vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                  h hf   ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf                                  ...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               ta&SUawmiftm&StwGif...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               tMurf;zufjcif;ESihf...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                  h hf   ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               10                 ...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf                    aph p yf a qmf...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               OD;aqmifoif=um;vdru...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf                     Ð   avhvmoif,...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               18                 ...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                   h hf  ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               20                 ...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               wGif xd&nf&,csursm;...
vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                                                                         ...
h hf          vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H                                       kf               onfhta=umif;t&mrsm;...
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Hreib Pack 2007

  1. 1. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 1hre pack.pmd 1 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  2. 2. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii) rSxwa0onfY Y hf k f H k f Facilitation Guide for Trainers Author Art work by Facilitation Training Agga Participants From ,ckpmtkywif vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf f G k Chiang Mai, =ojcif;qdkonfudk trsm;oabm aygufatmif Graphic Design Sangkhla Buri, &Si;f vif;xm;,Hr#ru xdvyief;vkyf aqmifae k k k f Mae Sot, mmmlwin aomolrsm; vduemoifonftcsursm;ESihf oif,l k f h h f Mae Hong Son olrsm;.yg0ifr_udk tm;ay;aomoif=um;r_enf; vrf; ud&,mrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf? d Published by ,ckpmtkyonf (USAID) ESihf Intern- f Human Rights Education Institute of ational Rescue Committee (IRC) - SHIELD Burma (HREIB) Project .tultnDyy;kd r_jzifh taumiftxnf hH Photo Credit azmfcJhaom vlxkpGrf;&nfjrSifhwifr_tpDtpOf. &vmfvjJ zpf onf? xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifcaom k Gf hJ HREIB Photo Bank oifwef;om;/ oifwef;olrsm;. wuf=uGpmyg0if G avhvm/ wDxi/f }uKd ;yrf;r_rsm;a=umifh Tpmtkyukd G f ,ckuo@dk atmifjrifpm xkwa0Ediconf[k qdv#if hJ G f k f hJ k vJ rSm;rnfr[kwfay/? csif;rdkif/ rJa[mifaqmif/ web site / e-mail rJaqmuf/ pefcvbl&aotoD;oD;rS ta=umif; D Address t&mtrsKd ;rsKd ;ESiywfoufI vlxynmay;vkyief; hf k f hreburma@loxinfo.co.th rsm; vkyfudkifaeom wdkif;&if;om;vli,frsm;u www.hreib.com, www.hreib.net GPO Box (485) wDxif xm;aom oifcef;pmrsm;udk Tpmtkywif G f G Chiang Mai 50000 pkpnf;wifjyxm;ygonf? vlxt=um; aphpyfaqmf k Thailand. =oaomenf;ynmrsm;ESihf vlxyg0ifavhvmaom k ynmay;r_rsm; wdk;wufvmatmif ydkif;0ef;}udK; yrf;cJaom xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifconfh oifwef; h k Gf hJ First Edition : 1,500 copies, enf;jyrsm;/ enf;trsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh yg0ifunay;cJaoml D h HREIB olrsm;tm;vH;k udk aus;Zl;jyKrSwwrf;wifygonf? f Allrights reserved. This work maybe reproduced, provided that no txl;ojzifh ,cktpDtpOfwif rdrEihf vufwyg0ifchJ G dS GJ commercial use is made of it and authors are acknowledged. aom udatmifaZmfaxG;/ udvatmifEihf rdurGef k k S axmwd@k ukd txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf? Funded by the 2 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 2 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  3. 3. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf trSmpm vl@tcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)taeESihf jrefrmEdii&vxt=um; todtjrifw;kd yGm;vmatmif vkyaqmifaom hf kfH k f H dS l k f vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf=ojcif; (Facilitation)todynmrsm;udk ae&maotoD;oD;wGif yd@k csv@_ aqmfvmcJonfrm ,ck 2007 k H h S ckEpwif (7) ESpwic+hJ yjD zpfonf? wduwuqiqiqovdk 200& ckEptwGuf vl@tcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii) a&G;cs,chJ Sf G f kd f k f kd f kd f kd f kd Sf hf kfH f aom &nf&,csuaqmifyrmvnf; jyKjyifajymif;vJrtwGi;f vlxt=um; aphpyfv@H_ aqmfjcif; (Facilitation For Change) jzpf.? G f f kfS _ k rdrw@kd jrefrmEdiiwif avhvmcJaom ynm&yfrsm;onf wvrf;oGm;ynma&;pepfomjzpfconf? arG;uxnf;ygvmcJaom d kfH G h hJ h topftqef;udk avhvmvdpw/f pl;prf;vdpwrsm;rSm xdynma&;pepfrsm;atmufwif wjznf;jznf;aysmufu,c+hJ y;D oif,orsm;. kd kd f k G G f l l wuf=uGyg0ifrr&Saomavhvmoif,rpepfYom tom;usaecJ&onfrm 0rf;enf;p&myif? ta=umif;t&mwckukd bufaygi;f pHrS _ d l_ h S k pOf;pm;a0zef jrifwwfjcif;/ usKd ;a=umif;cdivpm &_jrifwwfjcif;ponft&nftcsi;f rsm;rSmvJ Edii&dS ppftm%m&Sipepfatmufwif k f kH G h kfH f G toH;k cscir&SbJ aysmufq;kH aecJ&onf? G hf d h rdrw@kd taejzifh oif,orsm;twGuf vGwvyfvef;qef;wuf=uGaom avhvm,lywf0ef;usiukd wnfaqmufEirom d l l f f kd f S avhvmr_t&Seaumif;Edirnf[k ,H=k unfonf? avhvmr_tay:pdw0ifpm;r_&+dS y;D rdrw@kd t,ltqudk wifjyEdirom avhvmolw@kd onf df kf f d kfS 4if;wd@k wi&aom pl;prf;avhvmvdr/_ wDxizefw;D vdr/_ pOf;pm;qifjcifawG;ac:Edirrsm;udk azmfxwtoH;k csEirnf[vJ cdicirmrm G f dS k Gf k kf_ k f kd f k k f kd f ,H=k unfonf? xdo@kd v+kH cKH wuf=uvef;qef;p&maumif;aom avhvmr_ywf0ef;usiraeI ynm&yfwckuu|r;f usiaom vlxynm k G fS kd f k ay;olrsm;oufoufomr[kwbJ avhvmolrsm;. yg0ifruav;pm;cGijhf yKaom ynmay;olrsm;ay:xGe;f vmap&ef rdrw@kd }uKd ;yrf;tm; f _ kd d xkwvsu&.? f f dS ,ckpmtkyonf xd}k uKd ;yrf;tm;xkwcsuukd wwyfwtm;jznfpnf;ay;Edi&eftwGuf xGuay:vmaom toD;tyGiwckjzpf f