Approaches to curriculum design


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Approaches to curriculum design

  1. 1. Approaches toCurriculum Design
  2. 2. The Six (6) Features of a Curriculum 1. The Teacher 2. The Learners 3. Knowledge, Skills, Values 4. Strategies and Methods 5. Performance 6. Community Partners
  3. 3. The Teacher  quality education requires quality teachers  good teachers bring a shining light into the learning environment  ideal companions of the learners  with advances in communication technology, good teachers are needed to sort out the knowledge from the information from the data that surround the learners and from the wisdom from the knowledge
  4. 4. The Learners  they are at the center stage in the educative process  the most important factor in the learning environment  there is no teaching without them  their diverse background should be accepted  their needs should be addressed and met  they should be provided with learning opportunities and varied experiences
  5. 5. Knowledge, Skills, Values a “curriculum oriented to tomorrow” should be designed to help learners cope with the rapid changes educational process should lie not only in what they learn, but how they learn and how good they will be in continuing to learn after they leave school
  6. 6.  teachers should prepare his/her syllabus or a course of study as his vehicle for instruction learning goals, instructional procedures and content must be clearly explained to students there must be balance of theory and practice learner’s sustained interest in the subject should be made meaningful and relevant
  7. 7. Strategies and Methods teachers should remember that there is no best strategy that could work in a million of different student background and characteristics teachers must use appropriate methodologies, approaches and strategies “capped with compassionate and winsome nature” to objectives of the lesson
  8. 8.  teachers should select teaching methods, learning activities and instructional materials or resources appropriate to learners and aligned to objectives of the lesson situations should be created to encourage learners to use higher order thinking skills utilize information derived from assessment to improve teaching and learning and adopt a culture of excellence
  9. 9. Performance knowledge, skills and values to be developed by the learners serve as guiding post of the teachers at the end of the teaching act, it is necessary to find out if the objectives set were accomplished (in curriculum these are called learning outcomes) these learning outcomes indicate both the performance of both the teacher and the students
  10. 10.  learning outcomes are the product of performance of the learners as a result of teaching performance is a feature of a curriculum that should be given emphasis the curriculum is deemed to be successful if the performance of the learners is higher than the target set if the performance is low then it follows that the curriculum has failed a good curriculum is one that results in high or excellent performance
  11. 11. Community Partners teaching is a collaborative undertaking to be effective, teachers must draw upon the resources of their environment even if they are the focal Point in the learning processteachers must establish relationship with parents, NGO’s, and their stakeholders partnership is a means and not an end to be pursued
  12. 12.  an absence of partnership often means a poor definition of education ends as society changes, teachers will have a new beginning, an opportunity to recast their roles in their communities, to change their attitude to their communities, to challenge the attitude of their communities and societies about them
  13. 13. Approaches to Curriculum Design The three major curriculum design modelsare implemented through the different approachesthat are accepted by the teachers and curriculumpractitioners. How the design is utilized becomesthe approach to the curriculum.
  14. 14. Child or Learner-Centered Approach  this approach to curriculum design is based on the underlying philosophy that the child is the center of the educational process  curriculum is constructed based on the needs, interests, purposes and abilities of the learners  curriculum is also built upon the learner’s knowledge, skills, learning and potentials
  15. 15. This approach considers the following: A new respect for the child is fundamental A new freedom of action is provided The whole activity is divided into units of work The recognition of the need for using and exploring many media for self-discovery and self-direction is embraced
  16. 16. Subject-Centered Approach Anchored on the curriculum design whichprescribes different and separate subjects intoone broad field, this approach considers thefollowing:
  17. 17.  The primary focus is the subject matter The emphasis is on bits and pieces of information which are detached from life The continuing pursuit of learning outside the school is not emphasized. Learning should only take place inside the classroom. The subject matter serves as a means of identifying problems in living
  18. 18. Problem-Centered Approach This approach is based on a curriculumdesign which assumes that in the process ofliving, children experience problems. Thus,problem solving enables the learners tobecome increasingly able to achieve completeor total development as individuals.
  19. 19. This approach is characterized by thefollowing views and beliefs: The learners are capable of directing and guiding themselves in resolving problems, thus they become independent learners The learners are prepared to assume their civic responsibilities through direct participation in different activitiesThe curriculum leads the learners in the recognition of concerns and problems and in seeking solutions. The learners are considered problem solvers