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Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionAndrew BOONAbstractThis article seeks to identify the various generic moves that may e...
how theIMCD framework maybeused byan Explorer to achievea satisfactoryresolution to aresearch obstacle.2. IMCD as a genreS...
3. A note on data collection and analysisTheIMCD session was conducted on May30th 2009from 19.59pm to 21.04pm via theSkype...
pair.Similarly,inSkypeIM,chatisinitiatedbyaparticipantclicking onthenameoftherelevantperson within the contacts list to op...
communicatewithoneanother,theUnderstanderinitiatesa self-introduction sub-movewiththepurpose of beginning to establish a w...
032]U:20:03:59to the task at hand033]U:20:04:05Do you know much about IMCD?034]U:20:04:10or CD?035]E:20:04:15Not much at a...
The purpose of the getting down to business sub-move is to mark the transition fromordinaryIM chat to IMCD interaction in ...
i) an orientation to time:This provides information to the Understander regarding where the Explorer is currentlypositione...
v) the players:Although the main player in the IMCD session is the Explorer,the setting the scene movemayintroduceother ch...
4.4 Articulating the research obstacle088]E:20:20:27I am not adverse to the idea of finding privates (and maybe forced to)...
profession in the interest of improving the waythat I teach and evaluate.101]E:20:34:15ok?102]U:20:37:10so,oneidea would b...
sion and get mybattlewith themethodologymodulefinishedandleavemywork atschool unpublished for the time being.105]E:20:43:1...
contexts,youmaydiscoverpotentialsolutionstopuzzlesyouhaveidentifiedbutnotovercome in your current context.Right?ok.(p.s.ne...
hope it was for you as well.Although an optional step in the closing the session move,both participants maywish toexpress ...
129]U:21:01:30I just posted it above!130]E:21:01:40Thanks!During anIMCD session,it isusefulfortheUnderstandertokeepshortsu...
4.7.5140]U:21:04:02ok-before we sign out141]U:21:04:05hang on a mo142]E:21:04:08ok…The final step before signing out from ...
ReferencesBoon,A.(2005).Is there anybodyout there?Essential Teacher, 2⑵:38-41.Boon,A.(2007).Building bridges:Instant Messe...
Toyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
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Identifying moves in an IMCD session

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This article seeks to identify the various generic moves that may exist in a typical Instant Messenger Cooperative Development session in order to better understand how the IM CD framework may be used by an ‘Explorer’ to achieve a satisfactory resolution to a research obstacle.

From Bulletin of Toyo Gakuen University - 2013
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/vol_issue/nels/AN10421432/ISS0000487162_en.html

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Identifying moves in an IMCD session

  1. 1. Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionAndrew BOONAbstractThis article seeks to identify the various generic moves that may exist in a typicalInstant MessengerCooperativeDevelopment sessioninordertobetterunderstandhowtheIMCD framework maybe used byan Explorer to achieve a satisfactoryresolution to aresearch obstacle.1. IntroductionInstant Messenger Cooperative Development (IMCD) (Boon 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011) is adiscourse framework that provides an online, non-judgmental, interactional space for teacher-researchers to talk through their thoughts and feelings regarding their current research in orderto discover possible ways forward with their particular projects. Adapted from Edges (1992,2002)CooperativeDevelopment approach to professional development,IMCD enables two peersto work online via the Skype IM text-chat function as either Explorer or Understander. TheExplorerbringstotheIMCD sessionatopicheorshewishestowork onandisprovidedthespaceto externalize, reflect on, and develop his or her research ideas. The Understanders role is tosupport the Explorer by reflecting back summaries of what the Explorer is communicating.These reflections provide the Explorer the opportunity to see his or her words repeated backthroughthecognitivefilterofapeerwhoisworking hardtounderstandtheongoing articulationsand bydoing so to maketheExplorer feellistened to,valued,and encouraged to continuehis orher particular exploration.Distinct from thenormsofordinaryIM interaction,IMCD discoursedisplayscertaingenericconventions that giveshapeto its overallstructureas it evolves on a turn-by-turn basis within asession. The IMCD discourse is brought into existence by the Explorer and Understander whooperate under agreed constraints to the normal mechanism for turn-taking and to what areallowable contributions to the ongoing IMCD interaction (Swales, 1990). This article seeks toidentifythevariousmovesthat mayexist inatypicalIMCD sessioninordertobetterunderstand219Toyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  2. 