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Enterprise Architecture’s Tra...
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1. EA’S ROLE AS CHANGE ENABLE...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
EA team must set out on an ex...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
The role of technology in tod...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
and keep documentation of all...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
Architecture enables you to a...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
4. EA’S ROLE AS INNOVATION FA...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
generally skewed towards risk...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
CONCLUSION 
As we seen above,...
NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 
RESULTS ORIENTED APPROACH 
EA...
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NextGen Global Solutions, LLC. (NGG: IT) is an information technology consulting, research and advisory com...
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A transformative role for Enterprise Architecture (EA) in today's dynamic Enterprises

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This article articulates and offers a summary of Enterprise Architecture (EA) and the transformational role it can play in today’s dynamic enterprises. It also makes recommendations on how a successful implementation of an EA practice can help companies do the “right things right” by facilitating rational decision making, and allowing them to easily respond to disruptive forces such as change, alignment, complexity and innovation.

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A transformative role for Enterprise Architecture (EA) in today's dynamic Enterprises

  1. 1. We Share in Your Vision RUN • GROW •TRANSFORM Solutions that work for Today and Tomorrow NEXTGEN GLOBAL® Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential Visit nggsolutions.com Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential
  2. 2. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business Enterprise Architecture’s Transformative Role Published: July 28, 2013 - Fru Louis No one would knock down walls in a building indiscriminately without understanding the building architecture. You could make apparently small changes and the whole building potentially could collapse. Similarly, you could make apparently small changes to an enterprise and if you didn’t understand the Enterprise Architecture, the apparently small changes could potentially render the whole enterprise dysfunctional. John Zachman CURRENT STATE OF THINGS Due to the rapidly changing nature of businesses today, i.e. mobile, web, social, cloud, outsourcing etc., decision makers in companies are finding themselves increasingly being asked to do more with less. At the back of their minds, the following questions are being asked:  Right things: Are we doing the right things?  Right Way: Are we doing them the right way?  Well: Are we getting it done well?  Benefits: Are we getting the benefits? At the core of these questions is the challenge that companies are always looking to do the right things right. Over the years, Enterprise Architecture (EA) has proven itself as a competent solution to helping companies do the right things right. Unfortunately, even when there are people, processes, or practices like this that help companies do the right things right, it remains stubbornly true that nobody ever gets credit for fixing problems that never happened. And this reality has posed great challenges for investing in EA. The accepted modus operandi in the industry has always been that an EA practice provides no intrinsic value upfront. Even according to John Zachman, the pioneer of the Zachman EA Framework, it is not possible for one to really justify the cost for investing in EA as EA when implemented usually does not save money in the current accounting period. So the question becomes why should one build out an Enterprise Architecture Practice if the ROI can’t immediately be justified? Interestingly, the answer to this question is neither art nor science. In the analysis below, we would make the case that EA has the capacity to play a transformative role in helping companies understand their DNA. In so doing, EA can help companies do the right things right which equates to better managing change, reduce complexity, keep alignment with the business strategy and also drive innovation. Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 1 Change
  3. 3. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 1. EA’S ROLE AS CHANGE ENABLER One of the most predictable factors in modern organizations is change. Everything changes, both business and circumstance. Companies change either in response to Crisis Situation, Mergers & Acquisitions, Internal & External pressures, new SWOT landscape (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats), New Technologies, Change for the Sake of Change, or Change for Experimentation. Enterprise architecture (EA) is a discipline suitably equipped for proactively leading enterprise responses to change situations by identifying and analyzing the change factors and then executing a strategy to deal with them. “The only thing that is constant is change” Heraclitus Change is usually disruptive and seldom welcomed. Unfortunately, when companies are looking to change, either voluntarily or by compellation, they embark on training or communication as a means to manage the change. But, while training and communication are effective levers, they aren’t usually good enough to get to the finish line. Adaptation “It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.” Charles Darwin Successful and sustainable change requires skill, planning, and a tailored approach to the sought after outcome, and that is where Enterprise