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MARINE PHARMACOGNOSY

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MARINE PHARMACOGNOSY

  1. 1. Presented by K.Mounica Roll.no-11AB1R0069 Under the guidance of Mr.Karthikeyan ,M.Pharm(Ph.D) (Assistant Professor) VIGNAN PHARMACY COLLEGE (Approved by AICTE,PCI and Affiliated to JNTU Kakinada) Vadlamudi,Guntur-522213.
  2. 2. MMAARRIINNEE PPHHAARRMMAACCOOGGNNOOSSYY
  3. 3.  Definition of Marine Pharmacognosy.  History of Marine Pharmacognosy.  Classification of Marine Drugs.  Collection of Marine Organisms.  Handling of Marine Organisms.  Storage of Marine Drugs.  References.
  4. 4.  Marine Pharmacognosy is a sub-branch of Pharmacognosy, which is mainly concerned with the naturally occurring substances of medicinalvalue from marine Generally the drugs are obtained from the marine species of bacteria,virus,algae fungi,sponges etc.
  5. 5. ◦ The oceans cover more than70% of the earths surface and contain over 300,000 Invertebrates and Algal species and rich in Fauna&flora. ◦ Marine Pharmacognosy is not a new area for Pharmacognosy even the early civilizations of Greece, Japan, China and India have explored marine life as a source of drugs ◦ In the western medicine Agar,Alginicacid, Carrageenan, Protaminesulphate, Spermaceti and Cod&halibut liver oils are the marinemedicinal established products. ◦ Macroalgae or seaweeds have been used as crude drugs in the treatment of Iodine deficiency states such as Goiter etc.
  6. 6.  Some seaweeds have also been utilized as sources of additional vitamins and in the treatment of Anaemia during pregnancy.  Marine flora and fauna play significant role as a source of new molecular entity.  The oceans of the world contain over 5 million species in about 30 phyla.Because of the derivatives of marine organism and habitats, marine natural products enclose a wide variety of chemical classes, including Terpenes, Shikimates, Polyketides, Acetogenins, Peptides, Alkaloids of varying structures and multitude of compounds of mixed biosynthesis.  The marine environment may contain over 80% of the worlds plant and animal species.
  7. 7. o During the past 30-40 years, Numerous novel compounds have been isolated from marine organisms having biological activities such as antibacterial ,antiviral, antitumour,antiparasitic,anticoagulants,antimicrobial,antiin flammatory and cardiovascular compounds. o Paralytic or Diarrhetic shellfish toxins are produced by Dinoflagellates.
  8. 8. Compound name Biological Source Chemical Structure Uses Acanthellin-1 Acanthella acuta (sponge) Active against mycobacterium. chondriol L.Filiformis (red algae) Antimicrobial agent. Prepacifenol Laurenciajohns tonil (red algae) Antimicrobial agent.
  9. 9. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Avarol Disidea avara (sponge) Used in the treatment of AIDS. Avarone Disidea avara (sponge) Its also used in the treatment of AIDS. It have the ability to cross B.B.B. Eudistomin-A Eudistoma oivaceum It inhibit immunodeficiency virus.
  10. 10. Compoun d name Biological source Chemical Structure Uses Zonarol Dictyopteris zonoroid (brown algae) It has fungicial property. Isozonorol Dictyopteris zonoroid (brown algae) Antifungal agent. Thelphin Thelepus setosus (annelida) Antimicrobial agent.
  11. 11. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Laurinterol Laurenciajoh nstonii (red algae) Active antimicrobial agent. Aeroplysinin-1 Verongia Aerophoba (sponge) Antimicrobial agent. Bromopyrones Ptilonia Australasica They are toxic as well as Antimicrobial agent.
  12. 12. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Cephalosporin -c Cephalosporium acrimonium (fungus) Antibiotic agent. Istamycin-A Streptomyces tenjimariensis In-vitro activity is observed against Gr(-) and Gr(+) bacteria. Istamycin-B Streptomyces tenjimariensis In-vitro activity is observed aganst Gr(-) and Gr(+) bacteria.
  13. 13. Compoun d name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Eunicin Eunicia mammosa Anti-microbial agent.
  14. 14. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Α-kainicacid Digenia simplex (red algae) Used for the treatment of Ascariasis. Convulsant. Anthelmintic. Domoicacid Alsidium corallinum (red algae) Used as Calcium channel blocker.
  15. 15. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Bryostatin-1 Bugulaneritina It has antineoplastic activity. Sinularin Sinulariaflexibilis It has more anticancer activity.
  16. 16. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Agelasidine-A Okinawa seasponge Agela spp. It has very potent Antispasmodic activity.
  17. 17. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Eldoisin Eledonemoschata (Cephalopod) Stimulate extra vascular smooth muscle. Octapamine Octopus vulgaris Shows Adrenergic responses. Act as Neurotransmitter .
  18. 18. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Bio-indole Rivularia firma (cynobacterium) Active antiinflammatory activity. Butanolide Euplexaura flava Antiinflammatory agent.