2. how theIMCD framework maybeused byan Explorer to achievea satisfactoryresolution to aresearch obstacle.2. IMCD as a genreSwales (1990)describes a genre as:a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicativepurposes...these purposes constitute the rationale for the genre. This rationale shapes theschematic structure of the discourse and influences and constrains choice of content andstyle...exemplarsofa genreexhibit variouspatternsofsimilarityintermsofstructure,style,content,and intended audience (p.58).Themembersthat constitutethediscoursecommunityofIMCD areteacher-researcherswhoarecurrentlyengaged in particularresearch projects(usuallyaspart ofapost-graduatedegree).These IMCD participants share a common communicative purpose ofwishing to articulate andexplore their research ideas to discover or decide upon possible directions forward to facilitatethe completion oftheir particular projects and thus help them move a step closer towards theirultimate goal of graduation. The rationale operating in an IMCD session is that it is theExplorers own individual journeytowards self-discoverythat is ofparamount importance;thatthemeansofovercoming theparticularresearch obstaclein question resideswithin theExplorerhim or herself (Rogers,1980);and that through articulating ones thoughts to an Understanderwho refrains from judgment,suggestion-giving,orimposition ofself-agenda but makesthespaceavailablefortheExplorersideastodevelop,theExplorerwillbeabletoformulateasatisfactoryplan ofaction ofwhat is to bedonenext.This rationaleshapes theconstruction ofthediscoursewithin the ongoing text-chat and establishes the constraints on allowablecontributions for bothExplorer and Understander.To furtherunderstand theschematicstructureofan IMCD session,it isnecessarytoidentifythevarious interactional moves that areutilized bytheExplorer whilst reflecting on his or hercurrent research and bythe Understander whilst providing support for this textual exploration.Moves are the semantic and functional units of text within the IMCD discourse that can bedistinguishedviathecommunicativepurposestheyfulfillandthelinguisticboundariesthatdividethem (Connor & Mauranen,1999;Ding,2007;Swales 1990).Through moveanalysis ofan individ-ual IMCD session,it is then possible to construct a model ofthe interactional flow from whichfuture exemplars of the IMCD genre can be compared.Identifying Moves in an IMCD Session220Toyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  3. 3. 3. A note on data collection and analysisTheIMCD session was conducted on May30th 2009from 19.59pm to 21.04pm via theSkypetext-chat function.TheExplorerisa courseparticipant undertaking adistancelearning masterscourseinTESOL.TheUnderstanderistheauthorofthisarticle.TheExplorerandUnderstanderwereintroduced to each othervia emailbya tutorofthedistancelearning course.Thetutorwasaware of the Explorers desire to talk about a dilemma he was facing regarding the ethicalrequirement ofobtaining informed consent from theparents ofhis junior high schoolstudents inorder to pursuehisresearch and thereluctanceofhisinstitution to allowhim to do so.Thetutorwas also aware of the authors desire to collect IMCD data for his doctoral studies. Thus,arrangements for the online session were made via further email correspondence between theExplorer and Understander resulting in both parties adding themselves as contacts on theirrespective Skype contact lists, arranging a time to meet online, and partaking in the IMCDsession.After the session, the data was saved as a text file, line numbers were added for ease ofreference,and anyidentifiers wereremoved to ensureparticipant anonymity(especiallyfor theExplorer). The text was then subjected to line-to-line coding in order to determine rhetoricalpurposes