f f h kf f hf onf? ,ckpmtkywif vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf=ojcif;qdonfukd trsm;oabmayguatmif &Si;f vif;xm;,Hr#ru xdvyief;vkyf f G k k f k k kf aqmifaeaomolrsm; vduemoifonftcsursm;ESihf oif,orsm;. yg0ifrukd tm;ay;aom oif=um;r_enf;vrf;ud&,mrsm;udk k f h h f l l _ d azmfjyxm;onf? ,ckpmtkyonf (USAID) ESihf International Rescue Committee (IRC) - SHIELD Project .tultnDyy;kd r_jzifh f hH taumiftxnfazmfcaom vlxpr;f &nfjrSiwifrtpDtpOf. &vmfvjJ zpfonf? xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifcaom oifwef;om;/ hJ k G hf _ k Gf hJ oifwef;olrsm;. wuf=uGpmyg0ifavhvm/ wDxi/f }udK;yrf;r_rsm;a=umifh Tpmtkyukd ,ckuo@dk atmifjrifpm xkwa0Ediconf[k G G f hJ G f k f hJ qdv#ivJ rSm;rnfr[kway/? csi;f rdi/f rJa[mifaqmif/ rJaqmuf/ pefcvbl&aotoD;oD;rS ta=umif;t&mtrsKd ;rsKd ;ESiywfoufI k f f k D hf vlxkynmay;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfudkifaeom wdkif;&if;om;vli,frsm;u wDxGifxm;aom oifcef;pmrsm;udk TpmtkyfwGif pkpnf;wifjyxm;ygonf? vlxt=um; aphpyfaqmf=oaomenf;ynmrsm;ESihf vlxyg0ifavhvmaomynmay;r_rsm; wd;k wufvm k k atmif ydi;f 0ef;}uKd ;yrf;cJaom xdtpDtpOfwiyg0ifconfh oifwef;enf;jyrsm;/ enf;trsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh yg0ifunay;cJaomolrsm;tm;vH;k udk k h k Gf hJ l D h aus;Zl;jyKrSwwrf;wifygonf? txl;ojzifh ,cktpDtpOfwif rdrEihf vufwyg0ifcaom udatmifaZmfaxG;/ udvatmifEihf f G d S GJ hJ k k S rdurGeaxmwd@k ukd txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf? f jyKjyifajymif;vJrrsm;udk vlxt=um;aphpyfaqmf=ovH@_ aqmfrenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh azmfaqmif=uygp@kd / _ k _ atmifrsKd;rif; g&uwm kd f vl@tcGita&;ynmay;Xme(jrefrmEdii) hf kfH atmufwbmv/ 2007 ckEpf kd S o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 3hre pack.pmd 3 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  4. 4. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tcef;(1) aphpyfaqmfMojcif; aphpyfaqmfMoay;olqwmbmvJ (11) kd aphpyfaqmfMoay;olaumif;wpfa,muf t&nftcsi;rsm; (15) f aphpyfaqmfMoay;olwm0efrsm; (17) tcef;(2) oifMum;rItaxmuftuljyKenf;vrf;rsm; oifwef;wckjyifqifykH (21) oif&k;ñTe;wrf;rsm;jyifqifykH (ADIDS) enf;vrf; (27) d f oifwef;cef;rjyifqifykH (32) oifye;toH;jyKykH (33) k f k upm;enf;rsm;toH;jyKjcif; (35) k tacstwifajymqdjk cif;(od)pum;&nfvjk cif; (40) Yk o½kyazmfwifqufjcif; (43) f tkypi,fcjJG cif; (49) f k ½kyyrsm;toH;jyKjcif; (52) f kH k AG,Eihf ½ky&iZmwfvrf;rsm; (54) D D kd S f S f 4 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 4 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  5. 5. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf cufcaomolrsm;ESiqufqonftcg J hf H h vHavmufaomtpm;tpm&&Scihf (122) k d G owdjyK&rnftcsursm; (55) h f tjcm;enf;jzifh oefpr;olrsm;qdi&m G f k f tcGita&; (125) hf tcef;(3) vltcGita&; oifcef;pmrsm; Y hf kuonftcGita&; (128) © hf vltcGita&;t"dygÜ ,f (65) Y hf vltcGita&;t"dygÜ ,f (130) Y hf vltcGita&;ordi;aMumif; (69) Y hf k f pkaygif;vkyaqmifrI (128) f tjynfjynfqi&mvltcGita&; aMunmpmwrf; kd f Y hf twif;t"r®v,f,mNcHajr ordi;aMumif;ESitydrsm; (tajccHtqif) (74) k f hf k f h odr;qnf;cH&jcif;(133) f vltcGita&;ordi;aMumif; (83) Y hf k f vltcGita&;trsK;tpm; (87) Y hf d tcef;(4) trsKd;orD;tcGita&; oifcef;pmrsm; hf wOD;csi;ESihf tkypvutcGita&;rsm; (90) f f k kd f hf vdiujJG ym;rIEihf vdiujJG ym;rIay:tajccHí f S f vlYtcGifhta&;csKd;azmufrESifhumuG,frI (94) I cGjJ cm;onftjrifrsm; (138) h Ediiwum Ediiom;ESihf Ediia&;tcGita&;qdi&m k f H k f H k f H hf k f usm; r tcef;u@ (141) oabmwlpmcsKyf (100) vdifuGJjym;rIay:tajccHí EdiiwumpD;yGm;a&; vlra&;ESihf ,Ofaus;rItcGihf k f H I cGjJ cm;qufqrrsm; (146) H I ta&;qdi&moabmwlpmcsKyf (110) k f vdiujJG ym;rItay: cGjJ cm;qufqc&jcif; f H H vlYtcGifhta&;vkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufjcif; (116) tjzpftysuf (150) ynma&;wef;wlnrQrI (119) D trsK;orD;tcGita&; (153) d hf o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 5hre pack.pmd 5 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  6. 6. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf ta&SUawmiftm&StwGif;&SdtrsKd;orD;rsm; umuG,rqi&mtcGita&;rsm; (221) f I kd f hf tcGita&;tajctae (156) hf uav;yg0ifrI (224) tdrwi;tMurf;zufrI (165) (170) (173) f G f uav;vkytm;cdi;aprIEihf uav;tvkyf (228) f k f S trsK;orD;rsm; use;rma&;qdi&m tcGita&; d f k f hf uav;b0ESihf uav;tcGita&; (233) hf (176) uav;tcGita&; (236) (237) (239) hf a&S;½d;pGypcuowfrwjf cif;tydi;(u) (179) k J kH H G f S k f uav;zGNYH zKd ;wd;wufrI (241) k a&S;½d;pGypcuowfrwjf cif;tydi;(c) (184) k J kH H G f S k f uav;yg0ifrI (243) vdiEihf vditajcjyKtjrif (187) f S f uav;ppfom; (247) (249) (250) (253) vdiujJG ym;rItay:tajccHícGjJ cm;onftjrif (189) f h DDR vkyief;pOf (255) f rwlujJG ym;rIEihf cGjJ cm;qufqrI (191) S H yg0g (193) uav;ul;oef;a&mif;0,frI (256) (258) (266) yHpcuowfrwjf cif; (195) k H G f S (273) (274) (276) (277) trsK;orD;rsm;tay:tMurf;zufrI (197) d uav;rsm;touf&SifoefcGifhESifh zGHUNzdK;wdk;wufcGifh(259) tcef;(5) uav;tcGita&; oifcef;pmrsm; hf uav;tcGita&; (200) hf uav;tcGita&; pmcsKyygtcsursm; (203) hf f f touf&iciEihf zGUNzKd ;wd;wufcihf qdi&m S f G hf S H k G k f tcGita&;rsm; (214) hf 6 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 6 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  7. 7. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(6) a&Tajymif;tvkyorm; oifcef;pmrsm; Y f vkyief;cGiab;uif;vHNk cKH a&; (280) (282) f f tcef;(7) usef;rma&; oifcef;pmrsm; ud,0efzsufcsjcif; (286) k f (HIV/AIDS) (289) vdiqufqjH cif;rS ul;pufEiaoma&m*grsm;tm; f kd f umuG,jf cif; (291) rdom;pkprue; (293) D H d f rsK;yGm;rIqi&m use;rma&; (300) d kd f f usef;rma&; (303) tcef;(8) obm0ywf0ef;usif oifcef;pmrsm; bom0ywf0ef;usif ( 306) (310) (313) a&umwm (315) pGeypfypön;rsm; (316) Yf f tcef;(9) Nidr;f csrf;a&; oifcef;pmrsm; pkaygif;vkyaqmifrI (322) (323) f ,Ofaus;rI (324) cGivwjf cif; (326) hf T o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 7hre pack.pmd 7 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  8. 8. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf tMurf;zufjcif;ESihf tMurf;rzufjcif; (328) y#dyu©ukd qef;ppfavhvmjcif; (330) Mum;0ifaphpyfay;jcif; (332) Nir;csr;a&;ESihf bmomw&m; (334) d f f tcef;(10) vIy&m;rIrsm; f S upm;enf;rsm; (339) 8 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 8 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  9. 9. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(1) aphpyfaqmfMojcif; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 9hre pack.pmd 9 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  10. 10. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 10 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 10 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  11. 11. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aphpyfaqmfMoay;ol (Facilitator) qdwmbmvJ? k oif,orsm;. yg0ifrukd tm;ay;cGiðhf yaom vl@tcGita&;ynmay;olwa,mufonf rdru,urrd q&m}uD; l l _ hf d dk f kd d yHprcH,&ef ta&;}uD;vSonf? vl@tcGita&;ynmay;olonf rdravhvmxm;onfh t&mrsm;udtjcm; olrsm;odatmif kH l hf d k ajymjyay;oloufoufrjzpf&yg? vl@tcGifhta&;ynmay;olwa,mufonf rdrdudk,frdrd aphpyfaqmf=o ay;ol (Facilitator) wa,muf[omcH,&rnf? k l vl@tcGita&;ynmay;olonf oif,orsm;wGif &S+d yD;om;jzpfaom tawG@tóuHEihf A[kowrsm;udk jyefvef hf l l S k S oH;k oyfwwfap&efEihf xdtcsursm;udtajccHI vl@tcGita&;ESiywfoufonfh A[kowrsm;wd;k yGm;vmap&ef twGuf S k f k hf hf k tcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSef ajymqdaqG;aEG;apEdiatmif yHy;kd vkyaqmifay;oljzpf&rnf? xd@k a=umifh vl@tcGita&;ynmay;ol k kf h f hf onf oif,rnforsm;udk bmrSrygaom cGutvGwwcGuuo@kd rjrif&ef ta&;}uD;onf? oif,orsm;onf bmrSrod l h l f f f hJ l l rwwf/ rdromodonf wwfonf[aom tawG;tac:rsKd ;&Soonf oif,orsm;xHwif &S+d yD;om;jzpfaom ºuG,0vS d l d l l l G f onfh tawG@tóuHrsm; tod^m%frsm;udk&atmif xkwf,lEdkifrnfr[kwfyg? aphpyfaqmf=oay;ol (Facilitator) qdkwmbmvJ? aphpyfaqmf=oay;ol. t"duta&;t}uD;qH;k wm0efrm vuf&dS rdrwm0ef,xm;aom S d l tkyfpkwpk. ajz&Sif;vkyfaqmif&ef óud;yrf;aqmif&Guf aeaomjyemrsm; odk@r[kwf ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifhywfoufI atmifjrifpGm+yD;pD;ap&eftwGuf vkyfaqmif aer_vkyfief;pOftay: xdef;odrf;vrf;a=umif;ay;jcif;jzpfonf? aph p yf a qmf = oay;ol qd k o nf r S m æ Ð trsm;xJrS wa,muftaejzifh yg0iforsm;tm;vH;ESihf tjyeftvSeem;vnfrukd wnfaqmuf&oljzpf+yD;/ l k f _ tkyfpkwckvHk;. oif=um;avhvmEdkif&ef wm0ef,lol jzpfonf? Ð ,Hk=unfr_ESifh yGifhvif;r_&Sdonfhywf0ef;usifudk zefwD;oljzpf+yD;/ xdkywf0ef;usiftwGif; tjrifrwlnDr_rsm;udk av;pm;+y;D rdr,qonftwdi;f yGivif;pGmwifjy&Jaom taetxm;rsK;d &Satmifvyaqmifunojl zpfonf? d l h k hf d kf l D Ð avhvmoif,lr_ vkyfief;pOftwGif;wGif vlwdkif;rdrdudk,fwdkifyg0ifaeovdk cHpm;ae&atmif vkyfaqmifEdkif oljzpf+yD; vlwdkif;trSefwu,fyg0ifcGifh&Sdatmif tmrcHoljzpfonf? Ð aqG;aEG;yGJ ta=umif;t&mrsm; jyifqifjcif;/ tcsdefrsm;udk avhvmjcif;/ pwifcsdefESifh +yD;qHk;csdefrsm;udkowf rSwfjcif;/ aqG;aEG;r_ta=umif;t&m rvGJacsmfatmifxdef;odrf;jcif; tp&Sdonfh oif=um;avhvmr_yHk o¾mefudk azmfaqmifay;oljzpfonf? Ð oif=um;r_taxmuftulðyypPnf;rsm; jyifqifjcif;/ aqG;aEG;yGJae&m&SmazGowfrSwfjcif;/ yg0ifrnfholrsm; udktoday;ta=umif;=um;jcif;/ vdktyfonfhjyifqifr_rsm;+yD;/ r+yD;avhvmjcif; tp&Sdonfh “House keeping” wm0efvkyfief;rsm;udk aocsmatmifvkyfaqmifoljzpfonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 11hre pack.pmd 11 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  12. 12. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf aph p yf a qmf = ool r sm;taejzif h a&S m if = uOf & ef r S m æ OD ; aqmif o l o nf wm0ef c H r jzpf & ? ? oif=um;avhvmr_onf wzG‹J v;kH ESihf ouf qdiygonf? “aphpyfaqmf=ool” . wm0efrm oif=um; avhvmr_ukd kf S ydkrdkxda&mufatmif aqmif&Gufay;&efomjzpfygonf? oif=um;r_ ta=umif;t&mrsm;tm;vHk;udk wOD;wnf; csKyfudkifxm;olrjzpf&yg? avhvmrnfhacgif;pOfrsm;udk a&G;cs,fqHk;jzwf&mwGif yg0ifolrsm;. ajymqdkcsuf rsm;/ vdkvm;csufrsm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnf jzpfygonf? “rd r d w OD ; xJ u oif = um;yd k Œ csol ” rjzpf & yg? ? aphpyfaqmf=oay;ol ud,wiuvnf; k f kd f tjcm;olrsm;enf;wl avhvmazmfavhvmzufjzpf&ygrnf? avhvm&mwGifyg0ifolw a,mufjzpf+yD; rdrwOD;csi;f . tawG‹tóuHrsm;udk tjcm;olrsm;ESihf twlwuG a0r#ay; d oljzpf&ygrnf? “txl ; u|rf ; usif o l ” jzpf & ef r vd k t yf y g? ? aqG;aEG;rnfta=umif;t&mrsm;udk jyifqifay;oljzpfaomf h vnf; ulnDaqmif&Gufay;olonf ta=umif;t&mwckcsif;tay: Y tkyfpkwGifyg0ifonfh tjcm;olrsm; xuf ydkrdkodcsifrSodygvdrfhrnf? “tm;vH k ; u tm±H k p d k u f o nf h q H k c suf ” rjzpf & yg? ? aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;wa,mufonf tjcm;ol rsm;tm; aqG;aEG;yGtwGi;f yg0ifvmatmif aqmif&uay;onfrvI tjcm;yg0iforsm;xuf pum;avsmajym J G f S JG l h &ygrnf? “tqH k ; tjzwf a y;ol ” rjzpf & yg? ? tjcm;olrsm;ESihf tjyeftvSeaqG;aEG;ajymqd&mwGif aphpyfaqmf=o f k ay;olonf rnfonfhxifjrifcsufrsm;u rSefonf/ rSm;onf/ toHk;r0ifawmhyg ponfjzifh rqHk;jzwf&yg? “tapcH ” rjzpf & yg? ? avhvmaqG;aEG;rnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDpOf&mwGiunaqmif&uf olonf f l D G tpydkif;wGifOD;aqmifr_udk vkyfaqmif&aomfvnf;ol odk‹r[kwf olronf t&m&mtm;vHk;udkwm0efcHolrjzpf &yg? wOD;wa,mufxu tr_uo±dursm;tm;vH;k udk pkyor;f qnf;&ol od‹k r[kwf pDrcef‹crtao; pdwukd J d f k f kH d H JG _ f tcsdefjynfhvkyfaqmif&olrjzpf&yg? 12 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 12 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  13. 13. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aph p yf a qmf = oay;ol a umif ; wa,muf j zpf z d k ‹ bmawG v d k t yf o vJ ? yk*~vdut&nftcsif;rsm;tay:tajccHaom wOD;csif;pGrf;&nfESifh vkyfief;tay:ZJGvHk@vtjynfhjzifh vkyfaqmif vdaom t"dXmefpw&rw‹kd onf aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;. t&nftaoG;rsm;wcsK@d jzpfygonf/? od‹k &mwGif todynm k d f dS _ jynf0r_Eihf vkyief;tawG‹tóuHw‹kd rmvnf; aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;.t&nftaoG;udk ydrjkd rifrm;apaomtcsursm;jzpf h S f S k h f ygonf? vl w OD ; csif ; pD . cH p m;csuf r sm;tay: pmemem;vnf c H p m;Ed k i f r _ p G r f ; &nf ? ,H=k unfrEihf tjyeftvSeav;pm;r_ &Sonfywf0ef;usiukd zefw;D Edi&efEihf xde;f odr;f xm;Edif _ S f d h f kf S k &eftwGuf aqG;aEG;onfhacgif;pOfrsm;tay: vltrsm;urnfodk@ xifjrif,lqonf/ tjcm;olrsm; tay: rnfodk@wkef@jyefonfwdk@udk avhvmtuJcwf pmemem;vnfcHpm;ay;Edkif&ef txl;vdktyf onf? vltrsm;tjym;onfow‹kd . pdwroufromjzpfrrsm;/ pdwxcurrsm;ESihf agojzpf l f _ f d kd f _ r_rsm;udk xkwfazmfjyoavhr&Sd=uyJ aqG;aEG;r_rsm;twGif;rSvnf;aumif;/ wcgw&Htkyfpk twGif;rSvnf;aumif; wdwfqdwfpGm aemufqkwfoGm;wwfygonf? xdk@twGuf tjcm; olrsm;rnfo‹kd cpm;aeonfukd od&cpm;Edijf cif;/ tajctaew&yfukd rnfo‹kd we‹f jyef&rnfukd H dS H k k em;vnfjcif;wd‹k onf aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif;wa,muf. ta&;}uD;aom t&nftcsi;f jzpfygonf? tk y f p k . cH p m;csuf r sm;tay: pmemem;vnf c H p m;Ed k i f r _ p G r f ; &nf ? rnfonftypwirqdk tkypwckv;kH udponf tpdwtydi;f wckcsi;f xuf ydrta&;ygyg h k f k Gf f k P f k k kd onf? wOD;xHrwOD; a0r#u;l pufEionfh cHpm;r_rsm;jzpfaom rvdvm;r_/ aerxdxiromjzpfr/_ S kd f k kd f pdwfqdk;r_/ ysif;&dr_/ pdwfjyif;jyr_/ oHo,jzpfr_ESifh wcgw&Hpdwfrwnfjidrfr_wdk‹onf tkyfpkwckvHk;xHokd@ ul;pufEdkifygonf? tkyfpktwGif;jzpfay:ajymif;vJaer_rsm;udk &SmazGtuJcwfwwfjcif;ESifh wkef‹jyefwwfjcif;wdk‹onf u|rf;usifaomaphpyfaqmf=oay;olxHwGif r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfygonf// em;axmif E d k i f p G r f ; &S d j cif ; ? tkyfpkwckvHk;.cHpm;csufrsm;ESifh tkyfpkwGif;&Sd wOD;csif;.cHpm;csufrsm;udk od&SdcHpm;Edkifonfh enf;vrf;wckrSm pl;pduem;axmifwwfjcif;yifjzpfygonf/ pum;vH;k wckcsi;f pD. t"dym,foufa&mufrrsm;/ ajymqdow‹kd . toHaetoH k f ` _ k l xm;rsm;udkavhvmI t"dy`m,fudkòcHiHkazmfxkwfEdkif&rnfjzpfonf? xdk‹twGuf aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tkyfpkwckvHk;ESifh ,SOfv#ifpum;tenf;qHk; ajymoljzpf&ayrnf? wcgw&HwGif aphpyfaqmf=ool.oHk;oyfr_rSm tjcm;olrsm;.ajym=um; csufrsm;udk jyefvnfajymjyjcif;/ twdkcsKyfaygif;pkay;jcif;wdk@jzpf&rnf? enf ; em? wcgw&HwGif ulnDaqmif&Gufolonf tkyfpkwckvHk;. aumif;usKd;twGuf oufawmifhoufom r&SdvSonfh ðyrlaqmif&urrsm;/ em;0ifrcsKvonfh ajymqdrrsm;udk ðyvkyajymqd&wwfygonf? ,if;od‹k ajymqdðk yrl&mwGif odrarG‹pm G f_ d S k_ f k hf G jzif*±kwpduðf yrl&ef ta&;}uD;ygonf? txl;ojzifh vl‹tcGita&;bmom&yfEihf ywfoufIaqG;aEG;aepOf yg0iforsm; h k hf S l twGif; jyif;xefaomcHpm; csufrsm;ESifh qdk;&Gm;aomtjzpfqdk;rsm;udk jyefvnftrSwf&apr_rsm;jzpfay:apwwfygonf/ aphpyfaqmf=oolrsm;taejzifh pdwvy&m;zG,tajctae rsm;óuHawGŒ&ifqi&ygu rdrvyief;tay: wcgw&H cdicirmrm f _fS f kd f d kf k f kd f &yfwnf&ef vdktyfouJhodk‹ xdkolrsm;tay: av;av;pm;pm; ðyr_aqmif&GufEdkifrnfh enf;emrsm;vdktyfygonf? tjyef t vS e f y l ; aygif ; vk y f a qmif r _ t ay: ,H k = unf j cif ; ? tjyeftvSefyl;aygif;vkyfaqmifoif=um;r_onf wcgw&HwGif pdwfysufzG,f&mjzpf+yD; jynfhpHkvkHavmufr_r&Sd[k xif&ygonf// xdtcgrsK;d wGif aphpyfaqmf=oolonf ulnaqmif&uay;onfyptpm; t±d;k pJaeaom a&S;±d;k pJoif=um;r_ k D G f h kH H G G yHkpHjzpfonfh q&mwOD;wnf;a&S›aqmifoif=um;r_yHkpHodk‹ ajymif;vJvdkpdwfrsm; ay:vmwwfygonf? odk‹&mwGif aphpyf aqmf=ool. tjyeftvSey;l aygi;f vkyaqmifoif=um;r_tay: cdicirmrmvufcH ,H=k unfxm;ygu xdo@kd q&mwOD;wnf;u f f k f kd f k o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 13hre pack.pmd 13 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  14. 14. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf OD;aqmifoif=um;vdrukd wGe;f vSeqef‹usiapEdiygonf? wzufrvnf; aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tkypwi;f &Sd tjcm;olrsm;. k _ f f kf S fk G aphpyfaqmf=or_rsm;udvnf; zdwac: vuf cH&efvtyfygonf? k f kd tcsd e f t ay: od & S d c H p m;r_ ? aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tcseEiygwoufI “qÏrtm±H”udk arG;jrLxm;oifonf? rnfonftcsewif aqG; d f S hf f k h h d f G aEG;r_ukd tqH;k owfrnf/ rnfonftcsewif acgi;f pOfajymif;&rnf/ pum;&Sn&nvsm;vsm; ajymwwfoukd rnfonfh h d f G f S f l tcsdefwGif pum;jzwf&rnf/ rnfonfhtcgwGif owfrSwfcsdefxufausmfvGefI aqG;aEG;cdkif;qdkrnf/ rnfonfhtcgwGif wdwfqdwf+idrfoufr_udk tcsdef=um=umqGJxm;oifhonfponfjzifh tcsdefESifhywfoufI od&Sdem;vnf&efvdktyfygonf? ajymif ; vG , f j yif v G , f & S d r _ ? aphpyfaqmf=oolonf tpDtpOfrsm;udk pDpOfvkyfaqmif&rnfjzpfouJhodk‹ tpDtpOfrsm;udkvnf; vdktyfygu tajctaeESifhvdkufavsmnDaxGpGm ajymif;vJvdkr_&Sd&rnfjzpfonf? wcgw&HaqG;aEG;&mwGif yg0ifaeaomolrsm;onf aqG;aEG;onfhta=umif;t&mESifhywfoufI b,fvdka&S›quf&rnfukd rodavmufaom tajctaersKd;a&mufoGm;Edkif onf? wcgw&Hwif aqG;aEG;onfta=umif;t&mwcktwGuf cef@re;f xm;onfxuf tcseyrvkd tyfonftjzpfrsK;d vnf; G h S d f kd kd h &ifqi&Edionf? aphpyfaqmf=ooltaejzifh tkyp.vdtyfcsuay:wGif oH;k oyfwwf&efvtyf+yD; rnfo‹kd we‹f jyef&rnfukd kd f k f fk k f kd k qH;k jzwfEi&rnfjzpfonf? ta=umif;t&macgi;f pOfwi;f onf ta&;}uD;onfreaomfvnf; wcgw&Hwif ydrjkd ynfpaom kd f kd S f G k h kH ajz&Sif;r_jzpfap&eftwGuf tcsKd‹acgif;pOfrsm;udk vdktyfyguðzwfypf&ef qHk;jzwf&wwfygonf? [mo^m%f & S d j cif ; ? wcgw&H tvGepwtm±Hp;l pduae&aomtcsersm;twGi;f aphpyfaqmf=ool.[mo ^m%f&Sdr_/ tjcm;olrsm;. fd f k k f df &,f&$ifzG,ftjzpftysufrsm;udkzvS,fwwfr_wdk‹jzifh avhvmolrsm;pdwf&$ifvef;vmap&efvkyfEdkifonf? A[k o k w jynf h 0 jcif ; ES i f h zef w D ; wwf r _ ? yg0iforsm;tay:wGitajccHI tkypwi;f / tkypwi;f wGiujJG ym;jcm; em;r_rsm;&Sayrnf? aphpyfaqmf=oolaumif; l f f k kd f k kd f d wa,muftaejzifh ajymif;vJaeaomtajctaeESihf tcGitvrf;rsm; ay:wGirwnfI vduavsmnDaxG&atmif aexdif hf fl k f dS k wwfouJhodk‹ wckvHk;.vkyfief;pOfESifh &nfrSef;csufrsm;udkvnf; azmfaqmifEdkif&rnfjzpfonf? Oyrmtm;jzifhtkyfpk wGif;&Sdxl;c|efolrsm;ESifh tawG‹tóuH&Sdolrsm;udk azmfxkwf&SmazGEdkif&rnfjzpfouJhodk‹ rdrd.A[kokwt&if;tjrpfrsm;udk avhvmolrsm;tusKd;twGuf t}uHðyay;apEdkifygonf? 