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Chapter 7 presentation ( Course curriculum development in Language Teaching)


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Chapter 7 presentation ( Course curriculum development in Language Teaching)

  1. 1. 1 សាកលវិទ្យាល័យបាត់ដំបង University of Battambang Lecturer: Mr. Lim Chantha Subject :Curriculum Design and Development Book : Curriculum Development in Language Teaching Presenters: Sran Louth Roeurn Kosal 18th, November 2017
  2. 2. CHAPTER 7 Providing for effective teaching
  3. 3. Focus: • How quality teaching can be achieved and maintained in a language program • consequence of how well teachers teach • work environment that teachers can facilitate good teaching Four factors to be considered • 1. institutional factors • 2. teacher factors • 3. teaching factors • 4. learner factors
  4. 4. The Institution The organization culture Quality indicators in an institution The teaching context
  5. 5. The organizational culture Refers to • the ethos and environment that exist within a school • the kinds of communications and decision making that take place • the management and staffing structure they support
  6. 6. • Some questions reveal school’s organization culture 1. What are the school’s goals and mission? 2. What is the school’s management style? 3. What shared values do staff have? 4. What are the decision-making characteristics of the school? 5. What roles do teachers perform? 6. How are teaching and other work planned and monitored? 7. What provision is made for staff development? 8. How are courses and curriculum planned? 9. How receptive is the school to change and innovation? 10. How open are communication channels?
  7. 7. • Basic to the organizational culture of an institution is management structure.  built by managerial choices • Managerial decision specifies in two aspects 1. the number and type of jobs in the organization 2. the process that subordinate, control, and link them, such as authority relationships, communication networks, and specific planning and organizational techniques (Davidson and Tesh 1997) • Two types of organizational structures 1. Mechanistic model 2. Organic model
  8. 8. • Mechanistic model is a bureaucratic approach to organizing collective activities that stresses “the need for authority, hierarchies of control, and an explicit chain of command” (Davidson and Tesh 1997, 178) For example: 1. specialization: specialize in certain level and skills 2. prepared curriculum and syllabus 3. explicit chains of command , all communication in such programs is vertical 4. hiring, promotion, and dismissal policies
  9. 9. • The organic model (Davidson and Tesh 1997, 179) This model maximizes flexibility and adaptability, encourages complete confidence and trust between superior, and subordinate taps a wide range of human motivations to achieve organizational goals For example: 1. flexibility and adaptability, level, skill, or content area 2. professional training for teachers 3. vertical and lateral communication 4. importance of teamwork and committee system • David and Tresh suggest that most language programs have features of both the organic and the mechanistic models, depending on the size of the program and the type of staff working in it.
  10. 10. Quality indicators in an institution • Some schools take seriously ( Morris 1994)  development of a sound curriculum and programs  the best available teachers to be hired  quality instruction and the kinds of support that teachers need to achieve their best
  11. 11. • Characteristics of quality indicators 1. clearly stated educational goals 2. well-planned, balanced and organized program 3. systematic and identifiable processes 4. commitment to learning 5. staff involvement in developing goals 6. motivated and cohesive teaching force 7.Administrator are concerned with teachers professional development 8. programs to be reviewed and progress to ward their goals is evaluated
  12. 12. • Some schools may not accept the quality indicators.  no educational mission to develop  no plan to achieve  teachers to be poorly motivated, qualified  high staff turnover  low reputation of institution
  13. 13. Key dimensions of quality and how quality can become a focus in a school or language program 1. A sense of mission • Useful format for articulating a school’s sense of mission in the form of a mission statement • Statement developed collectively by those who have a commitment to the success of the institution
