rs c 0 ade ame out of my university research allowance. Finally I advise stude , d nts to borrow graded readers from the university library in orde to r supplement the book swap sy m f times when they had fi ste or nishe re d ading books but could not get acce to the ER class library to swap their reade ( . we ss rs e g. ekends, holiday the teac r is s, he in a class or meeting). NII-Electronic Library Service
  5. 5. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 11 6 BOOK SWAP RULES 1 Write y . our name in the front c r. ove 2 Read the book in c . lass and at home. 3.Whe y fi n ou nish reading,write a book report about the grade reader in y d our B5 notebook. 4 Whe y fi . n ou nish the book report, hand the graded reade back to Andy r . 5 Pick up anothe reade f . r r rom Andy and write your name in the front c r ove unde the name of the othe stude r r nts who have read the book and repeat stages 2 5 -. IF YOU LOSE YOUR READER, YOU WILL HAVE TO BUY ANOTHER ONE TO REPLACE IT OTHERWISE YOU WILL BE OUT OF THE BOOK SWAP Figure 2 .2 Exc rpt from le .3 : e sson two handout 2.4 Introducing students to book reports As a substantial part of the ER course assessme students we instruc d to write brie nt, re te f book reports f e h grade re r the read in a B5 notebook to be submitted at the e of the or ac d ade y nd course.In lesson two,I provided stude with a sample book re nts port form and the e n xplaine how d to complete each se tion. Adapted f c rom Schmidt ( 0 , the report ( 20 4) See figure 2 4. raise . 1) s students awareness of the diff nt le ls of re ere ve aders whic of varyf h ten rom publisher to publisher ( . 1:Reading leve / Publishe . It also provides the opportunity f stude Figure 2 4. l r) or nts to demon- strate that the have re and unde y ad rstood each book by summarizing the story (Figure 2. 1: 4. Question 1 . Que ) stion 2 is the heart of the report (Schmidt,20 ,p.1 8)and allows stude 04 3 nts to re ect more de ply on the reading experie e through giving opinions of eac book or making fl e ir nc h connections from each story to their own individual live The report also give students the s. s chance to re e t on the le flc vel of the reade and thus guide them in the ne sele r ir xt ction from the ER class library(Figure 2 .1 .4 :Part 4 .Que ) stion 5 provides students with the option of making any additional comments they f may be use ul or rele eel f vant or to re ord new vocabulary encounte c r- ed. Finally part 6 allows stude , nts to track the progre ir ss. Af introducing students to the book re ter port task, they we then give class time to re re n ad quietly and to comple the fi report by copy te ir rst ing the form into the fi page of the B5 rst ir NII-Electronic Library Service
  6. 6. Toyogakuen University 12 6 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , BOOK REPORT Date: Title: Reading level: Author: Publisher: 1 Summarize the book in 1 2 sentence What is it about?What happe . - s. ns? 2 Write 3 4 se nc about y . - nte es our response to the book. For example, how did y like it?Why did ou /didn t y like it?What expe ou rience does it remind y s ou of? 3 Book rating: . Gre ..Good... at... ..Okay..Not so good... ... ..Bad 4 This book was: . Too e ... a good level... asy..At ..Too difficult 5 Any othe c . r omments?For example, questions, comments, ne voc w abulary. 6 I have re . ad books so f this se ar mester. Figure 2.4.1:Book report form notebooks and filling in the se tions.As students were engaged in this activity disc c ,I overe there d was some unc rtainty about how to c e omple eac se te h ction of the book report.I therefore quickly modeled the exerc my lf byre ise se ading a graded reader,completing a report,and then photocopy- ing it f eac stude to take away f or h nt rom the class. Students were then able to make use of the example I had cre d in class as a guide when writing the own book reports. ate ir 2.5 Establishing class routine ( ) Sustained silent re s 1: ading One of the ke princ y iples of ER is f stude or nts to be provide with a set pe d riod of class time to read individually and silently.Sustaine sile reading ( d nt SSR)provide the opportunityf class s or members to f us c oc ompletely on the task of reading;of making sense of the incoming data, the lexic ite al ms, the grammar, the rhetoric organization, and c al ohesive relations in the text, mapping this against the own expe nc and background knowledge of the world whilst ir rie es working to achie a c rent and pe ve ohe rsonal interpretation of what the te means to the xt m.From an outside s pe r rspective looking in,it mayappe that students are me ar relyreading and that little NII-Electronic Library Service