and lexical usage. Finally, the text was divided into the various moves that occurredwithin the session (See Appendix 1).In the next section ofthe article,each interactional movewill be described in relation to its various steps,specific function,and linguistic realization.4. Move analysis4.1. Opening the sessionTheIMCD session begins with an opening thesession move.Themovecontains a numberof different steps or sub-moves:4.1.1001]U:19:59:15Hi002]E:19:59:31HeyIn Hoppers (1992)analysis ofmoves within telephonecalls,a summons-answer sequenceisidentified as occurring at theinitialstageofa telephoneconversation.Thering ofthetelephoneisthesummonsto answerthecallwith thereceiversanswerof hello completing theadjacency221Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  4. 4. pair.Similarly,inSkypeIM,chatisinitiatedbyaparticipantclicking onthenameoftherelevantperson within the contacts list to open up a separate chat window and then typing and sendinga messageto that person within thechat window.Themessagethen appearson thescreen oftherecipients computer as a summons to answer and initiatefurther chat with thesender.In line 1of the IMCD session, the Understander initiates chat by sending the first message, Hi . Theresponse of Hey in line 2answers the summons and signals that the Explorer is present incyberspace and readyto begin the session.4.1.2003]U:19:59:43Will do a quick intro004]U:20:00:07Myname is U and I am a Z grad (2000-2004)005]U:20:00:14I have just recentlystarted the PhD course006]U:20:00:23I am working at a uni in Tokyo007]U:20:00:33and also help Z out here in Japan from time to time008]U:20:00:40how about yourself?009]E:20:01:07Im E.I have been in Japan for six years and this is myhalfwaypoint in theZ program.010]E:20:01:19I am teaching at a private Junior High.011]E:20:01:33Previously,I worked in the public schools and with N before that.012]E:20:01:44I am from the US,in West VirginiaIn an IMCD session,theExplorer needs to feel ableto open up and revealhis or her privateand personal thoughts to the Understander regarding the research issue in question. Thus, theExplorer must feel a level oftrust and confidentialityexists between himselfor herselfand theUnderstander (Edge,1992,2002).As this is the first time for the Understander and Explorer to222 Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  5. 5. communicatewithoneanother,theUnderstanderinitiatesa self-introduction sub-movewiththepurpose of beginning to establish a working relationship with the Explorer that is based onmutual openness, sincerity, and respect. In line 3, the Understander signals the start of thissub-movewith themessage, Will do a quick intro (line3).Theself-introductionfocusesontheUnderstandersname(line4),hisrelationshipwiththeinstitutionwheretheExplorerisundertak-ing hismastersdegree(Z being usedtoreplacethenameoftheparticularinstitution-lines4and7),hiscurrent courseofstudy(line5),andhiscurrent work situation(line6).TheUnderstanderthen passesthefloorto theExplorerand askshim to reciprocate(line8).TheExplorerprovidesinformation about his length of time in Japan (line 9), his current position regarding progressthrough themastersprogram (line9),hiscurrent andpreviouswork situations(lines10and11),and his countryof origin (line 12).4.1.3013]U:20:01:57Oh-myfriend is from West Virginia014]E:20:02:03Really?015]U:20:02:03He is here in Tokyo016]E:20:02:13Wow.Verysmall world...As part of the relationship building process, as a tool for greasing the wheels of socialinteraction, and to avoid appearing impolite by starting the business at hand too quickly,conversational small talk topics maybenominated bytheExplorer and Understander as itemsto betalked about and extended overa numberofturnswithin the opening thesession move.Inthis session,a newsworthy topic is offered bytheUnderstander in line13as hereveals that hehas a friend from thesamestateas theExplorer.Thetopicof the friend from West Virginia isthen talkedabout untilline30.Thishelpsbothparticipantstoemphasizespecificareastheyhavein common and further aids the building of a positive working relationship between them.4.1.4031]U:20:03:54ok223Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  6. 6. 