14 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 14 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  15. 15. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aphpyfaqmfMoay;olaumif;wpfa,muf t&nftcsif;rsm; pd w f " mwf y d k i f ; qd k i f & m Ð bufvurr&S/d yk*K~ vpr&SbJ ormorwfusus &yfwnf kd f _ d f GJ d &rnf? Ð tjcm;olrsm;. *k%foduQmESifh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk av;pm;wwf&rnf? Ð rdru,rrd bufaygi;pHjk ynfpo/l tm;vH;od tm;vH; d kd f d f h kH k k wwfaeaomol[k rrSw,oif? f l h Ð udk,fwdkifu vdifcJGjcm;r_tjrifESifh cJGjcm;zdESdyfr_pdwf uif;&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,orsm;xJrS jyefvnftwk,avhvmvdaom pdwxm; l l l k f rsKd;&Sd&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,orsm;onf bmrSrod/ bmrSrwwf[aom tawG;pdw"mwfrsK; l l l f d a&Smif&rnf? tjyKtrl y d k i f ; qd k i f & m Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;tm;vHk;ESifh &if;ESD;azmfa&GpGmqufqHwwf&rnf? Ð rdrajymonftcsuEihf rdr.tðytrl/ tajymtqdk udunr&&rnf? d h f S d k f D _ dS Ð rdrduajymonfxuf olrsm;ajymonfudk ydkem;axmifEdkif&rnf? avhvmoif,lolrsm;. ajym=um;csufudk tav;xm; *±kpuem;axmifay;wwf&rnf? kd f Ð pdwfqdk;pdwfaumufaom/ pdwfysufaomtrlt,mrsm;udk ray: atmif xdr;f odr;f Edi&rnf? kf Ð rdrdudk,fwdkifuvJ udk,fhudkukd,f,Hk=unfr_&Sd+yD; oufawmifhouf omjzpfaom yHprsK;d jzpf&rnf? oifavsmovdk Z0eOm%fo;kH wwf kH h f &rnf? Ð b0ifjrif/h rme}uD;aomyHpukd a&Smif&m;&rnf? k H S Ð tcsdefwdusr_ESifhwm0efudk rdrdudk,fwdkifav;pm;wwf&rnf? Ð rvdkvm;tyfbJ trsm;tm¶Hkpl;pdkufapaom/ tjrif¶_wfapaom 0wfpm;qif,ifr_udka&Smif=uOf&rnf? Ð cE<mudk,fudk vdktyfovdkv_yf&Sm;I pum;ajymwwfoljzpf&rnf? rv_yfr,Sufxdkifae+yD; ysif;&dp&mtoHjzifh ajymqdrukd a&Smif=uOf&rnf? k_ enf ; vrf ; yd k i f ; qd k i f & m Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;. avhvmvdkaomtcsufrsm;/ &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk aumif;pGmod&Sdem;vnf&rnf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 15hre pack.pmd 15 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  16. 16. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf Ð avhvmoif,orsm;. vkyaqmifrrsm;ESihf vkyief;pOfw@kd l l f _ f udk t+rJrjywfavhvmae&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;&nfrSef;xm;onfh &nf&G,fcsufrsm; twdkif; a&mufEdkifatmif vrf;a=umif;ay;Edkif&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,owŒkd em;rvnfEiaom twwfynm l l kd f pum;rsm;rsm;udk wwfEior# a&Smif&m;&rnf? kd f S Ð rdrqvonftcsursm;udk d kd kd h f avhvmoif,ol rsm;em;vnf l atmifv&if;wd&i;f ajymEdi&rnf? kd kS kf Ð oif=um;r_enf;vrf;rsKd;pHkudk oifhavsmfovdkajymif;vJtoHk;cs wwf&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,orsm;. l l avhvmEdirpr;f &nf udqef;ppfavhvmwwf&rnfjzpf+yD; vdtyfovdk xde;f ausmif;Edi&rnf? kf_G k k kf Ð vlwdkif;yg0ifaqG;aEG;vmatmif tm;ay;Edkif&rnf? odk@aomf avhvmoif,lolrsm;onf yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzifhyg0ifwwf onfudk t+rJowdrl&rnf? tcsKd@olrsm;onf tkyfpk}uD;wGif aqG;aEG;jcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; tkyfpki,ftwGif;wGif aqG;aEG;r_&wwfonf? dS Ð avhvmoif,loltcsif;csif; &efvdk/ wdkufcdkufr_udk rjzpfatmif wm;qD;umuG,fay;Edkif&rnf? tm;vHk;,Hk=unf av;pm;wefzdk;xm;onfh ywf0ef;usifrsKd;wnfaqmufay;Edkif&rnf? Ð aqG;aEG;aeonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;xJrS ta&;}uD;aomtESpfcsKyfudk tjcm;olrsm;odatmif/ b,ftqifh txda&mufaeonfudk owdðyrdatmif tESpfcsKyfjyefvnfwifjywwf&rnf? Ð oifcef;pmwckEiwck od@k r[kwf aqG;aEG;onfta=umif;t&mwckEiwckt=um; qufpyfr&&wifjyoGm;wwf&rnf? S hf h S hf _ dS dS Ð oifwef;om;rsm;. em;vnfr_tajctae {em;vnfr_/ ±_wfaxG;r__/ qufvufoif,lEdkifr_a&csdef(yifyrf;/ tdyf idkuf/ wufºuG )}wdk@udk avhvmtuJcwfwwf+yD; vdktyfovdk xdef;ausmif;ay;Edkif&rnf? Ð avhvmoif,lol udk,fwdkifvkyfudkif&if; tajz&SmEdkifrnfhtvkyfrsm;udk udk,fudk,fwdkifu pdwfapmI udk,fpm; vkyfaqmifay;jcif;/ tajzxkwfay;vdkufjcif;rsm;udk a&Smif=uOf&rnf? avhvmoif,lolrsm;onf olwdk@udk,fwdkif vkyfaqmifavhvmoif,Edkir_udk ydkrdkwefzkd;xm;wwf/ rSwfrdwwfonf? l f Ð oifwef;om;rsm;t=um; vSnfhvnfI avhvmwwfoljzpf&rnf? tkyfpkwpkxJwGifom t+rJaejcif;udk a&Smif& rnf? xdkodk@aeygu xdktkyfpkudk rdrduv$rf;rdk;ouJhodk@jzpfoGm;Edkifonf? Ð avhvmoif,lolrsm;xHwGif ar;p&mar;cGef;rsm;&Sd/ r&Sd r=umc%ppfaq;ay;&rnf? Ð rdrdar;cGef;wckar;vdkuf+yD;ygu ajz=um;rnfholrsm; tcsdef,lpOf;pm;Edkif&ef tcsdefay;&rnf? Ð rdrduqHk;jzwfcsufcsay;jcif;r[kwfbJ avhvmoif,lolrsm;taejzifh ydkrdkeufeJpGmaqG;aEG;awG;ac:apEdkifrnfh ar;cGef;rsm;udkar;+yD; ukd,fwdkifoHk;oyfwwfap&ef vkyfaqmifay;Edkif&rnf? Ð jzpfay:vmaomtajctae/ aqG;aEG;r_ESifh vdkufavsmnDaxGpGm ajymif;vJwwf&rnf? Ð aqG;aEG;rnfhta=umif;t&mudk avhvmxm;oljzpf&rnf? Ð rdrdudk,fwdkifuavhvmoif,lolrsm;.tm;aumif;csuf/ tm;enf;csufrsm;udktðyoabmjzifhaxmufjywwf&ef vdovd/k rdrtay:a0zefaxmufjyEdi&efuvnf; vrf;zGiay;wwf+y;D av;pm;pGmvufcI vdtyfyguajymif;vJwwf&ef k d k f kd hf H k vdonf? k 16 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 16 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  17. 17. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf aphpyfaqmfMoay;olwm0efrsm; aphpyfaqmf=oay;olonf vlxkt=um;wGif vlr_toGifðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rsm; jzpfay:ap&eftwGuf vGwvyfyivif;r_&aom/ vlwi;f yg0ifavhvmr_&aom/ vlxEiuunaom/ vlxukd pGr;f &nfjr‡iay;aomynm f G hf dS kd dS k S hf kd f D k hf oif=um;r_udk udkifpJGusifhoHk;oljzpf&rnf? xdk@odk@aom ynmoif=um;r_yHkpHrsKd; jzpfap&eftwGuf aphpyfaqmf=o ay;oltaeESifh owdðyvdkufemvkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0ef (5) rsKd;&Sdonf? 