  7. 7. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 13 6 language learning and instruction is taking place On the c . ontrary through the proc , ess of SSR, students are making initial c ial ste to bec ruc ps oming fluent and inde nde reade of the L2.As pe nt rs Grabe ( 991)argues: 1 Sustained sile re nt ading should be encourage to build fl d uenc automaticity ,confi y( ) dence,and appreciation of reading.. .longer concentrate pe d riods of silent reading (are ne d) ede .Students learn to re by reading ( 396 . ad p. ) Starting in lesson two and continuing throughout the ER course I provide stude with 3 , d nt 0 minutes of SSR e ry le ve sson.This regular period of class time helpe to transf d orm the classroom environment into a place of uninterrupted and f used activity Each week, whe I gave the oc . n instruction, the students took the re rs f ir ade rom the bags, ope d the and spent the allotte ir ne m d time reading,writing book reports,asking me text- related questions,or swapping books the had y finishe with ne ones f d w rom the ER class library During this time I c . , ould demonstrate to the class the importance I plac on re e ading, ER and SSR by joining in with the busy community of silent readers and reading the graded reade as well. In order to e rs ngage in the dual role of ER class participant and teacher,I re grade re ad d aders whilst walking around the class,monitoring students,and stopping to answe que r stions when asked.Not only was this a valuable opportunity as teacher to ac as a highly visible role model of a re r f students ( t ade or Day& Bamford,1998, p.8),but by be oming f c amiliar with each book in the ER class library c ,I ould e ourage students nc motivation f reading by making comme or nts on and giving advice about the ne se tion of ir xt lec graded reader during the book swap. For example: Oh! That b o s go ok od. It s a true s . tory Have y u trie this o ? It s a b like Pris n Bre . o d ne it o ak Oh! I j t re d tha o . It has a re us a t ne d nding ― v ry f ally goo e e unny! 2.6 Establishing class routine ( ) Progre re s 2: ss ports Goal- setting c have a signifi ant eff ct on stimulating L2 motivation.A goal c establish an c e an a standard by whic an individual c e h an valuate his or he behavior whilst working towards its r attainment and f us the individual to work hard and ke at a certain activity until it has bee oc ep n accomplished (Boon, 2 7 Dorny i, 200 ; Oxf 00 ; e 1 ord & Shearin, 1994) In this respe t, to help . c NII-Electronic Library Service
  8. 8. Toyogakuen University 14 6 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , generate initial learne motivation f r rom lesson one I se the ER group an individual goal of , t reading 20 grade re d aders and a group goal of reaching 40 graded readers in total ( 0 See figure 2.1.1 . From le ) sson four, I then introduce a warm- ac d up tivity which was repeate at the d beginning of e ry subse ve quent ER class: Ste 1:Group the stude p nts in fours and give one student a piece of chalk. Ste 2:Write on the board ― How many b s ha y re d s f p ook ve ou a o ar? Ste 3:Instruc student 1 to ask the que p t stion to student 2 and to write his or her answe on r the chalkboard. Stude 2 the asks the que nt n stion to stude 3 and writes his or he nt r answe on the chalkboard. Stude 3 asks the que r nt stion to stude 4 and writes his or nt he answe on the c r r halkboard. Finally student 4 asks the que , stion to stude 1 and nt write his or he answe on the chalkboard. s r r Ste 4:Add up all of the numbe and write the class total on the board. p rs Ste 5:Provide f e p e dbac on stude k nts current progre towards the class goal. ss Ste 6:Give stude p nts the lesson handout and ask the to rec m ord