032]U:20:03:59to the task at hand033]U:20:04:05Do you know much about IMCD?034]U:20:04:10or CD?035]E:20:04:15Not much at all.As this is thefirst IMCD session for theExplorer,thenext step within theopening isfortheUnderstander to explain the basic rules ofIMCD interaction to theExplorer so that thesessioncan proceed smoothly.In lines 31and 32,theUnderstander signals a changeoftopicfrom smalltalk to the task at hand (line 32). The Understander then seeks to ascertain how much theExplorerknowsabout IMCD (lines33and34). AstheExplorerrespondswith not much at allin line35,theUnderstander proceeds to takean extended turn at talk (lines 31to 66)in order toexplain the role of Explorer and Understander, the various interactional constraints on theparticipants regarding not being able to ask for or give advice or opinions, and finally, theturn-change signal OK? that facilitates turn-taking between theExplorer and Understanderwhilst interacting incyberspace.TheUnderstanderthensetsatimelimitofonehourstating that:066]U:20:10:05either the understander or explorer can end the session4.1.5078]E:20:12:58so,I guess we begin bybeginning,right?079]U:20:13:01Yes080]U:20:13:08I usuallymark the session081]U:20:13:18as it is easyto find the beginning in the saved data082]E:20:13:38Well,that has had me worried all day.Finding a place to begin.224 Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  7. 7. The purpose of the getting down to business sub-move is to mark the transition fromordinaryIM chat to IMCD interaction in which theExplorerisafforded thesoleconversationalrights to topic nomination, in which turn-taking is regulated by the turn-change signal, and inwhich theUnderstanderrefrainsfrom giving adviceorsuggestionstomaximizethespacefortheExplorers ideas to grow. Although usually initiated by the Understander, in this session, theExplorerindicateshisdesiretomovefrom smalltalk to getting downtobusiness inline78.TheUnderstanderexplainsinline80that I usuallymark thesession aritualizedstepoftyping thename of the participants and their respective roles to denote the interactional transition frompeersto Explorerand Understander.In otherwords,it istheperiod forbothinterlocutorstostepinto their roles.TheUnderstander then usuallyoffers theinteractionalfloorto theExplorerandinitiates thefirst useoftheturn-changesignalthat essentiallymarks thebeginning oftheactualIMCD session.In this session,however,the Explorer begins his exploration (line 82)beforetheUnderstander can complete each of the sub-steps. Thus, rather than interrupt the flow of theExplorer to initiaterepair,theUnderstander steps back and provides theinteractionalspaceforthe Explorer to continue with his turn.4.2 Setting the scene082]E:20:13:38Well,that has had me worried all day.Finding a place to begin.083]E:20:13:56That is a bit of a sticking point in mycontexts.084]E:20:15:13Working in the public schools,N and now in theprivateschool,themerementionof research and ethics forms or signed releases of anykind stir up awhirlwind of resistance immediately.085]E:20:16:56I have spoken to others about this situation and theyagree that it is a brick wall,generally.Private students are generallyrecommended at this point,though it isnot mygeneral practice to entertain private students at this time...086]E:20:16:57ok?The setting thescene moveoccurs at thestart oftheExplorers exploration and is used toprovide background information to the Understander regarding the particular issue in question.The move maywork to establish:225Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  8. 8. i) an orientation to time:This provides information to the Understander regarding where the Explorer is currentlypositioned regarding the research project. In line 82, the Explorer articulates that he has beenthinking all day about finding a placeto begin indicating that similartohisresearchproject,the IMCD narrative requires a starting point too.ii) the area:Thearea is an initialidentification ofwherethesession willlikelybelocated asto itsfocusand hence its boundaries.Here,the area the Explorer wishes to explore is the research ethicalcodethehehasto work underasstatedbytheregulationsoftheinstitutionwhereheiscurrentlyemployed and the institution where he is currentlyundertaking his masters degree.iii) the obstacle:The particular research obstacle that is preventing the Explorer from moving forward andthat has encouraged him to seek help via theIMCD session maybearticulated in the setting thescene move. In line 83, the lexical phrase sticking point not only indicates that gainingpermission to research