Architecture comes in. In a transition process, what gives people and organizations the courage and energy to change is their commitment to a compelling imperative for the change. This imperative can take the form of a story, outlined as the vision, mission, values or goals to be achieved. This story otherwise called a "change story" must be sufficiently rich enough to communicate the need for change to all levels of the organization i.e. from C-level executives to workers in the fields. Why, what, who, when, how questions must be asked and answered. The answers to these questions provides that compelling imperative (change story) that everyone in the organization can buy into and work towards achieving. EA's role as a change enabler is therefore to identify the change story for the business and work towards making it happen. To do so, the Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 2
  4. 4. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business EA team must set out on an expedition to answer these change questions:  Why should my company move from an "as-is" state to Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 3 a "to-be" state?  When should my company move from an "as-is" state to a "to-be" state?  Who should move my company from an "as-is" state to a "to-be" state?  What is required to move my company from an "as-is" state to a "to-be" state?  How should my company move from an "as-is" state to a "to-be" state? The answers to these questions helps the EA practice in creating informed, clear roadmaps with tangible artifacts, models, activities, and execution strategy, that the company can follow to implement a change story. Such models developed by the EA practice facilitates change by allowing queries to determine impacts of change variables on the complex business and technological solutions of the organization. If the impact of change can easily be quantified and understood, then companies looking to adapt or change will find it easier to do so. In medicine, we know from history that it is possible to diagnose and treat a fractured bone without an X-Ray, but the process is a lot easier for doctors if they have an X-Ray scan in hand. Same conditions apply to decision makers in today’s organizations. The factors that necessitate change will always be present. The value EA provides is to do an overall X-Ray of the Enterprise. The outputs from this X-Ray exercise can then be analyzed by decision makers who are looking to build adaptive capacities into the core competence of their business. Once adaptive capabilities are built into the enterprise, the resulting adaptive enterprisei can then more easily respond to change factors from the external and internal environment and also can allow for an easier response to those inevitable disruptions that cause enterprises to fundamentally change. 2. EA’S ROLE AS ALIGNMENT KEEPER More often than not, Business Needs in most Enterprises are difficult to ascertain, hence causing great disconnect and miss-alignment between business and IT stakeholders. This primary and sometimes devastating disconnect between business and IT priorities is often cited as the primary driver behind the failure of most enterprise initiatives. Fortunately, EA has the capacity to remedy the situation by providing the enterprise with a very broad perspective that not only bridges the alignment gaps between business and IT, but also ensures total cohesion between the two. Bernard Scottii (pg. 30) elegantly captured this idea of cohesion when he wrote the formula in his book that: A corollary from Scott’s formula is that an enterprise cannot succeed on Strategy alone. Neither can it succeed on Business alone, or Technology alone. All those three must come together and work in synergy to guarantee success in the enterprise. So, one of the most important goals of an Enterprise Architecture Practice is therefore to bring alignment and cohesion between strategy, business and Technology.
  5. 5. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business The role of technology in today’s business landscape is changing and is becoming increasingly salient. In the past, businesses had an IT department (consisting of geeks and nerds usually secluded off in the basement or some darkly lit room) because they wanted to. Today, businesses have an IT department because they have to. With technology now playing an increasingly sophisticated role in business process, it becomes very important for leaders to ensure that IT remains aligned with the business. Without alignment, IT easily gets out of sync with the business or becomes nothing more than a delivery engine for business projects. Or even worst, IT goes off its own tangent acquiring and or developing the latest and greatest technological gadgets, which are cool in as of themselves, but have little relevance to solving the business needs. Because of this potential for misalignment, it is extremely important for EA to play the role of referee and keep both IT and Business ambitions under control. And, that ability for EA to keep alignment between Business and IT in an organization often hinges on the EA team's capacity to craft a roadmap for the organization. By working with both Business and Technical liaisons, the EA team can ascertain the vision of the business and produce roadmaps documents with one, three, five or even ten years plans of how that vision will be implemented. These Roadmap documents are important for reaching a consensus amongst stakeholders, thus guaranteeing alignment. Once all parties have reached an agreement, the roadmap becomes a planning tool that depicts how the business can utilize IT to execute on its intentions. Another piece of the puzzle is the management of the technology portfolio. It is essential for the Alignment Here’s what your typical CEO says to their IT team, “I have spent a lot of money in IT but I don’t think what you guys are doing with that money is in line with the plans I have for the enterprise.” When your CEO thinks this way, something is seriously wrong. John Zachman Enterprise Architecture Practice to manage the company’s portfolio EA = S + B + T Enterprise Architecture = Strategy + Business + Technology Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 4
