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  1. 1. BA ROQUE
  2. 2. Artistic period comprising the seventeenth century.The man of this time feels a sensitive person to the passion and fantasy.Baroque art sought expression of feelings, a sense of movement and contrasts, the attention to detail and ornamentationIn music history it begins in 1600 with the release of the first opera preserved and ends in 1750 with the death of Bach
  3. 3. The word "baroque" comes from the Portuguese word barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl", a negative description of the ornate and heavily ornamented music of this period; later, the name came to be applied also to its architecture.Composers of the baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Alessandro Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, Claudio Monteverdi, Jean- Philippe Rameau and Henry Purcell.
  4. 4. VOCAL MUSIC Secular Religious Madrigal Mass Cantata Opera OratorioSeria Buffa Passion Zarzuela
  5. 5. A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition, usually a partsong, of the Renaissance and early Baroque eras. Traditionally, polyphonic madrigals are unaccompanied; the number of voices varies from two to eight, and most frequently from three to six. After the 1630s, the madrigal began to merge with the cantata and the dialogue. With the rise of opera in the early 17th century, the aria gradually displaced the madrigal.Exemple: Thomas Morley Now is the month of maying
  6. 6. This song delights in bawdy double-entendre. It is apparently about springdancing, but this is a metaphor for sex. For example, a "barley-break"would have suggested outdoor sexual activity (rather like we might say a"roll in the hay"). The use of such imagery and puns increased during theRenaissance. Now is the month of maying, When merry lads are playing, fa la, Each with his bonny lass Upon the greeny grass. Fa la. The Spring, clad all in gladness, Doth laugh at Winters sadness, fa la, And to the bagpipes sound The nymphs tread out their ground. Fa la. Fie then! why sit we musing, Youths sweet delight refusing? Fa la. Say, dainty nymphs, and speak, Shall we play at barley-break? Fa la.Thomas Morley Now is the month of maying
  7. 7. A cantata (literally "sung", derived from the Italianword "cantare") is a vocal composition with aninstrumental accompaniment, typically in severalmovements, often involving a choir.The meaning of the term changed over time, fromthe simple single voice madrigal of the early 17thcentury, to the multi-voice "cantata da camera" andthe "cantata da chiesa" of the later part of thatcentury.Johann Sebastian Bach: Cantata Jesu meine Freude BWV 227
  8. 8. OPERAOpera seria: is an Italian musical term which refers to thenoble and "serious" style of Italian opera that predominated inEurope from the 1710s to c. 1770. The term itself was rarelyused at the time and only became common usage once operaseria was becoming unfashionable, and beginning to beviewed as a historical genre. The popular rival to opera seriawasOpera buffa: the comic opera that took its cue from theimprovisatory commedia dellarte. . It was at first characterizedby everyday settings, local dialects, and simple vocal writing.
  9. 9. Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternatesbetween spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporatingoperatic and popular song, as well as dance. The etymologyof the name is not totally certain, but some propose it mayderive from the name of a Royal hunting lodge, the Palaciode la Zarzuela near Madrid, where, allegedly, this type ofentertainment was first presented to the court.The palacewas named after the place called "La Zarzuela" because ofthe profusion of brambles (zarzas) that grew there, and sothe festivities held within the walls became known as"Zarzuelas".
  10. 10. Religious MusicAn oratorio is a large musical compositionincluding an orchestra, a choir, and soloists. Likean opera, an oratorio includes the use of a choir,soloists, an ensemble, various distinguishablecharacters, and arias. However, opera is musicaltheatre, while oratorio is strictly a concert pieceand the typical subject matter of the text dealswith sacred topics, making it appropriate forperformance in the church.Haendel: The Messiah, Worthy is the Lamb
  11. 11. In church music, Passion is a term for sung musical settings, normally at least partly choral, of the Gospel texts covering the Passion of Jesus, the events leading up to the Crucifixion of Jesus, and emphasising his suffering.The best known Protestant musical settings of the Passion are by Johann Sebastian Bach, who wrote two Passions which have survived intact to the present day, one based on the Gospel of John (the St John Passion), the other on the Gospel of Matthew (the St Matthew Passion).Bach: St Matthew Passion
  12. 12. Instrumental MusicFugue: is a compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and recurs frequently in the course of the composition. J.S. Bach : Tocata and Fugue in DmSonata: literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata. In the Baroque, the term "sonata" was applied to a variety of works for solo instrument such as keyboard or violin, and for groups of instruments
  13. 13. Suite: is an ordered set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed in a concert. In the Baroque era the suite was more precisely defined, with the pieces unified by key and consisting of dances usually preceded by a prelude or overture. Badinerie Suite nº2 J.S. BachConcert: is a musical work usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra (concerto solo) or concerto grosso, which contrasted a small group of instruments with the rest of the orchestra.