What are contrived experiences? These are the second band of experiences in Dale’s Cone of Experience. These are “edited” copies of reality and are used as substitutes for real things when it is not practical or not possible to bring or do the real thing in the classroom.
What is a model? It is a reproduction of a real thing in a small, or a large scale, or exact size. It is a substitute for a real thing which may or may not be operational.
Examples: An atom, the solar system, the pyramid in Egypt. . .
Why do we make use of model? Overcome limitations of space and time To “edit” reality for us to be able to focus on parts or a process of a system that we intend to study To overcome difficulties of size To understand the inaccessible Help the learners understand abstractions
Advantages:Models provide motivation and enhance learning.Oversized objects can be reduced in size and can be studied in the classroom.Some models can be purchased from commercial firms.The parts can be built as to scale and can appear exactly like the real object.
Disadvantages:Purchase of models can be costly.If models are built as to scale, it could be time consuming.
Guidelines:Emphasize the size of the real object while being used.Use of moving models can catch attention and interest easily.Encourage students to construct simple models with parts in correct proportion.Some models can be kept for display for a long time depending on the materials used.
The most important thing toremember when we make useof models are: to make them as we could to the real things that represent.If for one reason or another they could not replicate the real things in size and color, and
we should at least cautions the user or the reader by giving the scale.
Criteria For Evaluation:Is the model necessary on case you make use of the original?Could some other device portray the idea more effectively?Is the idea appropriate for representation in a model?Is each part of the model made to the same scale proportionate in size?
Are the important details of construction correct?Could wrong impressions of size, color and shape result from using this model?Does the model oversimplify the idea?If it is workable, will at standup under frequent use?If it is made locally, is the model likely to be
worth the time, effort and money involved?If it is purchased, will the model be used often enough to justify the cost?
Aims:To give the students an exact picture of the thing that being discussed.To aid the questions of the students about the lesson being presented.
What is the total surface areaof a geometric solid? it is the sum of the areas of all its polygonal faces or sides.
Surface Area of a Pyramid its total surface is equal to the area of the square base, plus the area of the four triangles Let us say each triangle has an altitude a and a base b. Then the total surface area is T.S.= 1/2ab(4)+b^2 = 1/2a+b^2
Semi-detailed Lesson Plan inMathematics(Concepts andOperations)
Level: First Year High SchoolSubject: Mathematics, Concepts and Operations, Surface Areas of Geometric SolidsI. Objectives: A. To know the formula in getting the surface area of a pyramid. B. To recognize pyramid through the model. C. To solve the surface area of a pyramid through the formula given. II. Subject Matter: Concept: Surface Area of a Pyramid Book: Math I (page 228)
III. Materials: model of a pyramid chalkboard rulerIV. Teaching Strategies: A. Review B. Motivation I have some problems written on the board then they will answer it by using the formula on how to get the surface area of a pyramid. C. Lesson Proper a.) Presentation
-Showing on how to make a model of a pyramid. -Getting the surface area of a pyramid by using the formula given. b.) Development Discussion of the lesson is given by the teacher. c.) Classroom Interaction -Oral Participation -Board workV. Evaluation: QuizVI. Assignment: Concept: Area of the Surface of a Cylinder(page 228)