  6. 6. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business and keep documentation of all aspects of the enterprise i.e. business processes, applications, infrastructure, and data. This documentations help the enterprise in managing costs and also assessing any potential technical gaps within the enterprise. Without EA to play referee between Business & IT and delivering a solid portfolio or business process management (BPM) solution, it becomes easy for costs to spiral out of control – a frequent source of angst between Business and IT leaders in most enterprises. 3. EA’S ROLE AS COMPLEXITY MANAGER The basic tenet of Entropy states: “A closed system if left alone would tend to move from order to disorder; simplicity to increased complexity.” Organizations are systems, albeit closed systems. “A closed system if left alone would tend to move from order to disorder; simplicity to increased complexity.” The Law of Entropy Hence they are bound by the law of entropy, with an inherent tendency to gravitate towards the state of VUCA iii (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous). Sophisticated frameworks like the Cynefin Framework iv or Thorngate’s postulate of commensurate complexityv have been developed to provide a typology of context for describing organizational systems. But still the problem of complexity in organizations remain a wicked one. Whether Essential or Cyclomatic vi , Complexity of any form is something that cannot be ignored and must be dealt with head on. Complexity in organizations usually results from: Growth, Mergers and Acquisitions, Security needs, Change in business strategy, new technology, spin-offs, E.t.c. As Einstein once said, any intelligent fool can make things bigger and more complex... It takes a touch of genius - and a lot of courage to move in the opposite direction. Complexity is certainly not scarce in organization and it usually starts small and grows out of control due to the culture in most companies. Often a company’s culture and current employees are more focused on the project at hand rather than looking at their environment from an enterprise standpoint. Because of this, small localized problems and deficiencies quickly spiral out of control because no one is thinking about solutions strategically. Furthermore, when companies make calculations on investing, they spend much of their investment money towards fixing symptoms as opposed to addressing root cause issues. Because of this simple miscalculation, once simple problems that could have been dealt with easily then become complex over time. Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 5 Entropy
  7. 7. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business Architecture enables you to accommodate complexity and change. If you don’t have Enterprise Architecture, your enterprise is not going to be viable in an increasingly complex and changing external environment. John Zachman Even worst, as the complexity in organization grows, and the symptomatic problems become apparent, many Companies unfortunately honker down and dedicate more resources towards fighting fires, solving short term tactical solutions and not developing the long-term strategic plans for dealing with complexity that a good EA practice requires. EA, with its strategic thinking and long term planning capabilities is suitably equipped for dealing with the ever growing complexity in the companies. EA role as the visionary vanguard is therefore to evaluate the complexity of the business and technology platforms, and other factors to effectively determine the "as-is" state and forge the "to-be" state. To achieve any degree of success in this goal, the EA practice must command a thorough understanding of not only the business processes, but the technological capabilities as well. With this understanding, artifacts, models, blueprints and roadmap documents are then produced to serve as a repository of knowledge for the enterprise. Generally, we know that knowledge and complexity are inversely proportional. The more knowledge people have of their systems, processes and outcomes, the less complex it becomes. So, EA’s role is therefore reduce complexity by analyzing and increasing the overall knowledge in the systems. Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 6 Complexity We can simulate performance of airplanes in 3D, why can’t we do it with enterprises? This is where we should be heading - a stage where we can actually simulate how certain changes or decisions will affect the enterprise. John Zachman Impact
  8. 8. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business 4. EA’S ROLE AS INNOVATION FACILITATOR The business world is a complex adaptive system that is becoming increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA). In the face of such wicked problems, companies are realizing that innovation is not just a strategy that is encouraged, but is almost required. The innovation required in today’s business environments is not just limited to revolutionary bold leaps in Enterprise Business processes or value stream, but includes augmentations to the sustainability and resilience of the business model. For ease of analysis, Innovation herein is broken down into two types, viz: Evolutionary Innovation and Revolutionary Innovations. Evolutionary Innovation is the stepwise change and response to market forces that companies must do nowadays to stay afloat the stiff competition they face. On the other hand