April 2005   www.doubleclick.com                                                   Online                                 ...
April 2005   www.doubleclick.com                                                          Online                          ...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                   Executive Summary             ...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                               Consumers are dema...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                              ads, according to t...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                            ad dollars, meanwhile...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004    Whereas 2003 was              for distressed prices. Instead,...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                                 During that peri...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004    “I believe today’s           described an industry approachin...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                 Media Research, the dominant fir...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                                embedded in relat...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                                 Among Fortune 50...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                                   GoTo later cha...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                  Tracking Onlines Impact Across ...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                                  Consumers Deman...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                                 In its Communica...
DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004                                                that works out to...
Double click 04-2005-the-decade-in-online-advertising
Double click 04-2005-the-decade-in-online-advertising
Double click 04-2005-the-decade-in-online-advertising
Double click 04-2005-the-decade-in-online-advertising
Double click 04-2005-the-decade-in-online-advertising
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Double click 04-2005-the-decade-in-online-advertising

  1. 1. April 2005 www.doubleclick.com Online THE DECADE IN AdvertisingWith data from DoubleClick, Nielsen//NetRatings and other sources 1994-200410By Rick E. BrunerDirector of Research, DoubleClick years Additional strategic analysis contributed by: Terri Walter, VP of Corporate Marketing, DoubleClick Lynn Tornabene, Director of Marketing, Ad Management, DoubleClick Ben Saitz, Senior Director, Global Operations, DoubleClick Steven Golus, Director, Strategic Services, DoubleClick Charles Buchwalter, VP of Client Analytics, Nielsen//NetRatings Corey Jeffery, Senior Analyst, Nielsen//NetRatings
  2. 2. April 2005 www.doubleclick.com Online THE DECADE IN AdvertisingWith data from DoubleClick, Nielsen//NetRatings and other sources 1994-2004 Table of Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2004: a Banner Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Catching up to Consumers, Online Advertising Booms Back . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Emergence of a Seller’s Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Advertising: An Industry in Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Marketers Demand Greater Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Answering to the CFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 From Eyeballs and Clicks to Interaction Times and Econometric Models . . 9 The Future Looks Rich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Search for Marketing Perfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Tracking Online’s Impact Across Sales and Media Channels . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Striking a Balance Between Measurement and Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Consumers Demand Greater Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Mass Media Goes Niche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 ‘I Want My iTV!’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 It’s a High-Speed World We Live In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Revolution Will Be Blogged . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 The Long Tail of Potential Ad Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Antidote to Ad Overload: “Invertising”? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Looking Forward: Advertising’s Finest Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Data Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
  3. 3. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 Executive Summary in this report can be summed up in three 2004 marked the 10-year anniversary of key conclusions: web advertising. Since DoubleClick has A seller’s market is emerging in online been around for nearly that entire history advertising. The first 10 years of online (the DART system began serving ads in ad spending have been a rollercoaster 1995, and DoubleClick incorporated in ride, with a boom, a bust and a new Online advertising has January, 1996), we felt this was an resurgent boom. For the first time, the come a long way since appropriate opportunity to step back and advertising industry is now experiencing those first ad banners take a broad assessment of the industry: a significant transformation of pricing on HotWired in 1994. where it came from, what it has dynamics, given changes in the supply accomplished and where we believe it is and demand of ad inventory. At least The Internet, virtually going. Last