the class total in section 1. The aim of the progre report ac ss tivity was to provide weekly opportunities f both students or and te her to re ec on the group s c ac fl t urrent progre towards the fi goal,to encourage f ss nal eelings of individual importance and responsibility amongst group members f he or lping to increase the class total and to ge the numbe e r ne r to the goal ( t r ve are Boon, 2007 , and to help maintain the ) motivation of the group through positive words of encourageme f nt rom the teac r ( p 5) he Ste .Each lesson handout also included a spac f students to re e or cord the class total so that they had a writte re n cord of the ER group s progression to take away from the class (see figure 2 ) .6.1 . 1 Progre Report: . ss So f the exte ar, nsive reading class has read books! Figure 2 .1 Exce .6 : rpt from lesson four to twelve handouts NII-Electronic Library Service
  9. 9. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 15 6 3 The middle . 3.1 Getting students talking about the grade re rs d ade Once the class routine of progress reports,sustaine sile reading,and writing book reports d nt had been established, I began to introduce post- reading activitie in which stude s nts could talk together about the grade re rs in the ER c d ade lass library.In lesson four,students we provide re d with a handout of a sample dialogue in which two people discuss a graded reader (See figure 3. 1.1).Students re through the dialogue in pairs and the used it to structure their own conve ad n rsa- tions by replacing the italicize parts of the dialogue with the own response about the books d ir s they had been reading in the SSR period. In lesson fi , students were given a list of additional ve questions,and active listening phrase See fi s( gure 3.1.2)that could be use when discussing books. d Students were the plac d in rotating pairs to practice talking about the graded readers. n e ir The post- reading activitie se s rved a numbe of important pedagogic purposes. First, the r y provided students with the opportunity to improve oral fluency as we as reading fl ll uency during the course.Second,bymonitoring pair work discussions,theygave the teacher an indire t method c of checking how muc re h ading students had done during SSR and how much understanding was taking place during the reading proc ss. Third, the helped turn the individual solitary ac of e y t reading into a community event (Day & Bamford, 1998, p. 14 ac 1)f ilitating group cohesion and motivation by stude c nts oming togethe to share the pe r ir rsonal reading experiences.Finally,they helped to prepare stude f the mid- mester assesse task ( sson six)in whic stude were nts or se d le h nts asked to discuss with a partne one of the graded readers the had re r y ad. NII-Electronic Library Service
  10. 10. Toyogakuen University 16 6 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , Task 2:Talking about books Prac e the dialogue in pairs: tic A] He !What book did y re y ou ad? B] I read Alic in Mos ow . e c A] Oh really?What kind of story was it? B] It was a lo e story v . A] I se What was it about? e. B] We it was about a da e c d Alic w w nt to Mos o to do a ll, nc r alle e ho e cw show She me a guy c lle Nik lai a he inv d he o a p nic He . t a d o nd ite r n ic . f ll in lo e w Alic b s had to go b k to England. e v ith e ut he ac A] Right. What happened at the end? B]Nik la w nt to the a o as Alic w le ving a o i e irp rt e as a nd ga he his ve r addre s s .The p mis d to me t in Engla y ro e e nd. A] Romantic ending, y a Who we the main characte e h! re rs? B]We Alic a ll, e nd Nik i re ola ally. A] What did y think of Nik la ou o i? B]He w v ry b e to a k Alic o a date He s e d a nic p rs as e rav s e n . e me e e on. A] Did y like the book? ou B]Ye h. It w s t b d. I like the re tions a an a d la hip b tw e Alic and Nikola e en e i b I w uld lik to k ut o e now mo abo w t ha ns to the ne t. re ut ha ppe m x A] You me n w n he ge to Engla a he ts nd, right? B]Ye h, I w nt to kno w the the re tions a a w he r ir la hip w las or no ill t t. How about you?What book did y read? ou Task 3-In pairs,talk about the book y have re ou ad.Use the dialogue above to help you Figure 3 .1 Exc rpt from lesson four handout .1 : e REACTIONS: QUESTIONS: Right. 1 Whtat did y read? ] ou Uh huh. 2 Whe does the story take plac ? ] re e Oh really? 3 Who are the Characte ] rs? I se . e 4 What is ] [name]like? Wow! 5 What happe d? ] ne Oh no! 6 Did y like it? ] ou Too bad! 7 Have y e ] ou xperienc any ed thing similar in your lif ? e How inte sting! re 8 So, what did y learn f ] ou rom the story? Wow!So romantic! Figure 3.1 :Exce .2 rpt from lesson fi handout ve NII-Electronic Library Service