  14. 14. 2. A strategic plan • Description of the long-term vision and goals of an institution and the means it undertakes for fulfilling them • Useful overview of the function of strategic planning 1. vision – something hoped to accomplish in the future 2. values – principles of guiding the program 3. purpose – the reasons of the institution’s existence 4. mission – description of visions in terms of specific goals to achieve 5. goals – specific steps related to each aspect of mission 6. strategies – methods and activities to attain the goals
  15. 15. 3. Quality assurance mechanisms • Refers to systems a school has in place to ensure the quality of its practices • Factors relevant to creating a culture of quality assurance in an institution:  formulated policy  reasonable and acceptable standards  systems to assess quality regularly  reward system to attain high quality in their work  available support to improve staff’s quality ( their teaching or materials)
  16. 16. 4. A sound curriculum • Features of a school’s programs  the course meeting students’ needs  coherent curriculum to achieve the school’s mission  developed course based on sound education principles  developed course description  high-quality teaching materials and tests  mechanisms to monitor the quality of teaching and learning  reviewed and renewal curriculum
  17. 17. 5. Flexible organizational framework • Effective schools and language programs • flexible administrators encouraging teachers to innovate • Atmosphere of trust and support and staff are supported by reasonable teaching loads, rewards, and opportunities for professional development • Participatory management style rather than top-down style
  18. 18. 6. Good Internal Communications • Setting up systems that facilitate communications among teachers and between teachers and administrators • Such systems include: 1. regular meeting and briefings 2. Access to administrative leaders to accept the teachers 'suggestions 3. Shared decision making 4. availability of relevant course 5. written guidance for staff 6. a system for collecting feedback 7. a system for staff support and for getting constructive comments 8. regular evaluation or feedback sessions 9. regular newsletters, bulletins, or E-mail communication 10. all staff to get to know another and develop collegial relation and friendships
  19. 19. Professional Treatment of Teachers • Language teacher often suffer from poor employment conditions. • teachers are not recognized as trained professionals with specialized skills and knowledge • “ESL teacher often in highly varied and unpredictable situations”. Leung and Teasdale (1998, 5)  teachers have workforce • The extent to which teachers are regarded as professionals is indicated by the following:  Employment terms and conditions  Support and reward systems
  20. 20. Opportunities for Teacher Development • ESL/EFL is a rapidly changing field, and teachers need regular opportunities to update their professional knowledge and skills. • Such opportunities may be provided for in a number of way:  Conference participation: teachers can learn about trends, issues, and practices with other teachers Workshops and in-service seminars: can offer workshop and seminars on topics of interest to the staff  Reading groups : articles or books of interest read and discuss
  21. 21. Peer observation: teachers can take turns observing each other’s classes for critical reflection and discussion about teaching approaches. Writing about teaching: teacher can keep a reflective diary and share it.  Project work : teachers can given the opportunity to develop projects such as classroom materials, videos, and teaching sources.  Action research: teachers can conduct small-scale classroom research on their teaching. ( Richards and Lockhart 1994)
  22. 22. The Teaching Context: Size and Staff Structure • Size of a school and its administrative structure influences many aspects of a teacher’s work. • school should develop teachers’ sense about the collegiality. • offer informal professional activities such as social activities for build up group relationship
  23. 23.  Equipment • Teaching tool • Some school make extensive investments in computers, CD players, video recorders…etc. • The teaching tool can provide a positive effect on teaching , staff workload, and morale for teachers’ workload and morale. Support Staff • Is there any secretarial or administrative staff to help with typing, time-tabling, and administration?
  24. 24. Teacher Work Space • room for teachers interacting with other colleagues, carry out lesson preparation, mark assignments, and prepare teaching materials and hand-outs. Teacher Resource Room • like a Library (for update their professional knowledge)  Teaching Facilities • classroom, multimedia lab, computer lab, language lab, self-access center, and students reading room (facilitate the quality of the teaching program)  Class Size • class-size needs for each type of course should established based on teachers, learners, and school factors.