year we introduced The 2003 for premium inventory categories unheard of just over a such as auto, tech and business, what decade ago, is today a Year in Online Advertising Report—our once seemed destined always to be a vital daily part of most most-downloaded report to date—and buyer’s market is in fact turning into a American’s lives. since mid-2002 we have been issuing our seller’s market. Quarterly Ad Serving Trend Report. So in place of a 2004 Year in Online Advertising Marketers are demanding more Report, we offer this year The Decade in accountability. Companies are increasingly demanding greater Online Advertising as an attempt to rise accountability for the return they get on above the trees and see the whole forest. their advertising spending. This Online advertising has come a long way represents a double-edged sword for since those first ad banners on HotWired online media. Viewed one way, the in 1994. The Internet, virtually unheard of Internet delivers fairly well on its just over a decade ago, is today a vital promise of greater measurability daily part of most American’s lives. The compared to traditional media. many forms of marketing and advertising Alternatively, the Internet industry has fought hard to avoid being pigeonholed it enables—permission email, keyword- as a direct-response medium because of targeted search engine advertising, floating its ability to measure performance so animated page takeovers, interactive on- many ways. In the last few years, ad page rich media ads, streaming audio and sellers have made great advances in video, consumer-fueled “viral marketing,” demonstrating online media’s value also to name a few—have excited early as a brand vehicle with significant adopters and now mainstream marketers audience reach. In the end, the Internet’s in ways that traditional advertising has not accountability for measuring both brand seen the likes of since the early days of and performance lift appears to be color television. winning converts, as more mainstream ad dollars continue to shift rapidly This paper lays out a detailed analysis of online. As a possible consequence, market trends impacting online advertising marketers are putting more pressure on and as well as the larger ad industry in traditional media to likewise improve general. At the highest level, the findings their metrics for accountability.2 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 Consumers are demanding more control. for radio, 10 for the VCR, 17 for personal Consumers, meanwhile, are reacting to computers, 39 for cable TV and 70 for the their plethora of media choices and a telephone. growing volume of marketing messages Unlike those other media, however, the by wrestling the instruments of control from the corporations that have been Internet is literally a hands-on experience, accustomed to prescribing the media diet where consumers, with hands on mouses No medium since that consumers should consume. From and keyboards, can read, research, watch, black-and-white Napster to TiVo to pop-up blockers to listen, write, send, meet, organize, post, television has blogs, individuals are turning the media program, purchase and much more, all penetrated 50% of U.S. model on its head, driven in large part through various simple devices across a households as quickly by the same kind of technology tools vast network of millions of collaborators as the Internet: both that heralded the digital revolution in and destinations. did so in eight years the first place. What the new media and marketing landscape will look like a In the midst of this churning sea of few years from now is still unclear, but it information and activity, companies is likely that the winners in both media advertise. And ample data show that they and advertising will be those that adapt often succeed in their goals. Which is not most effectively to the new consumer- to say we have figured it all out yet. But, centric model. as the pages that follow aim to demonstrate, we’re getting there. As per the famous Chinese curse, we live in interesting times. No medium since black-and-white television has penetrated 2004: a Banner Year 50% of U.S. households as quickly as the By most accounts, the first web Internet: both did so in eight years, advertisements were introduced on counting from the 1993 birth of the HotWired (today Wired News, part of Mosaic graphical web browser to 2001, Lycos) in October, 1994, for brands when the U.S. Census found half of homes including Zima, Club Med and AT&T. were wired. That compares to nine years The ads were narrow strips that ran across the top of the pages, 60 pixels tall and 468 pixels wide—the proverbial “banner ‘Click here’ ad”—precise dimensions that remain surprisingly popular to this day. The text of the AT&T ad, the first “cross- media” online-plus-TV campaign (titled “You Will” by the agency N.W. Ayer), read, with eerie prescience, “Have you ever clicked your mouse right HERE? You will.” (Figure 1) And how. A decade later, advertisers in the Figure 1 Source: AT&T, October 1994, one of the first Internet ads, on HotWired U.S. market spent $9.6 billion on Internet3 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 ads, according to the Interactive Internet ads grew at a rate of 31.5% from Advertising Bureau (IAB) and 2003 to 2004 (IAB/PWC), compared to PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC). 