  11. 11. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 17 6 3.2 The mid- me r asse se ste ssed task In lesson six, students we asse d on their ability to ask and answe que re sse r stions, share information, and ke p a c e onversation going on a graded re r they had read. Af r completing ade te progress reports ( e 2 6 , I gave the group the rest of the class time to do SSR. While students Se . ) were engaged in reading, I dre two random names f w rom a hat and asked these students to sit at a table at the front of the class to do an eight- minute timed assessed conversation ( our minute f s per grade reade . The proc d r) ess was the repe d until all stude n ate nts had undergone the assess- ment task. 3.3 Preparing students for poster presentations In lesson seven,I introduc d students to the e of semeste asse e nd- - r ssed task in whic students h were to give a short fi - ve minute individual poste presentation on one of the grade reade the r d rs y had read ( diff nt re r to the one the had discussed in the mid- a ere ade y semester assessed task). Students were provide a handout and were asked to matc prese d h ntation phrases to their functions ( e fi Se gure 3 .1 . In le .3 ) sson eight, students listened to an M P3 recording of a presenta- tion I create based on my reading of a grade reade that was not part of the ER c d d r lass library se tion.This mate lec rial provide the stude with an e d nts xample of a presentation with a four- part structure in whic the pre nter talke about the characters,the story h se d ,the ending,and whyhe had liked the story.Whilst listening,students completed a gapped handout and answere compre n- d he sion questions ( e fi Se gure 3 .2 . At the e of the le .3 ) nd sson, I then uploaded the M P3 fi to the le course lecture folde f students to download and liste to on their M P3 play outside of the r or n ers class. Finally in lessons nine to twe , stude , lve nts we provided with class time to prepare and re practic the pre ntations and were given advice on designing posters that would act as both a e ir se visual support f the audie e and as a crib she t f the prese rs during their 5 minute talks. or nc e or nte - NII-Electronic Library Service
  12. 12. Toyogakuen University 18 6 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , Look at the following f tions f giving presentations and match phrases to unc or each different number: 1 We ome introduce y . lc , ourse and outline y lf our presentation 2 Introduc the fi subj c of y . e rst et our presentation 3 Start othe subj ts of y . r ec our presentation 4 Give example . s 5 Summarize and c lude . onc 6 Thank y . our audience 7 Invite que . stions from the audience a] To c lude.. / In c lusion.. / To sum up.. onc .. onc .. .. b] For e ../ xample .. A good example of this is.. .. c Do y have any questions?/Now I ll try to answe any que ] ou r stions y may ou have. d] Now I ll move on to.. / Now, le s turn to.. / Let s look now at.. .. t .. .. ] e To start with, I ll.. The I ll.. Af that, I ll..Finally I ll.. .. n, .. ter .. , .. f Good Af rnoon.M y name is Andy Boon and today I m going to talk about/ ] te discuss.. .. g] Many thanks f y or our attention. h] Ok, I d like to start by.. / Ok, fi of all, let s look at.. .. rst .. Figure 3 .1 Exce .3 : rpt from lesson seven handout 4 The e . nd 4.1 The end- se ste asse d task of- me r sse In the fi lesson of the se ste ( sson 1 ) I arrive to class early in orde to rearrange nal me r le 3, d r the furniture. All the desks we pushed to one side and the chairs were grouped into twos or re three in f s ront of the large chalkboard and small whiteboard in the ER classroom. As students arrived,I aske the to submit the fi