1. Confucianism If asked about Confucianism, an advisor would say, “Lead by example.” The goal of Confucianism was a fair and peaceful society. Values such as respect for elders, proper behavior, and love of scholarship (learning) became deeply woven into Chinese society.
2. Daoism If asked about Daoism, an advisor would say, “If you mustrule, rule as little as possible.”The Dao De Jing preached a return to a simple & natural way ofliving.To the Daoists, nature is full of opposites. Examples are:o Life and deatho Light and darknessTrue harmony comes from balancing the opposite forces ofnature, called yin & yang.
3. China’s First Emperor China’s first emperor, Qin Shihuangdi, was both astrong and a cruel ruler.He unified Chinese government and culture.To protect his empire from invaders, the Emperor ofQin ordered a long wall to be built along China’snorthern border.Later it became known as the Great Wall.
4. China’s ForeignContacts- Ming Dynasty Under the Ming dynasty, many other countries were China’stributarieso This means they had to acknowledge the supreme power & authority of China and pay tribute to (honor) its leader.Once a country paid tribute, the Chinese emperors did thefollowing:o Acknowledged (accepted) these countries’ rulerso Provided military helpo Allowed them to trade with China
5. China’s ForeignContacts- Mongol Dynasty Travel along the Silk Road became very safe.Kublai Khan appointed many visiting foreigners to officialpositions in his government. o Marco Polo was hired to go on inspection tours. His travels gave Europeans firsthand knowledge of China and further encouraged interest in trade.Life was more pleasant for foreigners (like Marco Polo) than it wasfor the native Chinese.The resentment that built up under Mongol rule made the Chinesesuspicious of foreigners.
6. China’s Foreign Contacts- Tang Dynasty China both welcomed and rejected contact withforeigners.The religion of Buddhism became very popular.Three items the Chinese traded were:silk, porcelain, paper, iron, & jade (choose 2)In return, three things they received wereivory, cotton, perfumes, spices, & horses (choose 3).
7. Government Officials were sometimes selected for a job because oftheir family or wealth.Meritocracy: Rule by officials chosen for their quality(rather than their wealth/economic status).The Mongol leader, Kublai Khan, took the title ofEmperor of China.He did not trust the Chinese people to run hisgovernment.
8. Chinese Discoveries andInventions – Everyday Objects Playing cards were invented in China Paper money was invented by the Chinese in the late 8th or early 9th century. The Chinese developed the first mechanical clock in about the 8th century. Modern-day mechanical clocks are based on the same fundamental principles as early Chinese clocks.
9. Chinese Discoveries andInventions – Exploration and Travel Chinese inventions made exploration and travel safer and faster. The First Compass: o Compasses made long sea voyages possible because sailors could figure out directions even without a landmark or a point in the sky to steer by. The Chinese discovered how to build ships with watertight compartments.
10. Chinese Discoveries and Inventions-Industries For more than 500 years, only the Chinese knew the secret ofmaking paper.Woodblock Printing: First type of printingMovable Type: Printers carved characters out of clay and bakedthem. To print, they selected the characters they needed and placedthem in an iron frame in the order they would appear on the page.When the printing job was done, the type could be removed fromthe frame and used again.The Chinese first made steel, a very useful metal, before 200 B.C.E.
11. Chinese Discoveries and Inventions – Military The Chinese who first made gunpowder were alchemists.An alchemist is a person who practiced a blend of science& magico While experimenting with saltpeter, Chinese Alchemists accidentally discovered an explosive powder.Rocket technology was developed in China during theSong dynasty.
12. Legalism If asked about Legalism, an advisor would say, “Set clearlaws and harshly punish those who disobey them.”Legalism was based on the idea that most people arenaturally selfish.It was not enough for rulers to set a good example.Instead, they should establish strict laws and enforcethem with rewards for good behavior and harshpunishments for bad behavior.
13. Silk Road The Silk Road was network of smaller trade routes that stretched more than 4,000 miles across Asia to the Middle East and Europe. Several dangers faced traders while traveling the Silk Road. For traders to make a profit, goods had to be valuable and easy to carry. o Silk was the perfect trading good, because it was both light and valuable. The Silk Road also helped to spread the religion of Buddhism.
14. Zhou Dynasty To justify their conquest, the Zhou Dynasty claimed they had been giventhe Mandate of Heaven, the right to rule China granted by a god.As long as the king governed his people well, Heaven gave him the rightto rule.The Feudalism system started breaking down & causing conflict. Therewere 250 years of disorder in China. This time is often called the WarringStates period.So much instability led the Chinese to ask important questions abouthuman nature and the best way for rulers to govern.o The three most influential ideas about how to govern were Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.
Study Guide How is it organized? Different than Museum Tour Philosophy/Religion Dynasties People Inventions Trade, travel, conflict Vocab Document Analysis – Map and timeline
Study Guide You will need to move around the Museum Tour to find answers for the different questions Complete 1-15 tonight. If you choose to answer more, please bring flash cards on Wednesday. Practice, practice, practice! You’ll have more time on Wed. to complete the study guide
China Essay Final version due Thursday, March 21. You may type or write your final draft. If you type and for whatever reason do not print, 20 points will be deducted. The best thing I can recommend for typing is to write your essay as a Google doc-access anywhere.