  19. 19. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Nereistoxin Lumbriconereis heteropoda It shows Ganglion blocking effects. Cartap Lumbriconereis heterpoda Insecticidal agent.
  20. 20. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Carrageenan Condruscrispus Anti coagulant. Activation of Thrombin. Fucoidan Fucus vesiculosus Antithrombin activity. Mediator for Heparin cofactor-II
  21. 21. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Prostaglandin E2 Gracilaria verucossa Active CNS agent. Control induced child birth , Blood pressure. Suppress blood platelet aggregation. 15epi-PGA2 Plexaurahomoma lla Smooth muscle relaxant. Inhibit gastric acid secretion. Treat Asthma, Peptic ulcers.
  22. 22. Compound name Biological source Chemical structure Uses Saxitoxin Gonyaulax calenella (dinoflagellate) Hypotensive effect Holothurin-A Helixpomatia (sea cucumber) Haemolytic activity. Antifungal activity. Aplysins Aplysiadepilans (sea hare) Toxical agent
  23. 23. Marine organisms are the Source of thousands of different products. Many of these compounds have been shown to be extremely toxic in mammalian system. Caution should always be taken in handling marine organism. Proper protective Equipment such as Gloves & Eye protective should always be worn. In many organisms such as Hydroids and sponges have highly Irritating compounds that cause immediate itching & ash formation in some individuals EX: Fibularia nolitangeres and Tedania ignis(fire sponge) All marine specimens and extrudes should be handled with caution.
  24. 24.  Collection of organisms should be documented.  Record the longitude, latitude, depth, current surge, water Temperature, salinity and dates of collection.  Habit ate of collection (eg:- reference, increvice, Under rock, on bottom side of rock, on front face of rock, on surface of another Organism) should be recorded.  Careful description of organism like colour, odour, morphology consistency, Thickness of mucus, and reproductive state.  The presence of associated Organism inside or outside should be noted.  It is common to find worms, mollusks', copepods, brittle stars, Anemons and even small fish living with larger marine invertebrates.
  25. 25.  Epiphytes & Zooanthids are commonly observed in association with marine invertebrates and may effect the chemistry encountered.  Voucher specimens should be prepared to allow for complete identification  Voucher are also necessary to document an invention.  Voucher specimen are the representative of the entire specimen.
  26. 26.  Marine Organisms are often collected at remote places where laboratory facilities are limited.  Many begin to due on exposure to air & rapidly begin to decompose, therefore Organisms need to be either dried, extracted or frozen immediately to reduces spoilage & chemical degradation.  The verongid sponges, can begin to degrade and polymerize immediately up on being touched.  This is indicated by a rapid colour change from white, yellow or Orange to dark blue-black, even when maintained in sea water.  After collection the organisms should be frozen immediately at-20˚C. In some cases, organisms are placed into an alcohol such as methanol, ethanol or Isopropanol.
  27. 27. Algae and some gorgonians are often air dried and then stored at room Temperature. If facilities are available, the samples can be lyophilized immediately after collection and then stored either at room Temperature or in a freezer.
  28. 28.  The great part of the earth surface is covered by Seas & Ocean, which contains about 500,000 species of marine organisms since the natural products Chemists diverted their attention to exploit the vast resources of marine flora and animal world numerous novel compounds have been isolated from these marine organisms During the second half of Twentieth century.  To be successful in marine natural product chemistry one should always keep an open mind. Expect purification as possible and save all functions.
  29. 29.  Ashutoshkar-Text book of Pharmacognosy & Pharmacobiotechnology (pg.no-469-480)  William. C and Trease-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-723-740)  Shah & Seth-Text book of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry (pg.no:-461-470)  E.Edwin Jarald-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-637-658)  Tyler-Brady-Robbers-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-325-335)  Vinod. D.Rangari-Text book of Pharmacognosy. (pg.no:-263-285)  Dr.S.H.Ansari-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-637-658)  Mohammed Ali-Text book of Pharmacognosy (pg.no:-68-94)  A.N.Kalia-Text book of Pharmacognosy. Pg,no:-163-175)  C.K.Kokate-Text book of Pharmacognosy. (pg.no:-5.01-5.12)
  30. 30. ◦ I would like to Thank my Guide Mr.R.Karthikeyan For wonderful guidance. And also Thank to my beloved Principal sir Mr.P.Srinivasbabu sir. And also Thank to seminar committee for giving this wonderful opportunity.

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