is problematicfor theExplorer but is also an obstaclecreating a lack ofprogression regarding theresearch hewishes to pursue.The whirlwind of resistance (line84)or brick wall (line85)that heislikelytomeet byasking hisinstitutionpermissiontoapproachhis students to sign informed consent forms for his research suggests theExplorer perceives theobstacle as being external;in the hands of the particular gatekeeper(s)at his place ofemploy-ment.iv) the mood of the Explorer:The Understander can begin to get a sense of the initial mood of the Explorer through thesetting thescene move.Forexample,inline82,theExplorerreveals worry abouthisresearchproject,theIMCD session,andfinding forwardprogression.TheUnderstandercanalsolearnthatthe Explorer has sought the help of others regarding the situation he faces but is reluctant tofollowtheadvicegivenandtorecruitprivatestudentsinordertoutilizeasresearchsubjects(line85).226 Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  9. 9. v) the players:Although the main player in the IMCD session is the Explorer,the setting the scene movemayintroduceother characters andexplainhowtheyareconnectedtothestorythatwillunfold.Here, the Explorer introduces the gatekeepers of his institution as potential resisters to himgaining access,otherteachersorpeerswhohavegivenhim advice,andprivatestudentsthat mayoffer him the means of overcoming his research obstacle.4.3 Reflecting087]U:20:18:33so,let me check.In your current work contexts,the issue of ethics has been metwith some resistance (bythe instiution?bythe students?)and this has madeprogress difficult.Although you havehad adviceto useprivatestudents,you dontwant to go down this road at this particular time.Is that right?Ok?088]E:20:20:27I am not adverse to the idea of finding privates (and maybe forced to).Thepurposeofthereflectionmoveistoshowthatunderstanding istaking placeandtoallowtheExplorer thechanceto seehis thoughts restated back in a morefocused and explicit waybythe Understander.The reflection move contains four steps:i) a discoursemarker to signal thattheUnderstander is thinking or has thought about what theExplorerhasjust communicated,forexample so, let me check (line87),ii) thereflection itself, In your current work... (line87),iii)an interrogative sentence that seeks confirmation from the Explorer ofthe accuracyofthereflection, Is that right? (line87),and iv)theturn-changesignal that offers theinteractionalfloor back to the Explorer, Ok? (line 87).TheExplorerwillusuallybeginthenext turn-at-talk byproviding thesecond-pairparttotheUnderstanders interrogativesentence;a responsethat evaluatesthepreviousreflection.Here,inline88,theExplorertakestheopportunityto clarifyelementsofthereflection hefeelsmayhavebeen misunderstood I am not adverse to the idea of finding privates. Other examples ofExplorer evaluations ofreflection moves in thesession are that is DEAD ON (line93), thatis good (line107), Yes, that is accurate (line113),and I think that sounds like a path worthexploring (line 117).227Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  10. 10. 4.4 Articulating the research obstacle088]E:20:20:27I am not adverse to the idea of finding privates (and maybe forced to).Unfortu-nately,this makes anything that I am observing feel quite contrived.089]E:20:23:41The environment at myschool is quite delicate.Private school,parents who arepaying forthebest possibleenvironment,long-standing relationshipswithnodesireto rock theboat.I am a relativenewcomer and am stillfeeling mywayaround thepolitical structure of the machine,as it were.I am not in a position to do muchmorethan ask,and even that maybea bit much.Just doing a bit offishing seemedto send shivers up spines and raise hairs on necks.090]E:20:23:52No idea what went on before...091]E:20:23:53ok?Afterproviding clarificationtotheUnderstanderregarding thereflectionmoveofline87,theExplorer moves on to describe the research obstacle in more detail. The discourse markerUnfortunately (line 88) is used to signal the problem facing the Explorer. On one hand,recruiting private students to utilize for his research project has advantages, but on the otherhand,itleadshimtofeelthattheresearchwouldbesomewhatartificialand contrived (line88).Hethen goeson to describethe delicate situation at hisinstitution using a negativedeclarativestatement I am not in a position... (line 89) and a series of idiomatic expressions