10% for broadcast TV, 7.4% for the advertising industry in general (Universal That is larger than the whole outdoor McCann) and 6.6% for the current-dollar advertising industry, about 80% of the size 1 GDP of the U.S. economy as a whole. of the magazine ad industry and half the size of the radio ad sector, according to estimates from their respective industry Catching up to Consumers, Online associations. Moreover, spending on Advertising Booms Back 2004 was also the high-water mark for online ad spending in the U.S. and the first A brief history of online advertising time in four years that the industry has outspent the previous highpoint of 2000, as shown in Figure 2. After the dot-com- fueled NASDAQ peaked at 5,049 in March of 2000, spending on Internet advertising dropped during the ensuing economic recession by 25% from 2000 to 2002. Notably, however, during that same period the number of adult Americans using the Internet rose steadily, at an average cumulative annual rate of 7% from 2000 to 2004. So while the advertising community went through a period of Source: Interactive Advertising Bureau/ PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2004; Harris Interactive, 2004; Archer uncertainty about the viability of the Figure 2 Advisors, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2002; DoubleClick analysis, 2005 (Footnote 1) Internet as a serious medium, consumers had no similar doubts and continued to embrace it wholeheartedly. It is only Fortune 500 companies’ share of all online display natural, therefore, that advertisers ad impressions eventually returned in force, recognizing the need to be where their audience is. Another important difference between the first peak of online ad spending in 2000 and the resurgence in 2004 is “the golden rule”: whoever has the gold makes the rules. That first time around, during the era of “irrational exuberance,” the bulk of online ad spending came from now defunct dot-coms such as Pets.com, Boo.com and Figure 3 Source: Nielsen//NetRatings AdRelevance, 2005 Toysmart.com. The more recent spike in4 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 ad dollars, meanwhile, has been driven by marketplace that the supply of web ad bottom-line-focused traditional advertisers. inventory was substantially larger than the According to Nielsen//NetRatings demand from advertisers: a classic “buyer’s AdRelevance, 30% of ad impressions in market.” Simply put, web advertising was Q4 2004 were for companies in the very cheap for the last several years. Fortune 500, as shown in Figure 3 That situation is rapidly changing. As (previous page). Figure 4 shows, the growth in the number Perhaps an even more important milestone of unique visitors and page views has of 2004 is that it witnessed sold-out slowed to an almost negligible rate advertising inventory for many premium compared to years earlier. Among the 20 online publishers for the first time in years sites with the most display ad impressions, (if ever). In fact, in some categories, the total number of page views was up notably automotive, popular content areas only 5% from Q4 2003 to Q4 2004, experienced large ad buys as much as a according to Nielsen//NetRatings. At the full year in advance, along the lines of same time, the number of display ad TV “upfronts.” impressions in the last year among major U.S. sites is down (5% down for the top Emergence of a Seller’s Market 1,200 ad-supported sites; 13% down for 2 Thus, at the end of online advertising’s first the top 20 ad-supported sites). 10 years, a major change is afoot in the Part of that decline in overall display ad supply and demand of ad inventory, which impressions among the largest sites is due is going to force advertisers to work harder in large part to a reduction of clutter, as at optimizing the efficiency of their media sites increasingly feature fewer smaller ad buys. Until as late as 2003, it had been units (such as buttons and half banners) assumed to be a law of the online and standardize on the new larger ad sizes promoted in recent years by the IAB (especially extra-large banner “leader Demand out-stripping supply boards,” wide skyscrapers and medium and large rectangles). Meanwhile, there are more advertisers among the top 1,200 sites (up 9% Q4 2003 to Q4 2004) competing for those fewer ad impressions. Among the top 20 ad-supported sites, however, the number of advertisers is actually down (8% year over year). The decline in the number of advertisers among top 20 sites is most likely due to their selling less of their inventory through Figure 4 Source: Nielsen//NetRatings AdRelevance and NetView (U.S. market), 2005 (Footnote 2) third-party “remnant inventory” networks5 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 Whereas 2003 was for distressed prices. Instead, top commodity was widely reported to have the year when the publishers are serving more of their ad reached a state unthinkable just a couple online ad industry inventory themselves for premium CPM years earlier: inventory snapped up a saw “the light at the prices to fewer (brand-oriented) year in advance by advertisers. One can end of the tunnel,” advertisers for longer-term commitments. only wonder whether other hot sectors of turning around the the online ad mix—technology, telecom, The reported revenue growth, precipitous decline travel, heath care—will follow the same meanwhile, among several of those large in spending of the trend soon. ad networks could be attributed to previous two years, growth among smaller sites joining the Whereas 2003 was the year when the 2004 was the year ad boom, including more international online ad industry saw “the light at the when the industry sites, as well as incremental increases in end of the tunnel,” turning around the reached a “tipping media prices even at the run-of-network precipitous decline in spending of the point.” level of the market. previous two years, 2004 was the