book re d m ir nal ports ( e 2. .Stude were the divided into Se 4) nts n presente ( chose around 6 7 stude rs I - nts to give the fi pre rst sentations)or audience membe ( rs the remainder of the class) provide each prese r with a designated spac and number f his or .I d nte e or her pre ntation and blu- k to stick his or her poster to the c se tac halkboard or whiteboard.Audie e nc members were then assigne se d ats by presentation number. Presente we instructe to start rs re d presenting to the audie ir nce of two or thre students and encourage to invite questions f e d rom them at the e of the talks.Af r fi minutes had e nd ir te ve lapsed,the presentations we stopped and re audienc members were aske to move to the next pre e d sentation ( e audie e me i. . nc mbers of presentation #1 move to pre ntation #2 and so on) The fi pre d se . rst sente then repeated their rs presentations three more times with audie e members be nc ing rotate on each diff nt occasion. d ere NII-Electronic Library Service
  13. 13. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 19 6 A] Liste to part 1 of the pre ntation and fi in the blanks. n se ll Okay Go Morning. My na . od me is and today I m going to talk about . To s rt w ta ith, I ll talk about The I ll ta a o n, lk b ut , af r that, I ll ta abo te lk ut and fi lly I ll ta a o na , lk b ut . B] Liste to part 2 of the prese n ntation and answer the questions. Okay I d lik to s rt b ta . e ta y lking a ut bo . The a re re main c ra te ha c rs. Who are the characte and what do y he about the rs ou ar m? Character 1 Character 2 Character 3 C] Liste to part 3 of the pre ntation and answer the que n se stions. Now le s turn to t . ] 1 What doe Andre want Sally to we s w ar? ] 2 What doe Sally buy s ? ] 3 Whe doe she go ne re s xt? ] 4 What happens in the coff e shop? e D] Liste to part 4 of the pre ntation and answer the que n se stions. ] 1 What happens whe Andre calls Sally n w ? ] 2 What happens whe Pauls Mum calls Paul? n ] 3 What do Paul and Sally decide to do? E] Liste to part 5 of the prese n ntation and answer the questions. Okay No I d lik to turn to . w e . ] 1 Whe do Paul and Sally mee re t? ] 2 What do they realize? ] 3 What happens whe Andre calls Sally n w ? ] 4 What happens at the end? F] Liste to part 6 of the pre ntation and answer the que n se stions. To c nc o lude my p s nta re e tion, I ll talk about ] 1 Why doe Andy like the book? s Tha y u v ry muc f r lis ning. Do y u have a que tio ? nk o e h o te o ny s ns Figure 3 .2 Exce .3 : rpt from lesson eight handout NII-Electronic Library Service
  14. 14. Toyogakuen University 10 7 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , The rationale of having students pre nt f se our times in total was three old.Firstly allowe me f ,it d enough time to walk around, observe and assess e , ach individual presentation. Se ondly it gave c , students the opportunity to gain in c de e through repeate perf onfi nc d ormanc of the same prese e n- tation material. Finally stude , nts we able to learn f re rom each othe by see r ing and listening to a selection of the pre ntations.Once fi se nishe the fi set of pre d, rst sente took down their posters rs and switched roles with membe of the audie e ( or seven of the re rs nc six maining students y t to e present).The proce was the repe d until all members of the c ss n ate lass had delivered the poste ir r presentations. 4.2 Course evaluation: A note on proc dure e In lesson 1 , I aske stude 2 d nts to comple a c te ourse feedbac f k orm in order to obtain their evaluation of the fi se ste ER c rst me r ourse and to determine what modifi ations we ne c re eded for the second semester.To ensure longe and more insightf answe r ul rs,I asked students to complete the form in Japane and then had the response translated later into English. I was able to se ir s collect information from 1 out of the 2 students who had registere f the course as f 6 0 d or our students were absent on the day. 4.3 Course evaluation: Stude re nt sponses Students state that the c d ourse had off red the eithe their fi experie e m r rst nce or rene d we opportunities to read books in English.The f y ound the class to be enj able and we pleased that