GRAND DUCHY OFLUXEMBOURG Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg(Luxembourgish) Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (French) Großherzogtum Luxemburg (German)BY: ANGELICA GRACE BARNACHA VALDEZ
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONLUCK sem boorrg, is one of Europe’soldest and smallest independent countries.It lies in northwest Europe where WestGermany, France, and Belgium meet.Luxembourg covers an area that is smallerthan Rhode Island and it has about one-third as many people as that state.
CAPITAL: LUXEMBOURG CITYIs the capital city of the Grand Duchy ofLuxembourg. The city is a transportation, financial,and banking center, and its industries manufactureclothing, electrical machinery, chemicals, andprocessed foods. The Romans built a fort on thesite, because of its strategic location overlookingthe Alzette River; by the 10th century Luxembourgwas one of Europe’s strongest walled towns. Thefortress was razed according to the terms of theTreaty of London (1867). During both world warsthe city was occupied Germany.
CLIMATELuxembourgs climate is temperate andmild. Summers are generally cool, with a meantemperature of about 17 C (63 F ); winters areseldom severe, average temperature being about0 C (32 F ). The high peaks of the Ardennes inthe north shelter the country from rigorous northwinds, and the prevailing northwesterly windshave a cooling effect. Rainfall is plentiful in theextreme southwest; precipitation throughout thecountry averages about 75 cm (30 in) annually.
LANGUAGEThree languages are recognized as official inLuxembourg: French, German, and Luxembourgish,a Franconian language of the Moselle region that is also spokenin neighboring parts of France and Germany.Luxembourgish is also considered the national language of theGrand Duchy; it is the mother tongue or "language of the heart"for nearly all Luxembourgers.Luxembourgers generally use to speak to each other, but it isnot often used as the written language.Most official (written) business is carried out in French.German is usually the first language taught in school and is thelanguage of much of the media and of the church.
FRANC• was the currency of Luxembourg between 1854 and 1999 (except during the period 1941-44). The franc remained in circulation until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.
BRIEF HISTORYLuxembourg’s history began in 963 when Count Siegfried ofArdennes built a castle on the site of the present-day city ofLuxembourg. The castle was called Lucilinburhuc (little castle).Luxembourg became prominent in 1308 when Count Henry ofLuxembourg became ruler of Germany. Henry’s grandson, CharlesIV, made Luxembourg a duchy, and the Luxembourg family ruled theduchy until 1443, when The Netherlands took control of Luxembourg.In 1815, Congress of Vienna made Luxembourg a grand duchyruled by the Netherlands.Germany occupied Luxembourg during World Wars I and II. In thewinter of 1994 and 1945, part of the Battle of the Bulge was fought innorthern Luxembourg.In 1945, Luxembourg became a member of the United Nations. Itjoined an economic union called Benelux in 1948, and became amember of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949.
TYPE /FORM OF GOVERNMENTCONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY.The grand duke (or duchess) of the House of Nassauis the chief executive. He appoints the Cabinet,which is made up of a prime minister and sevenother ministers. Each minister is in charge of one ormore government departments. The grand duke alsoappoints the 21 members of the Council of State forlife. The Chamber of deputies passes all laws.