thatconnote potential problems (line 89). He feels that the gatekeepers at his institution will bereluctant to rock the boat (line89)byasking parents to sign informed consent forms to allowhisresearch to go ahead.Moreover,theExplorerbelievesthat asa newemployeethat heis notin a position to do much more than ask (line 89)and yet fears that the mere action ofaskingmight send shivers up spines and raisehairs on necks (line89)ofthegatekeeperswhich could,in turn,create further problems for him.4.5 Weighing up options100]E:20:34:07I would absolutelylove to figure out a wayto get the school to endorse me andmake it a part of their contract with the parents that I might share observationsabout what theyare paying me to do (teach and evaluate)with others in the228 Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  11. 11. profession in the interest of improving the waythat I teach and evaluate.101]E:20:34:15ok?102]U:20:37:10so,oneidea would beto find a wayofconvincing theschooloftheusefulnessoftheresearch,drawup a contact with theparents and explain what research isabout,i.e.professionalselfdevelopment foryourselfandothersintheprofession.Right?ok.103]E:20:41:36That is perhapstheonlyoption.To approach thestudentsisimpossibleastheyareall between the ages of 11 and 15.To talk to parents (or administrators,for thatmatter)without theconsent oftherelated English Department facultywould equalcareersuicide.Theonlyroutewouldbeviathefacultywithaletterofendorsementfrom Z in hand and then a lengthybattlethrough theranks with a high probabilityof defeat at the last moment.After describing the obstacle that is blocking his forward progression with the researchproject,theExplorer begins to weigh up his possibleoptions.Thefirst possibilityis to approachhis current institution and persuade them to allow him to conduct the research. He begins byidentifying the benefits to the various stakeholders in terms ofproviding a better education forhis students,a better return on investment for the parents,and increased transparencybetweenthe particular institution and the fee payers;that is the parents themselves (line100).After theUnderstanders reflection move in line 102, the Explorer realizes there is perhaps only oneoption (line103)hecantakeifhechoosestopursuethisparticulardirection.Ratherthanriskingcareer suicide (line103)bycontacting theparentsorasking thestudentsdirectly,theoption istoapproachthefacultywithaletterfromtheuniversityof Z whereheisundertaking themasters program explaining the rationale behind his intended research.TheExplorer,however,under-stands that this process will be time-consuming and have little chance of success in the end.Although not explicitlystated in lines 100-103,theoption isweighed against thebackdrop ofthealternative possibilityofrecruiting and utilizing private students for his research that was firstmentioned in line 85.4.6 Reaching a decision104]E:20:43:03I think that in theinterest oftime,I should just go lab-rat hunting with thebest ofintentions,find some adults who can use a pen without anyoneelsegiving permis-229Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  12. 12. sion and get mybattlewith themethodologymodulefinishedandleavemywork atschool unpublished for the time being.105]E:20:43:12ok!?…108]E:20:49:13At anyrate,I feel that this session has alreadysolved mymajor dilemma which isa desire to directlyinvolvemywork environment (which could bea double-edgedsword) and to simplyyield to practicalityand find/create a different venue forconducting a sample piece of AR109]E:20:50:39This mayinvolve working with friends who are students of English rather thandirectlyseeking students when what I am actuallylooking for are subjects110]E:20:50:42ok?The ultimate goal ofan IMCD session is for theExplorer to discover or decideupon a wayover or around a research obstacle so that he or she can move forward. In this session, theExplorer reaches a decision as how best to proceed with his research project. Rather thanparticipatein a lengthybattle (line103)withhisfacultyand in theinterest of time (line104)ofcompleting themoduleso that hecan progress in themasters course,theExplorer decides toyield to practicality (line 108)and find adult students who areeasilyableto provideinformedconsent for his action research project.Having felt likehis major dilemma (line108)hasbeenresolved, the Explorer continues to work through his decision and identify possible researchsubjects that he might utilize for data collection purposes.4.7 Closing the sessionSimilar to the opening the session move,the closing the session move contains severalsteps that mark the transition from IMCD interaction back to ordinary IM chat and bring theSkype IM interaction politelyand effectivelyto an end:4.7.1116]U:20:58:21So thereis an advantageto using non-work related subjects in terms ofobjectivityand detachment.Moreover,through observations and findings in other situations,230 Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  13. 