Dos Santos Elodie, Gautherat Ophélie, Hamdani Maeva Tstss 1
The history of slavery in the United States, which began about 1619, Starts after the installation of the first British settlers in Virginia and ends with the adoption of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution after the Civil War. Slavery has drained Africa, in the most atrocious conditions, where few survived. During this period, slavery occupied a central position in the social and economic organization in the South. In total, thirteen colonies imported about 600 000 Africans. Any slave wishing to regain his freedom have incurred the terrible punishments dictated by the Black Code.
1619 : The first black slaves were imported into Virginia. Millions of African slaves were transported on the American continent. 1790 : 20% of the total population of the United States is of African origin. 1783 : After the American Revolution, slavery was abolished in the north.Slaves were used like domestic and agricultural (tobacco plantations and cotton). 1808 : There are 4 million slaves. 1820 : There is a movement against slavery in the north.
1807 : Internationally, the slave trade was officially banned, having killed more than 20 million Africans. But nothing changed in the United States. The importation of slaves (many of them died of disease in the holds of slave ships) took to a significant degree. At the end of the eighteenth century, the number of slaves brought into the South was 750 000. The slaves were not without reaction and they tried to rebel against their "masters". Alliances were made between black slaves and Indians, united in the same hatred of the white man Blacks had won their freedom, but the whites did not accept the equality between the two races, considering the obvious superiority.
April 12, 1861: first shot May 6, 1861: Confederate Congress declared war in Alabama in the United States North strongest military power, material benefit. 22 million people. 2 million of combat 186 000 black South: 9 million inhabitants, including 4 million slaves. they suffered a lack of food, clothing, medicines, heavy artillery ... 900 000 white men but better soldiers (Robert E. Lee and Joseph E. Johnston) February 3, 1865: Lincoln is trying to end the war through negotiations but fails March 4, 1865: Lincoln made his inaugural speech and said "" April 9, 1865: Official end of the war April 14, 1865: assassination of Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth 5 days after the signing of the peace
Death toll: 620,000 dead and many injured 354,000 in the north and 258 000 in the south. 1 million deaths among the total deaths in combat and death after fight Economic Report: rubble, railway lines torn crops destroyed, cattle slaughtered. Politics Report : The war has increased the authority of government. The U.S. Congress has dictated laws against which the South was strongly opposed
Abraham Lincoln stated the emancipation of the slaves of the south which was to take effect January 1, 1863. The proclamation did not release any slave border states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia). Four million slaves freed in July 1865. The thirteenth amendment eradicated slavery December 18, 1865. The 14 amendment (or amendments to the reconstitution) “Any State may enact or enforce a law limiting the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, no State may deprive anyone of life, liberty or property without due process of law, or deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws ” This amendment requires the Federated States respect Fundamental Rights has parked in the first 10 amendments of the constitution of 17870. It is applied (with the 15th amendment) after the Second World War.
Thanks to the war, the slaves have been freed and laws were created in their favor.