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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

AJITH MK
AJITH MK
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Total Quality Management TQM
What does TQM mean?
Total Quality Management means that
the organization's culture is defined
by and supports the constant
attainment of customer satisfaction
through an integrated system of
tools, techniques, and training. This
involves the continuous improvement
of organizational processes, resulting
in high quality products and services.
Elements of TQM


Leadership




Employee involvement




Top management vision, planning and support.
All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their
work.

Product/Process Excellence


Involves the process for continuous improvement.
Elements of TQM


Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use”


Design quality




Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in
the marketplace.

Continuous Improvement




A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a
journey with no end and that there is a need for
continually looking for new approaches for improving
quality.
Conformance quality


The degree to which a product meets its design specifications.
TQM & organizational Cultural Change
Traditional Approach

TQM

Lack of communication

Open communications

Control of staff

Empowerment

Inspection & fire fighting

Prevention

Internal focus on rule

External focus on customer

Stability seeking

Continuous improvement

Adversarial relations

Co-operative relations

Allocating blame

Solving problems at their roots
Characteristics
1.Totality – Integration of all areas ,functions ,activities and
employees are important.
2.Documentation – Information should be documented and
it help the employees in visualizing their work
assignments and responsibilities in the quality activity.
3.Improvements – The Improvement of quality activities
helps in achieving highest levels of quality and
competitiveness in operations, products and services.
4.Foundation – The organization must have a solid
foundation. Good organizational systems equip
management and employees of the company to come
to grips to customer requirements and satisfaction.