year when the industry reached a “tipping The result is that market conditions are point.” Although the tremendous growth changing, particularly for premium rate of ad spending from 2003 to 2004 publishers, to the pricing advantage of ad will likely not continue for years at the sellers. Anecdotally, many advertisers tell same pace, it is clear that major us that CPM prices are rising while more advertisers have now bought into the and more publishers report that large value of the channel and are making up portions of their impressions are selling for lost ground. out a month or more in advance. More to the point, advertisers are Car companies, representing one of the determined to catch up with their target strongest sectors of offline advertising, audiences. According to estimates from are putting the pedal to the metal online. media-specialist merchant bank Veronis With two thirds of all car purchases now Suhler Stevenson, Americans spent more preceded by web research time on the Internet in 2004 than with (JupiterResearch) and one in five car any other media except for TV and purchases directly attributable to a lead radio. And increasingly, Internet users from a car website (J.D. Power & are “multimedia-tasking,” surfing the Associates), car advertisers spent an web at the same time as they watch TV estimated $1.2 billion online in 2004, a or listen to the radio in the background. 51% increase from 2003, according to Borrell Associates. Advertising: An Industry in Transition At the same time, the share of online ads In many ways, the U.S. advertising in the auto sector that are rich media industry has remained remarkably stable format rose from 23% in 2003 to 58% for the past decade. According to in 2004, according to estimates from Universal McCann, the Nielsen//NetRatings AdRelevance. overall U.S. ad industry (including direct With limited auto content available at mail and yellow pages) grew from $153 top sites, advertising for this precious billion in 1994 to $264 billion in 2004.6 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 During that period, it maintained a for the Internet than the IAB’s, online ad steady proportion of approximately spending grew 63% from 2000 to 2004 2.2% of U.S. gross domestic product. in absolute terms ($4.3 billion in 2000 to Over those 10 years, it grew at an $7.1 billion in 2004). The Internet’s average compound annual growth rate of growth, meanwhile, was 52.7% as a 5.7%, with only one year of negative share of total consumer media ad growth, falling 6.5% from 2000 to 2001. spending (excluding direct mail and yellow pages) in that same period, as Spending on the Internet, meanwhile, as shown in Figure 5. a brand new medium, has grown much faster than on other media, as noted By comparison, overall ad spending in above. Using Universal McCann’s the same period on TV grew 10.6% in numbers, which are more conservative absolute terms (from $51 billion to $62 billion) and 3.6% as a share of total Change in share of ad spend by consumer medium, consumer media ad spending. The 2000-2004 newspaper sector was the biggest loser in the media mix in terms of share of all ad dollars. Its readership is aging and declining, and its important base of classified ad revenue faces stiff competition online from the likes of eBay, Craig’s List, Monster.com and Match.com. Newspaper ad revenues were down 4.3% in absolute terms over the last five years ($49 billion to $47 billion), and they fell 10.4% in terms of Source: Robert Coen’s “Insider Report,” Universal McCann, 2001 and 2004, excluding direct mail Figure 5 and yellow pages share of media spend. But those numbers do not tell the whole Online projected to grow gradually as share of total story. While at a high level, the growth ad industry spending of the industry remains steady and the budget allocation among media outlets is shifting only gradually (Figure 6), even a casual observer of the ad industry should recognize that over the last several years the whole sector has been building up to major change. Jim Stengel, the Global Marketing Officer for Procter & Gamble, who controls the world’s largest ad budget Source: eMarketer, based on IAB/PWC (for online ad spend, which includes search, display ads, rich media, ($2.9 billion) and is the new chairman of classifieds and other) and Universal McCann (for total ad industry spend, which includes direct mail and Figure 6 yellow pages), 2005 the Association of National Advertisers,7 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 “I believe today’s described an industry approaching order maintain competitive share, but marketing model is radical transformation at the annual their confidence in traditional measures broken... The conference of American Association of of the effectiveness of their ads is traditional Advertising Agencies (AAAA) in moderate at best. marketing model is February, 2004: “I believe today’s obsolete.” marketing model is broken. We’re Answering to the CFO applying antiquated thinking and work Oh, for the days of the three-martini -Jim Stengel, systems to a new world of possibilities… lunch. Making advertising perform more Global Marketing The traditional marketing model efficiently is more than an academic Officer, is obsolete.” exercise for businesses today. Over the Procter & Gamble Many factors are at play in transforming past 25 years of hyper global the media and marketing landscape, but competition, companies have been in a the most important of these can be race to cut expenses and improve summed up as two sea-changing trends: efficiencies in all aspects of their a demand by marketers for greater businesses. Materials are now