  25. 25. The teachers • Good teacher can compensate for deficiencies in the curriculum, the material, or the resources. • Skills and Qualifications Lortie (1975) indicate that a profession is characterized by:  homogeneous consensual knowledge base (particular knowledge in some specific field)  restricted entry (degree, certificate)  high social status  self-regulation  legal right to govern daily work affairs
  26. 26. • Increasingly, language schools are recruiting better trained and better qualified language teachers and operating within defined standards of quality. (Appendix 3; p. 231) • Core components of teachers of teacher knowledge include the following:  practical knowledge  content knowledge  contextual knowledge  pedagogical knowledge  personal knowledge  reflective knowledge
  27. 27. • Teacher are untrained or trained and whether they are novice or experienced. • The UCLES Certificate in Language Teaching to Adults focus on six area of basic teaching skills:  language awareness  learners, teachers, and the teaching/learning context  planning for effective teaching of adult English learners  classroom management and teaching skill  resources and materials for teaching  professional development
  28. 28. • Roberts(1998, 67-68) suggests that compared to experienced teachers, novice teachers tend to have the following characteristics:  Novice teacher’s perceptions of classroom events are relatively undiscriminating and simpler than those of experienced teachers.  less able to select when planning a lesson.  lack everything which related to teach, organize, plan the course, and so on.  lack knowledge of what to expect of pupils, what challenges to set…  lack practical classroom management
  29. 29. concerning with control on pupil learning lack an established “pedagogic content knowledge.” Lack the practical experience from which to construct personal meanings for theoretical specialized terms. Lack a coherent system of concepts with which to think about teaching Lack specialized vocabulary with which to analyze and discuss teaching
  30. 30. Opportunity to develop the skills • Observation of experienced teacher • Observation of training videos • Short theory courses • Practice teaching under the supervision of experienced teachers • Working with mentor teacher
  31. 31. NNS Teacher’s Needs proposed by Roberts ( 1998, 97)  A Priority for Language Improvement  An erosion through Classroom Discourse  The Support from a Textbook  Personal Experience for Learners’ Difficulty  The Same Common Culture and Group Norms  Teaching Behavior from Mother Tongue Culture  The Influence of English on Education
  32. 32. The Function of Institution for Teachers  develop teaching skills/ deepen understanding of teaching • Engage in self-reflection and evaluation • Identify their areas of strength and weakness • Develop specialized knowledge and skills • Curiosity and Interest • Expand knowledge base about research, theory, and issues in teaching • Take on new roles and responsibilities such as supervisor, mentor teacher, teacher researcher, or material writer • Involvement in Professional Organizations
  33. 33. Support for teachers The Orientation • The needs to clarify the goal of the program, teaching approaches, resource, problem to anticipate, and solution  Adequate Materials • The involvement and guidelines  Course Guides • * Course * Aims * Objectives *Materials * Methods * Activities *Assessment
  34. 34. Division of Responsibilities * job descriptions * clear demarcation  Further Training * specialized training for needs  Teaching Release * free time for refreshment  Mentors *share problems * get advice
  35. 35. Feedback • * face to face * in writing *on the telephone  Rewards • * receive positive acknowledgement  Help Lines • * who can help them solve the problems  Review • * problem-solving * critical reflection
  36. 36. The Teaching Process Teaching Model and Principles  Maintaining Good Teaching  Evaluating Teaching
  37. 37. Teaching Model and Principles  Roberts (1998, 103) Compares two teaching models implicit in many language programs: 1. Operative model:  the requirements of a centralized system  teachers deliver a textbook as planned 2. Problem-solving model:  adaption to learners’ need  teachers diagnose problems, design activity
  38. 38. Teaching Models are often based on particular Methods or Approaches The Communicative Approach: • * Authentic Communication Pair and Group Activities * Negotiation * Information sharing * Fluency is priority  The Cooperative Learning Model: • * Cooperation * Common Tasks * Coordination  The Process Approach: • * Participation * Deferent Stages in Writing Process  The Whole-language Approach: • * Real Communication * Authentic Texts * Reading and Writing for pleasure