13. contexts,youmaydiscoverpotentialsolutionstopuzzlesyouhaveidentifiedbutnotovercome in your current context.Right?ok.(p.s.need to come to an end soon)117]E:20:59:00I think that sounds like a path worth exploring.118]E:20:59:43Weareright at 9oclock and I think this is a fineplaceto break ifyou areagreed.119]U:21:00:13sure120]U:21:00:18STEPPING OUT OF ROLESIMCD sessions may be ended when the Explorer feels that he or she has nothing more toarticulate on thechosen area or when theagreed timelimit for thesession is closeto expiry.Inthis particular session,theUnderstander reflects theExplorers previous turn-at-talk in line 116and then initiates a pre-closing signal by reminding the Explorer that the session should endsoon. The first-part pair functions as an indirect request and is placed in parentheses to showthat the Explorer should treat themessageas being separateto thereflection move.In line117,the Explorer provides an evaluation of the reflection, thus completing the second-part pairresponsetotheUnderstandersquestion Right? (line116).TheExplorerthenrespondstotheUnderstanderspre-closing request toendthesessionbyagreeing that, it is a fineplaceto break(line 118).Asaparalleltothe getting downtobusiness movethat marksthetransitionfromordinaryIM chat to IMCD interaction and indicates a stepping into therolesofExplorerand Understan-derforbothparticipants,the ending thesession sub-movesignalsa stepping out of roles (line120). In other words, as the interaction reverts back to ordinary IM chat, both participantsbecomefreeto nominatetopics ofconversation and taketurns.TheUnderstander however maystill refrain from giving adviceor suggestions in casetheExplorer wishes to return to theissuesexplored in a future IMCD session.4.7.2121]U:21:00:22thanks for that!122]E:21:00:24Thank you for a positive experience.I feel this was veryproductive for me and I231Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  14. 14. hope it was for you as well.Although an optional step in the closing the session move,both participants maywish toexpress their gratitude to one another. Here, the Understander thanks the Explorer for takingpart in thesession (line121)and theExplorer feeling that his timehas been wellspent respondsbythanking the Understander for a positive and productive experience (line 122).4.7.3125]U:21:00:51BTW-I do a running summaryin a word doc.next to the skype box126]U:21:01:05it maybe useful for you along with the session notes.127]U:21:01:22E-May 30thPublic schools research and ethics resistanceUsing private studentsUsing privates contrived as not part of natural work contextContext private school newcomer not rock the boatResearch as intrusive/raising the question sent up warning signsWhat happened in the past?Possible problems from parents over slight concernsUnderstand present work context and overcome problem of ethical researchFind a way to get the school involved,parents contract,share informationabout teaching and then show them why i.e.prof.dev.The only option ask the faculty and see what they can say/a letter ofendorsement from Z.This may not work thoughOr get privates who can give consent and then get the module done.Do I need to do AR at work or wait for the opportunity to ariseThe dilemma of using work or yield to finding or creating other venues for ARresearch i.e.private students or friends who study English128]E:21:01:22I would love it if you would send me a copy.232 Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  15. 15. 