sourced accountability in the return they get for from the cheapest possible markets their ad spend, and a demand by worldwide. Logistics and operations have consumers for greater control over their been streamlined through tools and media and marketing experiences. processes such as “just-in-time delivery” Both of these trends have major and enterprise resource planning (ERP). implications for online marketing, and Manufacturing has been outsourced to both are being driven in no small part by regions with cheaper labor, as have, more pressures that “new media” are putting recently, certain white-collar jobs such as on “old media.” accounting and computer programming. Luckily for our industry, strategic Marketers Demand Greater marketing cannot be easily outsourced, Accountability as by definition it requires intimacy with Some brands, such as Marlboro, local markets. On the downside, with the DeBeers, Nike, Coca-Cola and fat squeezed out of virtually every other McDonald’s, can confidently attribute aspect of businesses, marketing functions their respective dominant market look temptingly ripe for cost-cutting. positions largely to their heavy That is particularly so when the investment in brand advertising. Some prevailing wisdom is that a high degree other brands, by contrast, such as of inefficiency has been built into Starbucks, Google and The Body Shop, marketing programs, à la the infamous have grown to prominence based almost John Wanamaker axiom (“I know half of entirely on PR and word of mouth and my advertising is wasted, I just don’t no conventional advertising. know which half”). Most companies, however, fall All media are feeling this pressure to be somewhere in between. They feel more accountable. Responding to years compelled to spend on advertising in of demand from advertisers, Nielsen8 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 Media Research, the dominant firm in Clicks are only the most basic way online television media measurement, marketing programs can be measured. announced in 2004 it would release a The following are among the metrics by new minute-by-minute audience rating which sophisticated advertisers system for TV, due out in October, 2005. commonly measure the effectiveness of With the advent of that service, their online campaigns: advertisers will for the first time better post-click conversions understand consumers’ channel-switching cost per conversion activity during commercial breaks (although trips to the bathroom and unique reach of ads delivered kitchen may still be obscured). average frequency of exposures frequency-to-conversion ratio From Eyeballs and Clicks to Interaction Times and ad exposure time (rich media) Econometric Models ad interaction rate (rich media) When it comes to measurability, online brand impact lift vs. control ad marketing certainly has an advantage Starting with the (including ad recall, brand awareness, over traditional media, both real and invitation to click message association, brand favorability, perceived. Starting with the invitation to purchase intent) featured in that first click featured in that first AT&T banner, AT&T banner, online has promised real-time view-through rate (i.e., delayed visits to online has promised performance metrics. For the most part, advertiser’s site without a direct ad real-time click-through) it has delivered on that promise, performance although Internet media’s extremely share of voice metrics. For the detailed ability to report consumer web page eye tracking most part, it has interactions has led many marketers delivered on that offline sales lift to initially pigeonhole it as a direct- promise. response medium. cross-media-mix econometric modeling In the last few years, however, that Two of the most important developments perception has changed. The reach of the in online advertising in the past decade Internet now extends to a majority of also play directly to the Internet’s homes; high-impact rich media ads have strength of measurability: rich media and grown in popularity; and brand impact search engine advertising. measurement studies from firms such as Dynamic Logic and Insight Express have The Future Looks Rich become a routine part of online ad “Rich media” is a term used to describe research. As a result, mainstream brand a variety of online advertising media advertisers increasingly recognize that experiences, including high-quality online media have an important place in animation, streaming audio and video, their advertising mix as well. and software-like features that can be9 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 embedded in relatively small ad files, advertisers, features such as video, audio, such as games, registration forms and animation and a framework for detailed marketing information. A user immersive marketing content are effective can explore all of those features in the ad for achieving brand objectives such as unit without ever leaving the content awareness and message association. For page on which the ad appears. direct marketers, rich media ads can help better pre-qualify leads by presenting Various web programming technologies information-rich ad content that can be employed to deliver rich media consumers can read before they click functionality, including Java, Javascript through to the advertiser’s site. and DHTML, but by far the most popular is Macromedia’s versatile and As advertisers are challenged to reach widely supported Flash software consumers in a fragmented media world, platform. According to “experiential marketing” metrics such as Nielsen//NetRatings AdRelevance, 97% “time spent” and “brand interaction” of the advertising