oy re it off d them the c ere hanc to work on other areas of English study suc as speaking, grammar, e h listening, and writing as well as reading. Several students indicate that as the c d lass was quiet when reading, it promoted a positive and comfortable learning environment. Half of the stude re nts sponde to this question with the answe nothing. However,several d r, students remarke on the difficulty of writing the book re d ports, the require amount of reading, d and difficulties proc ssing unknown le al ite in some of the grade readers as being problem- e xic ms d atic aspe of the course One stude indicate being uncomf cts . nt d ortable with speaking in the class whereas anothe stude wished group membe had contribute more to class disc r nt rs d ussions rather than being retic nt. Another student wrote that she wanted the teac r to use more of the L1 in e he the class. NII-Electronic Library Service
  15. 15. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 11 7 Students gave the book swap sy m an ave ste rage score of 4. M ost students commented that they liked the book swap as it provide the with easy ac e to many diff d m c ss erent books at a low price and facilitated the ac ve ir hie ment of the class goal of reading 2 grade readers.One student 0 d mentioned that it made him f e c e l ompetitive and that without it, he may not have re as many ad books as he did.Anothe student e oy fi r nj ed nding out who e in the ER class had re the books lse ad by reading the name of stude s nts in the inside front c r of e h particular grade re ove ac d ader ( e Se 2. )bef 3 ore adding he own name to the list.Howe r,one stude stated that the sy m did not r ve nt ste work f he as she ne d to suppleme her reading by borrowing books f or r ede nt rom the library. Another stude only sc nt ored the book swap with a 2 as he wishe f a better se tion of books d or lec in the ER class library. Sustained sile reading as a wee nt kly class activity sc d an average of 4 3 Nearly all ore .. students stated that the advantage of SSR was the quie c t lassroom environment whic helpe h d them to f us wholly on the task of re oc ading. One student commented that as SSR became an establishe part of the ER c d lass routine that re , ading became a conditioned response f he or r. Normally easily distrac d in class, once the instruction was given to start SSR, the student te opened her book and just got on with the task at hand. Finally one student who score silent , d reading with a relative low sc ly ore of 3 , may have at least take away f n rom the class an understanding of the pedagogic importance of SSR as he took the opportunity in the f al eedback form to write an apology to the te he f having of n talke to other classmates during the ac r or te d SSR periods. NII-Electronic Library Service
  16. 16. Toyogakuen University 12 7 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , The book report assessme task scored an average of 3 9. Although most students nt . acknowle d the diffic dge ulty of writing 2 book re 0 ports in English, some students state that the d reports were fun to write good prac e f improving writing skills, and gave the the , tic or m opportunity to expre the opinions about the books they had read.One student mentioned that ss ir it was difficult f he at fi to be able to c or r rst onstruct sente es to summarize and provide opinions, nc but the task got easie f he throughout the semeste Finally one stude suggeste re ing r or r r. , nt d duc the workload from 2 to 1 books. 0 5 Students gave the mid- rm oral te and e of seme r poster se te st nd- - ste ssions an average score of 3. .Most stude state that spe 2 nts d aking in English about the books was difficult and that they had been nervous during the tests. In fact, se ral students wrote that the had not prepare f the ve y d or fi oral test but the late re tte this. On the other hand, 5 students believe that the tests rst n r gre d d were a good ide and had given the the opportunityto tryto output to the pe the knowledge a m ir ers they had acquire through re d ading. Students evaluated the te hing of the ER class with an average score of 4. ac 6.Students stated that lessons we intere re sting and e oy nj able The also commented that the teacher had shown a . y great de of e al nthusiasm throughout the course and had provided information and explanations that were easy to understand. NII-Electronic Library Service
