Online learning is a process which involves
three types of interaction.
“Learner-instructor interaction accounts for
cognitive learning, learner-learner interaction
fosters collaborative learning and learnercontent interaction refers to any interactive
activities between the learner and
instructional content in an online learning
environment” Moore (1989).
1. Online students are perceived as independent
learners who are different from traditional
learners in a classroom setting.
“successful online students are expected to have
access to necessary hardware and software, and to
be minimally proficient in using technology. They
also must communicate through writing, have selfmotivation, and self-discipline. They need to
commit sufficient time per week to course work,
and they must speak up if problem arise” Mupinga,
Nora and Yaw (2006 p. 185).
2. online teachers are “sensitive to the diverse
learning styles, needs and expectations of online
students and understand the learning
environment” (Mupinga, Nora, and Yaw, 2006).
3. virtual classroom
How do online teachers ensure quality online
“planning (organizing the course), modeling, effective
online behavior, coaching and encouraging individuals and
creating teams, willing to learn as instructor and being a
good communicator” (Uvalic-Trumbic and Daniel, 2013).
2 Types of online learning:
“Asynchronous e-learning is commonly facilitated by
media such as e-mail and discussion boards, support
work relations among learners and with teachers,
even when participants cannot be online at the
same time. Whereas, synchronous e-learning is
commonly supported by media such as
videoconferencing and chat, has the potential to
support e-learners in the development of learning
communities” (Hrastinski, 2008).
How successful is online learning today?
1. Online education in the U.S. a rise of students
taking at least one online course during fall term
over the nine-year time span from less than 5
million to over 6.1 million students. (Allen and
Seaman, 2011, p. 12)
2. In Bangladesh, it is also a reality but with
“Due to the limited access to the modern
technology, all required media cannot be used in
delivering the courses, which raises the question
about the quality of the ODL courses in Bangladesh
Open University. Also, failure in on-time production
and delivery is a big problem at BOU because it will
seriously hamper the long-term sustainability of
BOU programs. Academic schools and concerned
divisions must put maximum attention on the timely
production and delivery of the study materials”
(Sultana and Kamal, n.d., p. 16).
3. One study claims that interaction through
videoconferencing with native speakers actually
helps increase the confidence of online learners and
improve their motivation in learning English.
Furthermore, it strengthens their ability to use the
language over time and when matched with
conventional classroom activities can improve their
ability, confidence and motivation even more (Wu,
Yen & Marek, 2011).
Questions that the study addressed:
What are the advantages and disadvantages of
As teachers, how do we cope with the