it classifies as “rich will become more relevant, both online media” is Flash-based. and offline. To that end, another critical breakthrough of Flash-based rich media Introduced in 1996, Flash is able to advertising is the granularity of reporting deliver functions like those described it provides of user/ad interactions. previously, stably and consistently to Among the rich media metrics more than 98% of Internet-connected DoubleClick’s Motif platform can report, computers. Proprietary rich media for example, are the total time the ad is platforms—such as Eyeblaster, PointRoll displayed on the user’s page, any and DoubleClick’s Motif—expand the interactions the reader makes with her funtionality of Flash with ad-specific mouse over the ad, the total time she features, workflow and reporting. spends exploring features of the ad, and Rich media is appealing to advertisers for so on. several reasons. For brand-oriented Rich media has risen steadily in popularity with advertisers over the past Rich media’s rise in popularity parallels that five years, reaching a 35% share of all ad of broadband impressions by December 2004, according to Nielsen//NetRatings AdRelevance. The parallel between the rise of rich media among advertisers and the rise of broadband Internet access among U.S. homes is a striking one, as shown in Figure 7. By December 2004, 54% of Internet connected homes did so via high-speed connections. Rich media is particularly popular Figure 7 Source: Nielsen//NetRatings AdRelevance and NetView, 2005 among certain segments of advertisers.10 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 Among Fortune 500 firms, 39% of their infinite motivations behind the query total 2004 ad impressions were rich behaviors of search engine users. media, according to Nielsen//NetRatings Even for those marketers who do not AdRelevance. Auto and want to apply advanced calculus to telecommunications dedicated more than optimize their campaigns at the level of half of their online ads to the high- thousands of keywords, search impact format last year, as shown in advertising remains highly quantifiable Figure 8. for any marketer who can estimate the value of a single click-through to their Some sectors enjoy a richer media diet than others site or product page. It is that basic accountability, combined with the hand- raising nature of search engine users, that explain the tremendous popularity of search advertising in the last few years. The roots of the search advertising date back almost as far as search engines themselves. The same year that Yahoo! incorporated, 1995, another early search engine, InfoSeek, introduced the concept of targeting ads to keyword search queries, albeit against display banners Figure 8 Source: Nielsen//NetRatings AdRelevance, 2005 not text ads. Another milestone in this form of advertising came in 1996 when Search for Marketing Perfection Procter & Gamble pioneered an Meanwhile, the drive for more important online pricing model, accountability in marketing has helped convincing Yahoo! it would pay for ads drive a tremendous boom in search only on a cost-per-click basis. advertising. In its present form, search Erstwhile search engine OpenText first advertising is at once starkly simple, tried to put together the ideas of targeted bafflingly complex and highly effective. search queries with paid listings. But it In principle, search advertising is met with considerable outcry from users elegantly straightforward: advertisers bid who were apparently not yet ready for on keywords to affect the rank positions such blatant commercialization of one of of their text ads on search results pages, their favorite tools. Other search engines aggregated data for all 2004 ad mostly took the cue and resisted impressions, and they pay only when a sponsored text links until the business person clicks on their ad. The complexity incubator Idealab! introduced GoTo.com comes into play both in terms of the in 1998, which revived the practice of dynamic auction environment of price clearly labeling text ads on search for position, as well as in the seemingly engines to much greater success.11 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 GoTo later changed its name to Given the complexity, however, of Overture, which Yahoo! later acquired. managing large keyword campaigns, a Like Overture, Google’s AdWords number of specialized search marketing program sells keyword targeted ads both firms, including DoubleClick’s Performics through their respective parent search division, and search ad management engines as well as through a network of platforms, including DoubleClick’s smaller partner search engines. In this soon-to-be-released DART Search, manner, Overture and AdWords together have emerged in recent years to help receive the vast majority of revenue in companies manage their search the search advertising sector. ad programs. The IAB and PWC estimated that as of the first half of 2004 (the latest for which Search advertising is by far the largest piece of the estimates were available), fully 40% of online ad spending pie online advertising spending was being spent on search advertising, by far the largest piece of the total online ad market, as shown in Figure 9. Applying that percentage to the IAB/PWC’s year- end 2004 online ad industry total estimate of $9.6 billion, the U.S. search advertising market would account for $3.8 billion. The key reason for the prominence of search listings in the online ad mix is that Figure 9 Source: Interactive Advertising Bureau/PricewaterhouseCoopers, “IAB Internet Advertising Revenue consumers rely on search heavily to aid Report” Q2 2004 their