1 ? yxrOD;qHk;wm0efrSm avhvmoif,lolrsm;t=um; pdk;&drfr_/ r&if;ESD;r_/ oufawmifhoufomr&Sdr_rsm; yaysmufom;+yD; &if;ES;D r_rsm;&&Satmif pwifvyaqmifay;&rnfh (Initiate) jzpfonf? avhvmolrsm;taejzifh G d k f oifwef; od@k r[kwf aqG;aEG;yJppcsi;f wGip;kd &drr/_ ,cifurawG@b;l aomolrsm;ESiawG@&ojzifh r&if;ES;D r_rsm;&Swwf G f f hf d onfrSmobm0yifjzpfonf? xdkcHpm;csufrsm;aysmuf+yD; vef;qef;wufºuGvmap&eftwGuf v_yf&Sm;r_wckckjzifh pwifoifhonf? odk@rSom wdwfqdwf+idrfoufaeaomtajctaeudkòzdzsufI oif,lolwdk@taejzifh vGwfvyf aygyg;r_ucpm;Edirnf? xd@k aemuf oif,avhvmolw@kd . tawG;rsm;udazmfjyEdirnfh ar;cGe;f rsm;udk pwifar;Edirnf? h kd H k f l k kf kf 2 ? aemufxyfwm0efrSm oif,lolrsm;t=um; av;pm;r_/ em;vnfr_/ tcsif;csif;tjyeftvSef ulnDr_rsm; &Sdap&eftwGuf rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk vkyfaqmifoihfa=umif;/ a&Smif=uOfoifha=umif;0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;I pnf; urf;rsm;csrwjf cif; (Regulate)jzpfonf? oif,orsm;tm;vH;k yg0ifaqG;aEG;vmatmif/ tjcm;olrsm; wifjyr_ukd S l l avSmifajymifysu&,f rðyatmif/ 0ifa&mufaqG;aEG;r_r&SbJ t+rJwrf;wdwqw+f idroufaeolukd yg0ifvmatmif/ f d f d f aqG;aEG;r_acgif;pOf ta=umif;t&mrsm; OD;wnfcsuftwdkif;oGm;Edkifatmifb,fvdkrsdK; vdkufemaqmif&Gufoifh a=umif; 0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwfjcif; tqifhyifjzpfonf? 3? aphpyfaqmf=oay;oltaejzifh aemufvkyf&rnfhwm0efwckrSm oif,lolrsm; odoifhod xdkufaom/ avhvmvdkaomta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifhywfoufI vdktyfoavmuf owif; tcsuf r sm;ay;jcif ; / ta&;}uD ; onf h t csuf r sm;ud k a xmuf j yjcif ; / avh v moif , l olrsm;tm; aqG;aEG;rnfhta=umif;t&mrsm;. &nf&G,fcsufESifh tcsdefpm&if;rsm;udk today;jcif;(Inform)jzpfonf? 4 ? aemufxyfvkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0efrSm rdrdta=umif;t&mudk ajymqdk wifjy&ef tcuftcJ&Sdolrsm;/ rdrdwifjycsufudk tjcm;olrsm;em;vnf atmif wifjy&mwGif tcuftcJ&orsm;udk tm;ay;ulnjD cif; (Support) dS l jzpfonf? xdo@kd vyaqmifay;jcif;jzifh tm;vH;k wifjyEdiatmif yHy;kd ay;&m k kf kf h a&mufovdk &nf&G,fcsuftwdkif; c&D;qufEdkifatmif xdef;ausmif;ay;&m vnf;a&mufonf? 5? aemufxyfvkyfaqmif&rnfhwm0efrSm jyefvnftuJjzwfjcif; (Evaluate) jzpfonf? aqG;aEG;r_rsm; b,ftqifo@kd a&mufaeonf/ b,ftcsursm;udk tESpcsKyf h f f wifjyoifonf/ oif,orsm;teuf rnfoutxl;tm±Hðk yI qJac:&ef vdtyfaeonf/ h l l l kd G k aemufxyfb,ftcsursm;udk qufvufaqG;aEG;atmif vrf;a=umif;ay;oifonf ponfh f h tcsufrsm;udk t+rJrjywf tuJjzwfqef;ppfaejcif;rSmvJ ynmay;olwa,muf rjzpf raevkyfaqmif&rnfh vkyfief;w&yfyifjzpfonf? o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 17hre pack.pmd 17 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  18. 18. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 18 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 18 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  19. 19. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf tcef;(2) oifMum;rItaxmuftuljyK enf;vrf;rsm; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 19hre pack.pmd 19 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  20. 20. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf 20 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 20 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  21. 21. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf oifwef;wckjyifqifykH (Designing Training) oifwef;wckujkd yifqifawmhrnfqygu vG,v,Eihf jyifqifIr&Ediyg? trSewu,f xda&mufatmifjrifaom kd f G fS kf f oifwef;wckjzpf&eftwGuf tzufzufrS óudwifjyifqifp&mrsm;&Sdygonf? oifwef;wckudk jyifqifawmhrnfqdkygu rjzpfraejyifqifxm;oifhaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf? 1? bmta=umif;a=umifh oifwef;vdktyfovJudk od&Sd aom todynm twwfynmvdktyfcsufrsm;/ oifwef; xm;&rnf? (Training Needs Assessment) umvtwGi;f t"duavhvmvdaom tcsursm;udk odatmif k f oifwef;wckðyvkyawmhrnf od@k r[kwf vlwOD;OD;/ f vkyEiygu bma=umifh ,ckoifwef;vkyz@kd vdtyfovJqkd f kd f f k tzJG@tpnf;wckcku oifwef;ay;&eftwGuf vma&muf onfhtcsufESifh ywfoufI vHkavmufaomtajzrsm;&&Sd tul t nD a wmif ; onf q d k y gu yxrOD ; qH k ; od & S d & rnf h Edkifrnf? tcsurm bmtwGua=umifh ,ckoifwef;vkyz@kd vdtyf f S f f k xdk@tjyif tu,fI tjcm;olwOD;OD; odk@r[kwf tzJ@G tpnf;wckcu zdw=f um;onfqygu bma=umifh xdk k kd ta=umif;t&mudk oif=um;yd@k csapvdovJqonfh ar;cGe;f k kd udar;jref;Edionf? xktzG@J pnf;. &nf&,csu/f aemufcH k kf d G f ordkif;a=umif;rsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ "avhxkH;pHrsm;/ olwdk@. jyemrsm;udk od&Sdxm;jcif;jzifh aemufqufwJGjyifqif p&mrsm;jzpfaom aqmif&efa&Smif&efrsm;/ oif=um;r_enf; vrf;rsm;/ taxmuftulðyypPnf;rsm;udk qufvufjyif qifEdkifonf? xdkuJhodk@vdktyfcsufrsm;tm; avhvmpHkprf; jcif;udk twdkaumuftm;jzifh TNA (Training Needs Assessment) [kvnf;ac:onf? tu,f I oif w ef ; ay;&ef vd k t yf c suf r sm; ovJqaom tcsuyifjzpfonf? xdtcsuonf yxrOD; kd f k f odk@r[kwf oifwef;om;rsm;avhvmvdkaom ta=umif; qHk;vkyfaqmif&rnfh tcsufjzpfovdk oifwef;atmifjrif t&mrsm;udk óudwifI ravhvmEdiygu ppcsi;f tcsewif kf d f G xda&mufrukd wdi;f wm&mwGita&;t}uD;qH;k aom tcsuf _ k f oifwef;om;rsm;xHrS b,fta=umif;t&mrsm;udk avh vnf;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif xdktcsufudk aoaocsmcsm vmvdovJqonfh tcsursm;&atmif ar;jref;xkwazmf k kd f f &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;odxm;rSom aemufxyfta&;}uD;aom oifhonf? tcsursm;tm; b,fvjkd yifqif&rnfukd pOf;pm;qifjcifEif f kd ayrnf? 2? &nf&G,fcsuf (Objectives) bmtwGuf ,ckoifwef;vkyfzdk@ vdktyfovJqdk aomtajzudo&&ef rdroifwef;vky&ef&nf&,xm;onfh k d dS d f G f bma=umifh xdkoifwef;ay;&ef vdktyfovJqdk aoxHokd@oGm;a&mufI oifwef;vkyf&ef&nf&G,fcsuf aom tajzrsm;udk &&Sd+yD;+yDqdkygu aemufxyfvkyfaqmif vkyfxm;aomolrsm;tm; oGm;a&mufar;jref; okawoe &efrm &¶dxm;aomtcsursm;tay:tajccHI oifwef;. S S f vkyfEdkifonf? xdkodk@oGm;a&mufar;jref;&mwGif vlawG@ &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udkcsrSwf&efjzpfonf? &nf&G,fcsufqdk ar;jref;jcif;vkyEiovdk oifwef;vdtyfonftcsursm;udk f kd f k h f onfrm oifwef;t+yD;wGif oifwef;wufa&muforsm;udk S l od&SdEdkifonfh ar;cGef;azmifrsm;jyifqifI jznfhpGufapEdkif b,fvdkjzpfoGm;apcsifonfqdkonfh ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;udk onf? vltrsm;=um;xJ vSnfhvnfoGm;vmI ppfwrf; csrwjf cif;jzpfonf? xdo@kd &nf&,csursm;udk tpuwnf; S k G f f aumuf , l E d k i f o nf ? xd k o l r sm;wG i f óuH a wG @ ae&aom u wdwusus&i;f &Si;f vif;vif; csrwxm;rS xdoifwef;. d S S f k jyemrsm;/ xdjk yemrsm;udk ajz&Si;f vdaom t}uH^m%f k atmifjrifr/_ xda&mufr/_ tusKd ;&Srw@kd ukd oifwef;t+yD;wGif d_ rsm;/ xdo@kd ajz&Si;f onftcgwif ‚if;wd@k vtyfaom/ odvkd k h G kd xifxif&Sm;&Sm;wdkif;wmEdkifrnfjzpfonf? oifwef;t+yD; o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 21hre pack.pmd 21 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  22. 22. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf wGif xd&nf&,csursm;udk jyefvnfu;kd um;I xd&nf&,f nDr#um oifwef;.&nf&G,fcsufrsm;twdkif;&&SdEdkifrnf? k G f f k G csursm;&&Satmif vkyaqmifEijf cif;&Sr&S/d vkyaqmifEiyg f d f kd d f kd f u b,favmuftwdi;f twmtxd vkyaqmifEionfukd k f kd f wdi;f wm&rnf? xd@k a=umifh &nf&,csucsrw&mwGif (SMART) k G f f S f jzpf&efvdkonf? xdkpum;vHk;.qdkvdkcsufrSm(S-specific tao;pd w f u sr_ ) jzpf o nf ? qd k v d k o nf r S m rd r d c srS w f xm;aom &nf&G,fcsufonf a,bl,srqefbJ vlOD;a&/ ta=umif;t&m/ tcsdefwdwdususjzpf&efvdkonf? (M- measurable wdi;wmI&aom) qdonftcsurm xd&nf kf k h fS k &G,csuatmifjrifr&r&Sukd tvG,wul wdi;f wmEdiaom f f _ dS d f k kf tcsufjzpf&ef vdktyfonf? tcsKd@aom &nf&G,fcsufrsm;onf vlxkt=um; tu,fI oifwef;ydk@csrnfholu rdrdvdkcsifonfht&nf todtjrifwkd;wufap&ef[laom ta&;tom;rsKd;jzpfI tcsi;f rsm;ESihf udunaomoifwef;om;rsm; &Edirnfqyg k f D kf kd vlxkt=um;todtjrifwdk;wufr_ay: rnfuJhodk@wdkif;wm u taumif;qHk;jzpfonf? odk@aomf oifwef;wdkif;wGif EdirvJqonfrm ar;cGe;f xkwp&mjzpfaeonf? aemufw xdkuJhodk@aomoifwef;om;rsm;&Edkifrnfr[kwfyg? xdk@ kf kd S f csujf zpfonfh (A- achievable atmifjrifEir)qdonfrm twGufa=umifh oifwef;ydk@csrnfoltaejzifh rdrdoifwef; kd f _ k S xd&nf&,csuukd owfrwxm;onftcsetwGi;f trSef wGiwufa&mufrnfh oifwef;om;rsm;ta=umif;udk odEif k G f f S f h d f f kd wu,f atmifjrifEir&r&Sqonftcsujf zpfonf? w&uf or#oxm; atmifvy+f yD; xde;f !‡Ei&ef óud;pm;&ayrnf? kd f _ dS d kd h d k d kd f wmoifwef;twGif; vl@tcGifhta&;ta=umif;t&mtm; oifwef;om;rsm;.ta=umif;udk avhvm&mwGif vH;k udk E_uEuc|wc|wf tao;pdwoifEirnf r[kwyg? d f d_ f f f kd f f trsm;tm;jzifh vlta&twGuf/ usm;rOD;a&/ touf/ &&SdaomtcsdefESifh tajctaetwGif;trSef wu,f&&Sd ynma&; tqiftwef;/ ajymqdonfbmompum;/ vlrsK;d / h k h Edkifaom &nf&G,fcsufrsKd;jzpf&rnf? aemufxyftcsufrSm ,Ofaus;r_aemufcH/ tzJG@tpnf;/ wm0ef/ wufa&mufcJh (R- realistic jzpf E d k i f a cs&S d r &S d ) qd k o nf h t csuf j zpf o nf ? bl;aom oifwef;tawG@tóuHrsm;udk odEior#o&atmif kd f d dS oifwef;wywfay;±Hjk zifh wEdiiv;kH u jynforsm;udk vl@tcGihf kfH l vk y f a qmif & onf ? xd k t csuf t vuf r sm;ud k rsm;rsm; ta&;u|rf;usifolrsm; jzpfatmifvkyfIr&Edkifay? xdk&nf odEdkifavav xdkoifwef;rsm;ESifh oifhavsmfudkufnDaom &G,fcsufonf atmifjrifEdkifr_qdkonfh tcsuft&qdkv#if oifcef;pmenf;vrf;rsm;udk a&G;cs,fEdkifavavjzpfrnf? jzpfEdkifrnfh&nf&G,fcsufr[kwfEdkifyg? aemufqHk;tcsufrSm xdkodk@odxm;ygu xdkolwdk@. touf/ usm;ruJGjym;r_ESifh (T-time-bound tcseuujf zpfr)jzpfonf? oifwef;ðyvkyf d f kd _ ,Ofaus;r_rsm;jzifh udkufnDrnfh v_yf&Sm;r_enf;vrf;rsm;udk &ef jyifqifxm;aomtcseEihf jzpfysuaeaom ta=umif; dfS fwDxitoH;k ðyEdirnfjzpfovdk xdow@kd . aemufctcsuf Gf kf k l H t&mudprsm; udunr&r&S/d xdtcsetwGi;f wufa&muf P k f D _ dS k df tvufrsm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;.tajctaersm;/ vuf&Sdvkyf rnforsm; vma&mufEijf cif;&Sr&Sd ponfw@kd ukd xnfoi;f h l kd d h G aqmifaeonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udo&ygu rdroifcef; k d dS d pOf;pm;&rnf? pmaqG;aEG;r_rsm;xJwif xdtawG@tóuHrsm;udk aqG;aEG;vm G k Edkifatmif OD;aqmifqJGac:oGm;Edkifrnfjzpfonf? txl; ojzifh xdorsm;. ,Ofaus;r_qi&m tqdtrde@f rsm;/ vufcH k l kd f k 3? oifwef;om; a&G;cs,fr_ (Participant) ,k=H unfrrsm;udk rdravhvmxm;+yD; oifcef;pmESihf qufpyf _ d oifwef;om;udk a&G;cs,f&jcif;rSm oifwef;om; IvdktyfovdktoHk;ðyjcif;jzifh oifwef;om;rsm;. vuf rsm;.uGm[r_ukd avsmenf;ap&efjzpfonf? oifwef;wuf awG@b0ESifheD;pyfaom aqG;aEG;csufrsm; jzpfay:vmapEdkif h rnfh olrsm;tm;vH;k wln&efrmrjzpfEiyg/ od@k aomf oifwef; onf? D S dk f wGif;&Sd oifwef;om;rsm;. tawG;tac: jrifhrm;r_a&csdef uGm[csufenf;avav oifwef;atmifjrifr_ ydkrsm;av avjzpfonf? oifwef;yd@k csotaejzifh oifwef;om;rsm;. l a&csdefudk xdef;!‡day;Edkifrnfqdkygu oifwef;om;.yg0ifr_ 22 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 22 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  23. 23. vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H h hf kf 4? ae&m/ tcsd e f ul n D r nf h o l rsm;udk óudwifod&SdrSom xdk&&SdaomtcsdefESifh udkufnDpGm (Place, Time, Assistance) oifcef;pmrsm;udk jyifqifEdkifvdrfhrnf? aemufxyfqufvuf+yD; jyifqif&rnfht&mrSm xdk@jyif xdkoifwef;tqifajyajyatmifjrifpGm oifwef;yd@k csrnfae&m/ tcseEihf oifwef;twGi;f rdrvtyf h dfS d kd +yD;qHk;oGm;&eftwGuf 0dkif;0ef;ulnDaqmif&Gufay;rnfh onfrsm;tm; ulnDay;rnfholrsm;udk jyifqifjcif;yifjzpf olrsm;udk owfowfrSwfrSwfa&G;cs,fI wm0efay;&efvJ onf? rdrdvkyfrnfhoifwef;ae&mudk rdrdt&ifqHk;=unfh vdktyfonf? rdrdoifwef;om;rsm;. aea&;pm;a&;udk Ediygu taumif;qH;k jzpfonf? xdo@kd =unfjh cif;jzifh rdrjd yif kf k ulnDay;rnfh xrif;[if;csufolrsm;/ um;armif;ydk@ay;rnfh qifrnfoifcef;pmrsm;udk xdae&mtus,t0ef;ESihf tcef; h k f olrsm;/ oifwef;twGi;f rSwwrf;wifay;rnforsm;/ rdrEihf f h l dS wnfae&mtvdkuf udkufnDtqifajyrnfh v_yf&Sm;r_enf; yl;wJGI oifwef;ydk@csrnfholrsm;/ oifwef;twGif;vdktyf vrf;rsm;xJrS a&G;cs,fpOf;pm;Edkifrnf? rdrdzdwf=um;rnfh rnfht&mrsm;udk 0,f,lay;rnfholrsm;udk óudwif&SmazG oifwef;om;rsm; avhvmv_yf&Sm;Edkif&eftwGuf tcef;. aqG;aEG;xm;&efvonf? tu,fI bmomjyefrnfvl vdk kd h taetxm;onf vHavmufaomtus,t0ef;/ av0if k f tyfygu xdkolonf bmompum;ajymwwf±Hkoufouf avxGu/f tvif;a&mif&&Sr_ aumif;rGevavmufr&r&Sukd d f kH _ dS d omru rdrdaqG;aEG;rnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh &if;ESD; óudwif=unhf&_ avhvmoifhonf? oifwef;ðyvkyfrnfhae u|rf;0ifjcif;&Sdr&Sdudk pDppfavhvm&efvdkonf? trsm;pk &monf