  17. 17. Toyogakuen University Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , 13 7 Students evaluated the own pe ormance during the ER course with an average sc ir rf ore of 2. 9.Several stude indicated a pe ive lack of voc nts rce d abulary as having created difficulty f them or during the various reading,writing,and speaking activities.One student scored herself a 2 as she had bee c n onsistently late f c or lass. / 13 students answered that the re ir ading skills had improved having notic an increase in ed their overall reading fl nc and voc ue y abulary knowle .One student was undecided but f d to dge aile provide a reason. Two students state that the had be no noticeable change to their reading d re en ability. / 14 students answered that the weekly progress reports had encouraged them to read more books. Several students comme d that progress reports had motivate them to maintain the nte d same pace of reading. Another stude argue that the f nt d act he had achie d the goal of reading ve 20 books in one se ster was evide e that the progress reports had had a positive e ec on him. me nc ff t Two students answered that the reports had not influence their rate of reading.Ironic d ally,these two students were of n late f the c te or lass and misse the progress report warm- activity ne d up arly every week. / Five students answere that the inte d y nded to continue reading English books af r the fi te rst se ster course: me NII-Electronic Library Service
  18. 18. Toyogakuen University 14 7 Setting up an Extensive Reading Course:The Beginning, the M iddle and the End. , Ye , b c e I w re b k on the train. s e aus ill ad oo s Ye . I w uld lik to c ntinue to re d to imp ve my s ills s o e o a ro k . Ye . I w uld lik to re d diff re k s o e a e nt inds of boo in the f ks uture. Ye , b c e I w nt to try ha r ne t time s e aus a rde x Ye . If I hav c nc , I w try it. s e ha e ill Four stude state that the might be inte nts d y reste in re d ading English books in their free time but were unsure whe r the would. Two stude the y nts replied that without being part of the ER course the would defi , y nitely not continue reading English books. Unfortunately fi students , ve misunderstood the question and answered about past tasks they had completed as homework for the ER course. 15 out of 1 stude 6 nts provided additional comments on the course f dback f ee orm taking the opportunity to thank the te he ( apologize f having bee late f or le ac r or or n or thargic in lessons)and to re ect positive on the le fl ly ir arning e rience during the ER course. For example: xpe I think Englis is a diffic thing b I ha c h ult ut ve hange my o d pinion. I f e re e l ading boo s k is fun. I thought Englis c s w s more f tha be o . The te he w h la s a un n f re ac r orke hard and e p d x lained a lo I c t. ould f e motiv te el a d. I got go s od trate s b atte gie y nding this c urs . o e 5. Conclusion M y aim with the se ond y ar unive c e rsity elective ER course was to create a pleasant, supportive,and productive learning environme in which students c nt ould f l encouraged to re ee ad a large amount of comprehensible texts at a level within their particular comf zone ( ort Waring, 2006, p. 4 in orde to build the reading fl nc , inc 6) r ir ue y rease their experie es of suc nc cess with reading in English, engage in post- ading activitie to help improve othe skill areas such as re s r speaking, listening, and, writing and ultimately to increase the motivation f continue L2 , ir or d learning. To advanc claims that the ER course positive aff e ly ected students motivation is somewhat premature without furthe rese h. This article de r arc scribes how the course evolved ove its 13 wee pe r - k riod in respe t of its design, conte c nt, methodology and assessme only , nt . However,from the stude re nt sponses in the course f dback f ee orm (See 4.2)and my own observa- NII-Electronic Library Service

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