online shopping behavior. DoubleClick demonstrated that Roughly half of online buyers make a related conclusively in a study its search search before their purchase marketing division Performics released earlier this year with comScore Networks, titled “Search Before the Purchase.” The study concluded that roughly half of the people examined in the study who made an online purchase first conducted a search related to the product sometime in the 12 weeks prior. In the case of the travel category, 73% of ticket buyers first researched their purchase on a search engine, as shown in Figure 10 Source: DoubleClick Performics and comScore Networks, “Search Before the Purchase” report, 2005 Figure 10.12 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 Tracking Onlines Impact Across On the other hand, some industry Sales and Media Channels veterans, such as consultant Jeff Einstein, In addition to DoubleClick, other leading writing in a column for MediaPost, argue organizations are pioneering new ways to that marketers’ fixation with quantifying measure the impact of online advertising return on investment and click-through in innovative ways. For example, Yahoo! rates have stifled the creative potential of and ACNielsen have established a online advertising. research methodology called Yahoo! The optimal balance probably lies Consumer Direct to measure the impact somewhere in between pure branding that online ads have on offline retail and pure direct response, which are too purchases of consumer products, which often characterized as if they were two they report lift sales 19% on average. mutually exclusive ends of a spectrum. The IAB, meanwhile, has produced a “Brand-response” is one term some series of Cross Media Optimization marketers now favor to describe a middle Studies (XMOS). These large-scale road of recognizing value both in terms research projects aim to measure ad of direct-response and branding for the programs across multiple media (TV, effectiveness of advertising. Rich media print, online) to determine the optimal is an excellent embodiment of that mix of budget allocation for individual strategy, providing at once high brand campaigns to achieve target goals, impact and also finely trackable direct- including audience reach, brand impact response metrics. and sales lift. Few brand advertisers are comfortable with Wanamakers cavalier irony that Striking a Balance Between half of ad spending is wasted. At the Measurement and Creativity same time, sophisticated marketers The Internet’s promise of perfect understand that the consumer buying measurability for marketing programs process is often more circuitous than a has been both a blessing and a curse. On direct link from a mouse click to a credit the one hand, the kind of observed card number. measurements describe above, such as “view-through” and search behavior Metrics for better understanding the analysis over time, are certainly more effectiveness of marketing programs sophisticated than the focus groups and are undergoing rapid evolution, driven in paper diaries that typify media no small part by the Internet’s example. measurement in print and broadcast. It is But unfortunately, there is no “golden that level of accountability and the metric” on the horizon. Myriad factors steadily growing body of research about influence how consumers make online ad effectiveness that has fueled the purchase decisions, and systems for resurgence of marketer spending in the measuring marketing accountability must online channel. recognize that complexity and help to put it in perspective.13 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 Consumers Demand Greater Control accept the fact that there is no ‘mass’ in Two competing forces have been building ‘mass media’ anymore, and leverage for decades in the American more targeted approaches... And, we communications world that in recent must better understand who we are years have heralded significant changes reaching as media plans become more for both media companies and fragmented. I give us a ‘D’ here because marketers. One is the vast proliferation our mentalities have not changed. of media outlets. The other is the surfeit Our work processes have not changed of marketing messages in our society. enough. Our measurement has Add to that digital technologies such as not evolved.” peer-to-peer file-sharing networks, digital As media choices have proliferated for video recorders (DVRs) and blog consumers, so has the volume of publishing tools, and the media advertising we are all exposed to every landscape as we have known it will never day. Estimates from various research look the same again. companies of the number of commercial messages the average American is Mass Media Goes Niche exposed to every day range from In 1965, advertisers could reach 80% of hundreds to more than 5,000, when you Americans aged 18-49 by running TV include not only ads in TV, radio commercials on only CBS, NBC and magazines, newspapers, movie theaters, ABC. By 1994, the “big four” broadcast web sites and email messages but also networks (with Fox) commanded a 52% omnipresent logos on billboards, bus prime-time audience share. By 2004, stops, stadiums, key rings, t-shirts, 3 that share was down to 31%. Today, baseball caps and beyond. the average U.S. household has 90 TV channels. ‘I Want My iTV!’ As P&G’s Jim Stengel told the AAAA It is no surprise, therefore, that audience in February 2004, “We must consumers feel overwhelmed and are increasingly opting out of ads at many More media revenue now comes directly from opportunities. What started as switching consumers than from advertisers from one program to another during commercial breaks with the widespread adoption of the remote control in the 1980s has evolved into MP3 podcasting as a homegrown alternative to commercial radio, pop-up blockers swatting down online annoyances, and, most terrifying to Madison Avenue, TiVo and its rival DVRs radically changing TV viewing habits, including ad-skipping abilities. Figure 11 Source: “Veronis Suhler Stevenson Communications Industry Forecast Report,” 200414 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 In its Communications Industry Forecast increasingly taking notice, as well Report in 2004, merchant bank Veronis they should. Suhler Stevenson concluded that for the On the web, consumers are similarly first time in history the larger share of demonstrating that if they want quality media revenue came not from advertising content enough, they are willing to pay sponsorship but directly from consumer for it. In the earliest days of Internet spending, such as satellite and cable TV publishing, many sites tried charging for subscriptions, home DVD and videos and content only to abandon the effort in the Internet access, as shown in Figure 11 face of initial consumer resistance (with (previous page). the exception of a few specialty sites such By the end of 2004, millions of as the Wall Street Journal and consumers were opting for new ConsumerReport.org that stuck with the technologies that grant them tremendous paid model). Then, during the recession control over their media experiences, years earlier this decade, many sites gave including these: subscriptions and one-off content sales XM Radio: 2.5 million subscribers another chance, with greater success. Netflix: 3 million In 2004, consumers spent nearly $2 billion on content, according to the DVR services: 6 million Online Publishers Association (OPA), as Video-on-Demand: 10 million shown in Figure 12. That is roughly a Apple iPods: 11 million fifth as much as the IAB reports content companies are earning from online It’s possible that this trend has less to advertising. The most popular content do with advertising avoidance and more that consumers are paying for are dating to do with consumers’ desire for greater services, entertainment products control over what content they want (principally music) and and when. Either way, advertisers are business/investment content, according to the OPA. U.S. consumers steadily paying for more content online It’s a High-Speed World We Live In Part of what is driving greater adoption of paid content—particularly music and video—is the steady adoption among home Internet users of high-speed connections. By December of 2004, 54% of wired U.S. homes were using broadband, a 31% increase from December 2003, according to Nielsen//NetRatings. With 67% of all Source: Online Publishers Association and comScore Networks, “Paid Online Content U.S. Market Figure 12 Spending Report, FY 2004” U.S. homes online as of the same month,15 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. DoubleClick’s The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004 that works out to 38% of all U.S. chairman of ABC TV, as head of the household on broadband. Yahoo! Media Group. MSN has an edge in the wide adoption of its Windows According to USC Annenberg School’s Media Player as a content channel, and 2004 Digital Future Report, broadband AOL brings a nearly limitless library of users not only spent more time online at new and classic content to the table home (an average 10.4 hours per week through its parent Time Warner. versus 6.6 among telephone modem users), they also spent significantly more time online shopping, listening to music, The Revolution Will Be Blogged playing games and accessing No discussion of the changing media entertainment information. landscape in recent years could be complete, of course, without talking Many big companies are betting that about blogs and other consumer- widespread broadband adoption will generated content, including social usher in a new era of the Internet as a networks, audio podcasting, mobile- major new entertainment medium, camera-phone “mo-bloging” and so on. alongside its present primary uses for The ultimate expression of consumers’ information, communication and desire to have more control over their shopping. Online video has certainly content, blogs and related tools allow captured the imaginations of both consumers to create their own content, content providers and advertisers and without the help of traditional media. been a major source of buzz in 2004. The popularity of the phenomenon In 2004, both Yahoo! and Google appears to be more than a mere fad, launched video search engines, and all having gone from relative obscurity just a three major portals—Yahoo!, MSN and few years ago to a significant factor in AOL—have embarked on aggressive the 2004 presidential election. According video content strategies. Yahoo! recently to the Pew Internet & American Life appointed Lloyd Braun, formerly Project, 8% of all Internet users maintained a blog as of November 2004, Weblog host Blogspot surpassed the unique monthly while 38% said they were familiar with audience of NYTimes.com by the end of 2004 them, and 27% called themselves regular blog readers. As shown in Figure 13, Blogspot, a popular blog hosting service and part of the Blogger.com publishing service, which Google acquired in early 2003, now receives a larger audience of unique users across its million-plus blogs collectively than does the NYTimes.com, according to Alexa. This finding is confirmed by Figure 13 Source: Alexa Internet, 2005 comScore Networks, which reports that16 © 2005 DoubleClick Inc. All Rights Reserved.