oifwef;om;rsm;. ±kyfykdif;qdkif&moufawmifh arhavsmavh&aomolwOD;rSm tu,fI rdroifwef;om; h dS d oufomjzpfruomru pdwyi;f qdi&m oufawmifh ouf _ kd f kd k f rsm;xJwGif uav;i,frsm;&Sdaom rdcifrsm;ygvmygu xdk omjzpf apatmifvnf; jznfhqnf;ay;Ekifaom ae&mjzpf d uav;rsm;udk xde;f ausmif;ay;rnfh uav;xde;f rsm;yifjzpf oifonf? vHòk cHa&;ESihf ywf0ef;usif aESmuf,urw@kd uvJ h S f _ kd onf? rdrd&ifaoG;udk pdwfcspGmxm;EdkifrS xdkrdcifrsm;onf xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnf? xdkae&modk@ oifwef;om;rsm; oifwef;tay: pdwf0ifpm;Edkifrnfjzpfojzifh pdwfcs&aom vma&muf&ef tcuftcJ&r&Sqonfh tcsurmvJ xnfh dS d kd f S uav;xde;f . tcef;u¾rSmvJ tvGeta&;}uD;ygonf? f oGif;pOf;pm;oifhaom tcsufyifjzpfonf? aemufxyftcsufrSm oifwef;vkyfrnfhtcsdefjzpf 5? oif c ef ; pmacgif ; pOf r sm;a&G ; cs,f r _ / onf? xdktcsdefonf rdrdtwGufomru oifwef;wuf (Lesson plan content) rnfh olrsm;tm;vHk; tqifajyEdkifrnfhtcsdefudk a&G;cs,f aemuf x yf j yif q if & rnf h t csuf r S m oif w ef ; wwf&efvonf? txl;ojzifh rdroifwef;om;rsm;xJwif kd d G twGuf txl;ta&;}uD;aom oifcef;pmjyifqifr_jzpf tdrfaxmifwm0efudk rjzpfraexrf;aqmifae&aom tdrf onf? ,cifu rdrdavhvmxm;aom oifwef;ðyvkyf& axmifpD;yGm;a&;twGuf jyifyxGufI pdkufysKd;a&;vkyf&ol onfh&nf&G,fcsufudktajccHI ,ckoifwef;twGif; rnf rsm;/ puf±tvkyvy&olrsm; wufa&mufEirnhf tcsersK;d Hk f kf kd f df onfhta=umif;t&macgif;pOfrsm;ESifh tcsuftvufrsm; jzpf r S o m atmif j rif a omoif w ef ; jzpf r nf ? xd k @ tjyif udk xnfoi;f aqG;aEG;rnfjzpfa=umif; a&G;cs,q;kH jzwfonfh h G f oifwef;om;rsm;rS ay;Edkifrnhftcsdefumv b,favmuf tqifhjzpfonf? vl@tcGifhta&;qdkonfh ta=umif;t&m vJqonfh tcsuuvxnfoi;f pOf;pm;&rnf? wae@v#if kd f kd J h G rSm tvGefus,fjyef@vSojzifh xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;xJrS b,fem&DoifrvJ/ b,fESpf&ufoifrvJqdkaom tcsuf rnfonfhta=umif;t&monf oifwef;om;rsm;vdktyf onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;jzpfonfua&G;cs,&rnf? xdo@kd kd f k a&G ; cs,f & mwG i f oif w ef ; om;rsm; avh v mvd k o nf h ta=umif;t&momru rdrdzGifhvSpf&onfh oifwef;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udkyg [efcsufnDnD xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;& rnf? rdry@kd csrnfoifcef;pmrsm;onf rdr&nf&,xm;aom d h d G f oifwef;wckv;kH . &nf&,csuEihf udun&rnfjzpfonf? G f f S k f D rdrdoifcsifonfht&m/ rdrdu|rf;usifonfhacgif;pOfudkom oifIr&yg? oifwef;umvtwGi;f rnfonfacgi;f pOfEihf rnf h S o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7 23hre pack.pmd 23 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB
  24. 24. h hf vltcGita&;ynmay;Xme (jrefrmEdii)H kf onfhta=umif;t&mrsm;yg0ifatmif aqG;aEG;aprnf[k 7? &effykHaiG(Fund) a&G;cs,owfrw+f yD;rSom aemufxyftao;pdwf tqifukd f S h txufygtcsufrsm; jynfhpkHaomfvnf; qufvufjyifqifEdkifayrnf? oifwef;ydk@cs&ef ukefusrnfht&mrsm;twGuf &efykHaiG 6?oif = um;r_ e nf ; vrf ; rsm;ES i f h v k d t yf a omypP n f ; rsm; r&SduvkyfaqmifEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? xdk@twGuf ukefusrnfh (Module planning and materials) p&dwfrsm;udk rnfoluwm0ef,lrvJ/ rnfonhfenf;jzifh oifwef;umvtwGi;f rnfonfacgi;f pOfEihf rnf &efyaiG&mrvJ/ ukeusrrsm; tenf;qH;k jzpfatmifb,fvkd h S kH S f _ onhfta=umif;rsm;yg0ifatmif aqG;aEG;aprnf[ka&G;cs,f jyifqifrvJ ponf wdk@udkjyifqif&ayrnf? owfrSwf+yD;v#if aemufxyfjyifqif&rnfh tcsufrsm;rSm xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;udk rnfonfhenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh ydk@cs rvJqdkaomtcsufyifjzpfonf? rdrdxnfhoGif; aqG;aEG;ap rnfhta=umif;t&macgif;pOfwckcsif;tay: rnfonfhenf; vrf;rsm;oHk;rvJ/ rnfonfhaemufqufwJGar;cGef;rsm;udk quf p yf a r;rvJ / rnf o nf h A [k o k w rsm;xnh f a y;rvJ / vufawG@b0eJ@ b,fvqufpyfrvJponfh (ADIDS) enf; kd vrf;rsm;udk jyifqif&rnfhtcsdefjzpfonf? wcsdefxJrSmyif xd k o if = um;r_ e nf ; vrf ; rsm;twG u f vd k t yf r nf h ± k y f y H k / jyZmwfZmwfvrf;/ oDcsif;/ ADGD,dk/ avhvmp&mtjzpf tysuf Zmwfvrf;ponfwdk@udkvJ jyifqifxm;&awmhrnf jzpfonf? xdkvdktyfaomypPnf;rsm;udk pOf;pm;a&G;cs,f&m wGif rdrdoifwef;om;rsm;.touft¶G,f/ &ifhusufr_/ ,Ofaus;r_ponfwdk@ESifhudkufnDaom taxmuftulðy 8? tuJjzwffjcif;(Evaluation) ypPnf;rsm;jzpf&rnf? oif w ef ; . atmif j rif t oH k ; 0if r _ u d k w d k i f ; wm Edkif&eftwGuf tuJjzwfjcif;onf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaom tcsufjzpfonf? rlvucsrSwfxm;aom oifwef;vkyf aqmif&onfh &nf&,csursm;ud&&Sd jynfrr&r&Sukd wdi;f G f f k h DS _ dS d k wmEdi&eftwGuf tuJjzwfjcif;udk rjzpfrae vkyaqmif& kf f onf ? rd r d c srS w f x m;aom SMART &nf & G , f c suf r sm; twdkif; vkyfaqmifEdkifcJhjcif;&Sdr&Sdudk tuJjzwf&mwGif rdrdwOD;xJomr[kwfbJ oifwef;wufa&mufolrsm;ESihf oifwef;udkpDpOfolrsm; tm;vHk;tuJjzwfEdkifrSom buf aygif;pHkuoHk;oyfaom tuJjzwfr_rsm; xGufay:vmay vdrfhrnf? xdkodk@jyifqifonfh tao;pdwfjyifqifr_rsm;tm; tuJjzwf&mwGif enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;jzifh vkyf vH;k onf xdta=umif;t&mwckcsi;f udk xnfoi;f aqG;aEG; aqmifEiaomfvJ wlnonf&nf&,csurm rdrcsrwxm; k h G kd f D h G f fS d S f aponfh &nf&G,fcsufESifh udkufnD&rnfhtjyif oifwef;ðy aom &nf&,csursm;udk twdi;f twmb,favmuftxdG f f k vkyf&aom&nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifhvJ udkufnD&efvdktyfonf? &&Sconfuqef;ppfjcif;ESihf tu,fIaemufxyf oifwef; d hJ kd oif=um;r_enf;vrf;ESihfywfoufI oif=um;r_ tpDtpOfrsm;qufvufvkyfaqmifygu rnfonfht&m enf;vrf;erlemrsm;udavhvmEdi&ef Tpmtkywif azmfjy k kf f G rsm;udk ,ckxufyrw;kd wufatmif vkyaqmif&ef vdtyf kd kd f k xm;ygonf? xdenf;vrf;trsm;pkonf(ADIDS)enf;vrf; k aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifEdkifap&ef udk tajccHIa&;qJGxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? twGufjzpfonf? trsm;qHk;xnfhoGif;I tuJjzwfavh&Sd aomt&mrsm;rSm oifwef;wGif aqG;aEG;aomta=umif; t&mrsm;.toH k ; 0if r _ / oif w ef ; yd k @ csol . u|rf ; usif r _ / 24 o if w ef ; e nf ; jy v rf ; ñT ef 2 0 0 7hre pack.pmd 24 11/28/2007, 5:13 HREIB

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