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

  • 2. What does TQM mean? Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.
  • 3. Elements of TQM  Leadership   Employee involvement   Top management vision, planning and support. All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their work. Product/Process Excellence  Involves the process for continuous improvement.
  • 4. Elements of TQM  Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use”  Design quality   Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace. Continuous Improvement   A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality. Conformance quality  The degree to which a product meets its design specifications.
  • 5. TQM & organizational Cultural Change Traditional Approach TQM Lack of communication Open communications Control of staff Empowerment Inspection & fire fighting Prevention Internal focus on rule External focus on customer Stability seeking Continuous improvement Adversarial relations Co-operative relations Allocating blame Solving problems at their roots
  • 6. Characteristics 1.Totality – Integration of all areas ,functions ,activities and employees are important. 2.Documentation – Information should be documented and it help the employees in visualizing their work assignments and responsibilities in the quality activity. 3.Improvements – The Improvement of quality activities helps in achieving highest levels of quality and competitiveness in operations, products and services. 4.Foundation – The organization must have a solid foundation. Good organizational systems equip management and employees of the company to come to grips to customer requirements and satisfaction.
  • 7. Objectives Making the organization market and customer focused Guiding the organization by its values, vision, mission, and goals set through ‘strategic planning process’. Changing the organization from function focused to customer focused, where customer priorities come first in all activities. Making the organization flexible and learning oriented to cope with change
  • 8. Making the organization believe in – and seek– continuous improvement as a new way of life. Creating an organization where people are at the core of every activity, and are encouraged and empowered to work in teams. Promoting a transparent leadership process to lead the organization to excellence in its chosen field of business
  • 9. Fundamentals of TQM Focus on Customer Management by fact Focus on prevention Principle of PDCA cycle Employee involvement
  • 10. Key Activity Areas Preproduction Quality Evaluation Quality Planning Quality Evaluation of Product and Process Quality Information System Quality Training and Orientation Post production Quality Service
  • 11. Total Quality Management and Continuous Improvement TQM is the management process used to make continuous improvements to all functions. TQM represents an ongoing, continuous commitment to improvement. The foundation of total quality is a management philosophy that supports meeting customer requirements through continuous improvement. Total Quality Management
  • 12. The TQM System Continuous Improvement Objective Principles Customer Focus Process Improvement Total Involvement Leadership Education and Training Supportive structure Elements Communications Reward and recognition Measurement Total Quality Management
  • 13. TQM GURUS 1,W.EDWARDS DEMING 2,JOSEPH M.JURAN 3,GENICHI TAGUCHUI 4,PHILIP B.CROSBY
  • 14. Deming’s 14 Points for Management 1. Create constancy of purpose. 2.Adopt a new philosophy. 3. Cease mass inspection. 4. End awarding business on the basis of price tag. 5. Constantly improve the system. 6. Institute training on the job. 7. Improve leadership. 8. Drive out fear. 9. Break down barriers between departments. 10.Eliminate slogans. 11.Eliminate work standards. 12. Remove barriers to pride. 13. Institute education and self-improvement. 14. Put everybody to work.
  • 15. Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement 1,Management is committed to quality – and this is clear to all 2,Create quality improvement teams – with (senior) representatives from all departments. 3,Measure processes to determine current and potential quality issues. 4,Calculate the cost of (poor) quality
  • 16. Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement 5,Raise quality awareness of all employees 6,Take action to correct quality issues 7,Monitor progress of quality improvement – establish a zero defects committee. 8,Train supervisors in quality improvement
  • 17. Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement 9,Hold “zero defects” days 10,Encourage employees to create their own quality improvement goals 11,Encourage employee communication with management about obstacles to quality 12,Recognize participants’ effort 13,Create quality councils 14,Do it all over again – quality improvement does not end
  • 18. Juran’s Ten Steps to Quality Improvement 1,Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement 2,Set goals for improvement 3,Organize to reach the goals 4,Provide training 5,Carry out projects to solve problems 6,Report progress 7,Give recognition 8,Communicate results 9,Keep score 10,Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company
  • 19. Genichi Taguchi ‘s eight point approach 1,Identify main functions, side effects and future modes. 2,Identify noise factors and the testing conditions for evaluating quality loss. 3,The quality characteristics to be observed should be identified and the objective function to be optimised. 4,The control factors and alternate levels be identified. 5,Design the matrix experiment and define the data analysis procedure. 6,Conduct the matrix experiment. 7,Analyse data, determine optimum levels for the control factors and predict performance under these levels. 8, Conduct the verification experiment and plan future actions.
  • 20. Quality System Standards The quality systems are the organizational structures, responsibilities ,procedures ,processes and resources for implementing quality management. The quality system should function as to provide proper confidence that: The system is well understand and effective. The products or services actually do satisfy customer expectations. The emphasis is placed on problem-prevention rather than dependence on detection ,after occurrence.
  • 21. ISO (INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION) The International Organization for Standardisation (ISO) is a specialised agency for standardisation. It is a world wide federation of national standards bodies in more than 100 countries. The primary objective of ISO is coordination and unification of international standards. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the national standards body of India represented on ISO.
  • 22. ISO Family of Standards ISO9000:Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards- Guidelines for selection and use. ISO 9001:Model for quality Assurance in Design /Development ,Production ,Installation and Servicing. ISO 9002:Model for Quality Assurance in Production and Installation ISO 9003:Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test. ISO 9004:Quality Management and Quality System Elements.
  • 24. Quality circle "Quality Circle is a small group of employees who work-in same work area or doing a similar type of work who voluntarily meet regularly for about an hour every week to identify, analyze and resolve work related problems, leading to improvement, In their total performance and enrichment of their work life."
  • 25. 3 major quality concepts Quality circle is a form of participant management. Quality circle is a human resource devolvement technique. Quality circle is a problem solving technique.
  • 26. Objectives Change in attitude Self development Development of team spirit Improved organizational culture Help in improving the productivity Promote individuals self-development Enhanced interest in jobs.
  • 27. Benefits of QC Improving human relations Participative culture Solving quality problems Reducing defects Improving productivity Problem prevention attitudes Improved communication Leadership development
  • 28. Benchmarking Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure themselves against the best industry practices. It is the search for best practices that will lead to superior performance.
  • 29. Varieties of benchmarking Internal Benchmarking External Benchmarking Competitive Benchmarking Industry Benchmarking Process Benchmarking Performance Benchmarking Strategic Performance
  • 30. Advantages Understanding companies Attainment of competitive position Meet requirements of users Establishing goals Improvement in quality Determination of training needs of employees Improvement of overall performance of the company
  • 31. Limitations 1.The best in class performance is not static. 2.Not provide instant sollutions 3.Chance of conflict 4.Lack of planning and leadership
  • 32. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING Reengineering is a systematic critical examination of existing ways of doing things in an organisation with a newer and better ways of doing business. They exercise help in making the function faster , cost effective and qualitative. It brings out deficiencies of existing system and attempts to maximise productivity through restructuring and reengineering human resources as well as departments.
  • 33. Phases of Reengineering 1, Realisation – Assessment and understanding organization needs , challenges, threats etc.. 2, Requirements – Requirements of customers, suppliers, owners ,products and services. 3, Rethink – Examining of organization’ s current objectives and underlying assumptions. 4, Redesign – Analysis of the way the organization produces the products ,the way the jobs are structured.
  • 34. Reengineering Process 1, Preparing for change – This step prepares foundation for the future activity 2, Planning for changes – Enables the management to forsee the future changes and plan the things to carry out those changes. 3, Designing change - This step provides a mean to identify , assess, map and ultimately redesign business processes. 4, Evaluating change – Evaluate past activities and develop objectives and priorities for the coming year.
  • 35. Six Sigma Six Sigma is a philosophical benchmark or standard of excellence proposed by Philip Crosby. It provides techniques and tools to improve the capability and reduce the defects in any process. This strategy measures the degree to which any process , has deviated from its mean without causing errors in the operation.
  • 36. Advantages of Six Sigma Indicate the extent to which a process can vary without causing errors in the operations. Aims to achieve zero defects product. Eliminates causes of defects in the operations. Extensive training to the project team. Aims to improve process performance. Improves the work system ,training and the work environment. Decreases the cost of inspection and reduces the rework.
  • 37. Key Roles for Implementing Six Sigma 1,Executive Leadership - Top management will be assigned for setting up the vision for implementing six sigma. 2,Champions -Take responsibility for implementing six sigma. 3,Master Black Belts – Devote hundred percent of their time for implementing six sigma. 4,Black Belts – Implement six sigma in specific projects. 5,Green Belts – Implement six sigma along with their other job responsibilities.
  • 38. KAIZEN KAIZEN is a philosophy or practice that focuses upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, game development, and business development. It is a daily process , the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement.
  • 39. Elements 1, Teamwork 2, Personal discipline 3,Improved morale 4,Quality circles 5,Suggestions for improvement