  39. 39. Teaching Models in a program may be based on Principles  A consistent focus on learning English  Practical tasks that relate to real-world used of English Realistic and communicative uses of language  Cooperative activities  Balance between accuracy and fluency  The teachers serve as role of facilitator rather than presenter Communicative and Skill  Learning Awareness Self-monitoring and setting goals
  40. 40. A Teaching Philosophy • Reflection on Self-teaching Style • Personal Beliefs and Principles • Interpretation of Teacher Role Breen’s Teaching Principles are: • * The Form of Language * Vocabulary or Meaning • * The Usage of Language * Mental-processing Capacities • * Familiarized and Manageable * Internalized and memorized • * Affective Involvement * Learner’s Needs or Interests • * Monitor for Progress * Provision for Feedback • * Responsibility or Autonomy * Manage the lesson and the group
  41. 41. Maintaining good teaching  Maintaining good teaching involves • the establishment of shared commitment to quality teaching and the selection of appropriate measures Strategies that address this issue: Monitoring • information need to be collected regularly • formal , informal mechanisms such as group meetings, written reports, classroom visits, student evaluations
  42. 42. Observation • supervisor observation- provide positive feedback • peer observation- share approaches • colleague observation - problem-discovering • self observation-recording lessons Identification and Resolution of Problems: • Timely Identification– Resolution ensuring • Timely Resolution--Good Communication System
  43. 43. Shared Planning: • Opportunities for Collaborative Planning Ex: Pair, Group work on Course planning, material development and lesson- planning • During the process of planning, potential problem can be identified and resolved
  44. 44. Documentation and Sharing of Good Practices • The Sharing of Positive Teaching Experiences Davidson and Tesh’s Examples: 1) A presentation at a professional conference 2) A knowing at a professional conference or workshop 3) Sharing and telling current publication with colleagues 4) Sharing practical teaching strategy 5) The development of teaching materials and demonstration 6) The sharing of workable or unworkable ideas 7) The discussion with a particular or program issue
  45. 45. Self-study of the Program • Involves a study of a program’s practices • values as the part the process of self-evaluation and review • A self – study should be undertaken three to five years involves teachers, administrators, and students of examining all aspects of a school operations (Kells 1988)
  46. 46. Evaluating teaching An Appraisal System for Quality Teaching: • The Reward for Good Performance • The Needs for Further Training • The Reinforcement with Staff Development • The Improvement for Teaching • The Provision for Contract Renewal and Promotion • The Interest in Teachers’ Performance and Development
  47. 47.  The Focus of Appraisal with Relevant Work (1) Lesson Plan (2) Teacher-made Teaching Materials (3) Course Outlines and Handouts (4) Class Assignments (5) Participation in profession development activities
  48. 48. Conducting The Appraisal: • Appraisal by a supervisor: Problems of Understanding Appendix 4 (checklist for evaluating a teacher 'lesson from Brown 1994) • Appraisal by a colleague: constructive feedback (Appendix 8 peer appraisal form) • Self – Appraisal: Less Threatening • Lesson Report: Structured Descriptions (Appendix 6 self-evaluating of a teacher’s lesson from Britten and O’Dwyer 1995) • Teaching Journal: Descriptions and Reflections • Audio/Video Recording: strengths and weaknesses • Student Appraisal: a Sense of Teaching (Appendix 7 student appraisal form)
  49. 49. The learning process  Understanding of the Course It is important to ensure that the learners understand the goals of the course Brindley(1984,95) states: • Different Expectations before class • Consultation must be set up • Canvass learners’ expectations
  50. 50.  View of Learning Alcorso and Kalantzis’s Findings : Teacher and learners have different Preference • Learner’s Learning Views: Manager of his /her own learning Independent Learner Needs Analyst Collaborator and team member peer tutor
  51. 51.  Learning styles: Concrete Learner: games, pictures, films, video Analytical Learner: study grammar, books, finding their own problems Communicative Learner: observing and listening to native speakers Authority-oriented Learner: learning from the model  A Questionnaire: to identify learners’ learning study preferences
  52. 52. Motivation • What the learners’ motivations are for taking the course • Why are the learners in the course? • How will it affect their lives? • What do they want from it? • Which aspects of it are they most interested in?  Support • mechanisms provided for learners for course delivery • interface between learning and opportunities • self-access for learning needs and interests
  53. 53. Thank you for paying attention Q&A