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  1. 1. The Holy Qur’an The Manual of the Creator Part I
  2. 2. Authenticity <ul><li>There are two issues concerning the authenticity of the Holy Quran: </li></ul><ul><li>Historical criticism: The reliability of the testimonies of the contemporaries who witnessed the revelation, collection, and transmission of the Holy Quran. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical testing: The extent to which the content of the Holy Quran matches the qualities of its source, i.e. The miraculous aspects of the Quran. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The History of The Holy Quran <ul><li>The historical events that constitutes the revelation, collection, and transmission of the Holy Quran are well documented and preserved. </li></ul><ul><li>To establish the historical authenticity, these events can be tested using the historical methodology of criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, the Mutawatir ways of transmission of the Quran and its history will be tested by the modern Western historical methodology. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modern, Western Historical Methodology <ul><li>When events occur, they can be known by contemporaries who then pass on their knowledge and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, in a court of law, through the testimonies of witnesses to a particular event, facts are established beyond a reasonable doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>It is from the reliable testimony of contemporaries of events that historical knowledge is derived. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the aim of historical methodology is to determine if the various testimonies that reach us today can be accepted as sound evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a historian has collected his sources—anything that directly or indirectly provides information about a particular event (e.g. a book, a scroll, a broken piece of pottery, a picture, a radio clip, an oral tradition)—he must then evaluate them using the techniques of criticism . </li></ul>
  5. 5. External Criticism <ul><li>External criticism involves investigating the origin of a particular source-as opposed to its content, which is the concern of internal criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>The historian needs to seek out all possible information regarding the source’s origin, as well as possibly restore the source to its original form . </li></ul><ul><li>This is in order to establish the authenticity of the source. Determining the authenticity of a source means establishing that the testimony is indeed that of the person to whom it is attributed, or that it belongs to the period to which it claims to belong, and that it is what it claims itself to be. </li></ul><ul><li>It is worth noting here that historians distinguish between authorship and authenticity, even though &quot;identifying the author is the first step in establishing authenticity&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The second and last step in external criticism consists of an examination of the source’s integrity. In other words, it must be ascertained that the source or testimony has reached the historian uncorrupted. Only then is the fact of testimony absolutely established. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Internal Criticism <ul><li>Internal criticism is concerned with the content of the source and naturally follows its external criticism. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal in this step is to establish the credibility of the testimony. To start with, the historian must be sure to understand what the witness meant by his testimony. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the credibility of the witness means establishing both his competence (that he speaks out of knowledge) and veracity (that he is truthful). </li></ul><ul><li>The next step is to establish if the person or people behind the source were indeed in a position to know first-hand about the matter under investigation and whether they were honest. </li></ul><ul><li>The credibility of testimony, then, derives from the competence and veracity of the witness, and these two qualifications must not be taken for granted. His ability to observe must be established, the opportunity to observe verified, his honesty ascertained, his testimony compared with that of other witnesses to discount the errors any one witness may make. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methods of Determining the Reliability of the Traditions <ul><li>The above methodology is taken from the Hadith Methodology which is more smart & technical. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the traditionists, a Hadith can only be considered reliable when its Sanad offers an unbroken series of credible and veracious authorities till the Prophet (S.A.W.). </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim scholars endeavored not only to ascertain the names and circumstances of the narrators in order to investigate where and when they lived, and which of them had been personally acquainted with the other, but also to test their reliability, truthfulness and accuracy in transmitting the texts, to make certain which of them were reliable. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Principles of Criticism of the Isnad <ul><li>1. All the traditions must be traced to their original reporter through a chain of transmitters. These transmitters must be of excellent character, truthful and have a good retentive memory. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Every tradition which reports an event that occurred frequently in the presence of a large number of people, must have originally been reported by several narrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutawatir - Consecutive: is a hadith which is reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together. </li></ul><ul><li>A-Sahih - sound . Each reporter should be trustworthy in his religion; he should be known to be truthful in his narrating, to understand what he narrates, to know how a different expression can alter the meaning, and to report the wording of the hadith verbatim, not only its meaning&quot;. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Holy Quran <ul><li>The word Quran in Arabic is derived from qara’a = to read, recite; hence Quran = the Recitation, the Reading. It can be defined as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>The speech of Allah, </li></ul><ul><li>sent down upon the last Prophet Muhammad, </li></ul><ul><li>through the Angle Gabriel, </li></ul><ul><li>in its precise meaning and precise wording, </li></ul><ul><li>transmitted to us through numerous independent sources (tawatur), </li></ul><ul><li>both verbally and in writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Inimitable and unique, </li></ul><ul><li>protected by God from corruption. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Descent of The Quran <ul><li>According to Suyuti on the basis of three reports from Abdullah Ibn Abbas, in Hakim, Baihaqi, and Nasa’I the Quran descended in two stages: </li></ul><ul><li>From the Lauh-Mahfuz (well-preserved tablet) to the lowest heavens of the world ( bait al-I’zza ), all together, in the Lailat al-Qadr. </li></ul><ul><li>From the heavens to earth in stages throughout the twenty-three years of Muhammad’s prophethood, and first in lailat al Qadr in Ramadan, through the Angel Gebriel. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kitab Bad’a Al-Wahi: How the Revelation Came <ul><li>Sahih Al-Bukhari: N arrated by Aisha, (the mother of the faithful believers) that Al-Harith bin Hisham asked the Messenger of Allah &quot;O Messenger of Allah! How is the Divine Inspiration revealed to you?“ </li></ul><ul><li>He (S) replied, &quot;Sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says.“ </li></ul><ul><li>'Aisha added: Verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Critics: Why in Stages? <ul><li>The Qur'an was revealed in stages over a period of 23 years, and not as a complete book in one single act of revelation. There are a number of reasons for this; most important are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen the heart of the Prophet by addressing him continuously and whenever the need for guidance arose. [25:32]. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of consideration for the Prophet since revelation was a very difficult experience for him. </li></ul><ul><li>To gradually implement the laws of God. </li></ul><ul><li>To make understanding, application and memorisation of the revelation easier for the believers. [17: 106]. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transmission of Quranic Revelation <ul><li>Memorisation and Oral Transmission: </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of the Written Text. </li></ul><ul><li>The Quran in Manuscript and Print. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Memorization by the Prophet <ul><li>Oral transmission of the revelation was based on hifz or memorization and the Prophet Muhammad himself was the first to commit a revelation to memory after the Angel Gabriel had brought it to him: </li></ul><ul><li>'Move not your tongue with it (the Quran) [O Muhammad] to hasten therewith. Indeed, upon Us is its collection [in your heart] and its recitation. So when We have recited it [through Gabriel], then follow its recitation. (75: 16-19). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Memorization by the Companions <ul><li>The Prophet then declared the revelation and instructed his Companions to memorize it. </li></ul><ul><li>The case of Ibn Mas'ud, who was the first man to publicly recite the Qur'an in Makka, shows that even in the very early phase of the Islamic umma recital of the revelation from memory was practiced by the Companions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also reported that Abu Bakr used to recite the Quran publicly in front of his house in Makka. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Quran Readers among the Companions <ul><li>Suyuti [Itqan 1, p. 124.] mentions more than twenty well-known persons who memorized the revelation, among them were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, 'Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, Abu Huraira, 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas, 'Abdullah bin 'Amr bin al-'As, 'A'isha, Hafsa, and Umm Salama. </li></ul><ul><li>From among these, the Prophet himself recommended especially the following: </li></ul><ul><li>'Narrated Masruq: 'Abdullah bin 'Amr mentioned 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud and said: I shall ever love that man for I heard the Prophet saying: Take (learn) the Qur'an from four: 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Salim, Muiadh and Ubay bin Ka'b'. [Bukhari, VI, No. 521.] </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Transmission of the Written Text <ul><li>The Written Text at the Time of the Prophet Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by Jam' al-Qur'an? </li></ul><ul><li>The general meaning of jam' al-qur'an is to 'bring together the Qur'an'. This was done and has to be understood in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing together the Qur'an orally, or in one's mind (hifz). </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing together the Qur'an in written form, or on sheets, or in a book. </li></ul><ul><li>As far as the written text is concerned, one may distinguish three stages of Collection : </li></ul><ul><li>In the time of the Prophet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the hearts of men (memorisation). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on writing materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the time of Abu Bakr. </li></ul><ul><li>In the time of 'Uthman. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Written Text at the Time of the Prophet (S) <ul><li>We can distinguish the following measures which ensured the collection of the revelation in writing during the lifetime of the Prophet: </li></ul><ul><li>Revelation used to be written down even in the very early days of the Prophet's call. </li></ul><ul><li>In Madina, the Prophet had several persons who wrote down revelation when it was revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Prophet himself instructed his scribes as to where the different revealed verses should be placed, and thus determined the order and arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>This order and arrangement was well known to the Muslims and strictly observed by them. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Suhuf and Mushaf <ul><li>In the history of the written text of the Qur'an, suhuf stands for the sheets on which the Qur'an was collected in the time of Abu Bakr. In these suhuf the order of the ayat within each sura was fixed, but the sheets with the suras on them were still in a loose arrangement, i.e. not bound into a volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Mushaf in the present context means the sheets on which the Qur'an was collected in the time of 'Uthman. Here both the order of the ayat within each sura as well as the order of the sheets were fixed. </li></ul><ul><li>Today we also call any copy of the Qur'an, which has both order of ayat and suras fixed, a mushaf. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Time of Abu Bakr <ul><li>Tradition informs us that at the Battle of Yamama (11/633), in the time of Abu Bakr, a number of Muslims, who had memorised the Qur'an were killed. Hence it was feared that unless a written copy of the Qur'an were prepared, a large part of the revelation might be lost. </li></ul><ul><li>The manuscript on which the Qur'an was collected, remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him, and then with 'Umar, and finally it remained with Hafsa, 'Umar's daughter. [Bukhari, VI, No. 201.] </li></ul><ul><li>Here we can distinguish the following steps, which led to the preparation of the suhuf: </li></ul><ul><li>Zaid was instructed by Abu Bakr to collect the Qur'an. </li></ul><ul><li>Zaid collected it from various written materials and the memories of people. </li></ul><ul><li>The sheets thus prepared were kept with Abu Bakr, then 'Umar, then Hafsa. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Time of Uthman <ul><li>During the time of 'Uthman differences in reading the Qur'an became obvious, and after consultation with the Companions, 'Uthman had a standard copy prepared from the suhuf of Abu Bakr that were kept with Hafsa at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>The following events led to the preparation of the mushaf of 'Uthman: </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes had arisen among the Muslims about the correct manner of reciting the Qur'an. </li></ul><ul><li>'Uthman borrowed the suhuf, which were kept with Hafsa. </li></ul><ul><li>'Uthman ordered four Companions, among them Zaid bin Thabit, to rewrite the script in perfect copies. </li></ul><ul><li>'Uthman sent these copies to the main centres of the Muslims to replace other materials that were in circulation. </li></ul>