129]U:21:01:30I just posted it above!130]E:21:01:40Thanks!During anIMCD session,it isusefulfortheUnderstandertokeepshortsummarynotesoftheExplorersongoing articulationsin a separateword document fileasthisfacilitatestheconstruc-tion ofreflection moves.During the closing thesession move,thesummarycan beprovided totheExplorerasan additionalresourceand record ofthesession.Here,inline126,theUnderstan-deroffersto send thesummaryto theExplorer(line126),copiesit from theworddocument,andpastes it into the Skype IM chat window (line 127).4.7.4131]U:21:01:57Also,could you consider the following questions,ifyou dont mind and send me apost-session email132]U:21:02:09Questions for post-session reflection:1]Did you feel you were being understood?2]If so,did this help in anywaywith your movement forward?3]Was there anything new in what you articulated in terms of your currentdilemma about ethics?4]Were myreflections useful?5]Anything else you would like to add!!AstheUnderstanderisconducting IMCD research,anotherstep in closing thesession istoask theExplorer to providehim with specificfeedback via emailas to his thoughts and feelingsof the IMCD experience (lines 131-132).However,generally,it is useful practice for Explorersto provide constructive feedback regarding the Understanders performance after each IMCDsession.This helps the Understander to continue to develop his or her art of understanding forfuture sessions.233Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  16. 16. 4.7.5140]U:21:04:02ok-before we sign out141]U:21:04:05hang on a mo142]E:21:04:08ok…The final step before signing out from Skype is to save the text file so that there is apermanent record of the IMCD interaction. The text file can then be printed out or storedelectronicallybyboth parties so it can bereferred to again at a later date.Unfortunately,at thetime the IM chat is saved,anysubsequent text chat that occurs is not recorded.In this session,theUnderstander asks theExplorer to hang on a mo (line141)whilehesaves thesession andsendsthedocumenttohimviatheSkypeIM chatwindow(line141).Theensuing wordsofthanksand goodbyes are lost in the recording of the session.5. ConclusionThisarticlehasidentifiedthevariousinteractionalmovesthat occurredinoneIMCD sessionas theExplorermadeuseofthespaceafforded to him bytheUnderstanderin orderto articulatehisresearch obstacle,weigh up theadvantagesand disadvantagesoftwo possibleoptions,and toreach a decision ofhow best to proceed with his research project.It has also shown how moveswithin a session can contributeto a successful outcomefor theExplorer and to theIMCD genreitself. However, as only one session has been presented in this article, the analysis has seriouslimitations.Thisarticlecan onlyscratch thesurfaceofthepotentialwaysExplorersmayusetheIMCD framework and to howthediscoursemayevolveon a turn-by-turn basisbythetwo IMCDinterlocutors.In email feedback provided bythe Explorer featured in this article,hestates thatas a result of participating in the IMCD session:I now feel that I have arrived at a new plateau in my planning stage (the Explorer,personal communication,June 2nd,2009).In a similar respect,this article is but a starting plateau towards a greater description ofthis highlystructured and conventionalized onlinecommunicativeevent that mayhelp facilitatethe research process for its users.234 Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  17. 17. ReferencesBoon,A.(2005).Is there anybodyout there?Essential Teacher, 2⑵:38-41.Boon,A.(2007).Building bridges:Instant Messenger Cooperative Development. The LanguageTeacher, 31 :9-13.Boon,A.(2009).I can see clearlynow. Modern English Teacher, 18⑴:56-64.Boon,A.(2011).Developing Instant Messenger Cooperative Development.Bulletin of Toyo Gakuen University 19:109-120.Connor, U. & Mauranen, A. (1999). Linguistic analysis of grant proposals: European Unionresearch grants.English for Specific Purposes, 18⑴:47-62.Ding,H.(2007).Genre analysis ofpersonal statements:Analysis ofmoves in application essaysto medical and dental schools.English for Specific Purposes, 26⑶:368-392.Edge,J.(1992).Cooperative Development.ELT Journal, 46⑴:62-70.Edge,J. (2002). Continuing Cooperative Development.Michigan:Universityof Michigan Press.Hopper,R.(1992).Telephone conversation.Bloomington:Indiana UniversityPress.Rogers,C.(1980).A way of being. Boston:Houghton Mifflin.Swales,J.(1990).Genre analysis.Cambridge:Cambridge UniversityPress.Appendix 1:Interactionalmoves in the IMCD session:235Identifying Moves in an IMCD SessionToyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service
  18. 18. Toyogakuen UniversityNII-Electronic Library Service

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