Revolutionary innovation constitutes the bold and transformative leaps that fundamentally changes a company’s business model or the industry at large - Think Apple with the iPod. The marriage between EA and Innovation is arguably a match made in heaven. But this happy matrimony only happens if companies can correctly manage the critical success factors and other contextual issues that support innovation. If not managed appropriately, companies seeking revolutionary innovation through EA may find themselves embroiled in a turf war with brutal bureaucracy and structural anarchy of epic proportions. RISK Few enterprises today have descriptive representations that depict how the enterprise works. Therefore, change can only be accommodated by trial and error. As complexity and the rate of change increase, risk of trial and error increases. Architecture provides the structure to predict the impact of change, reduce the risk and maintain enterprise viability in a changing environment. John Zachman This tension of innovating through EA happens because EA is often seen as the antithesis of Innovation and both sides usually have competing goals. EA which naturally produces artifacts, “Don’t tell employees what to do. Rather, tell them what needs to be accomplished. Let them figure out how to do it. More likely than not, they shall devise a better way than any manager can think of.” Management 101 standardization, and conformity is quick to avert overt risk taking. On the other hand, Innovation (both revolutionary and evolutionary) naturally subscribes to a risk taking culture in an organization. It thrives on freedom, minimum standardization/conformity and more risk taking. Unfortunately, the culture in many companies is Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 7
  9. 9. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business generally skewed towards risk avoidance or mitigation - hence reducing the chances for innovation. But this is where EA comes in. First, it is fundamentally wrong to see EA as the epitome of all things wrong with standardization. EA promotes standardization, but standardization is not all EA does. Broadly, EA helps creates services, standards and an architecture with repeatable building blocks that increases both the effectiveness and efficiency of the business. The outputs, artifacts, models and road map documents produced by an EA team helps reduce unnecessary redundancies and increases reusability. Once the EA team has been engaged to help define and implement an architecture for an organization, then individual business units within the organization merely have to see where they “plug-in” to it to get their work done - as opposed to trying to reinvent the wheel all over again. The time and resources saved from re-inventing the wheel, is valuable time and resources that can be dedicated towards innovative and risk taking initiatives. Secondly, EA helps creates standards, which may seem a hindrance to some who are looking to innovate. But as mentioned earlier, standards in an organizations is not the antithesis of innovation. According to some Gartner publications, in companies that have standards, especially in the IT arena, support costs are drastically lowered, allowing the IT staff to do one thing, and do it well vs. having to support a wide-variety of systems, but doing none of them particularly well. Standards also makes outcomes predictable and repeatable. Hence reducing overall uncertainty and potential for huge fundamental errors. Finally, contrary to what many people believe, Innovation in enterprises does not have to be serendipitous. Innovation is something that companies have to actively pursue. To do so, companies must first de-emphasize EA’s role as being solely focused on standardization and instead looking at it more holistically as EA being a discipline that enables consistency, repeatability and reusability of patterns – and these are all factors that foster innovation. Results Learning and innovation go hand in hand. The arrogance of success is to think that what you did yesterday will be sufficient for tomorrow. William Pollard Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 8
  10. 10. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business CONCLUSION As we seen above, EA has a vital role to play in organizations when it comes to change, complexity, alignment and innovation. As Karl Weick, an organizational theorist and one of the leading thought leaders in business theory put it: While agreeing one hundred percent with Karl’s perspective would not be the most constructive stance to take, but by looking in the viewpoint of EA as being the Change Enabler, EA and Evolution Alignment Keeper, Complexity Manager and Innovation Facilitator as espoused in the analysis above, one clearly sees there is a great need for EA in today’s business environments. Again, as Warren Bennis, the great American organizational theorist once put it “Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality.” Today, many decision makers have visions for the companies. They are also looking to translate their visions into reality and are out in search of tools to help in that effort. When successfully applied, EA can play the transformational role and drastically help companies translate vision to reality by providing the following competencies.  Create Models: Ability to create models that serve as the Enterprise compass for effective diagnosis  Taxonomy Repositories: Better taxonomy repositories that serve as reference for better understanding the Enterprise anatomy.  Enterprise Deficiencies and Opportunities: Offer insights into various Enterprise opportunities or deficiencies that adversely affect the running and managing of the Enterprise and possible reasons behind them.  Change Impacts: Ability to model and predict change impacts on the overall enterprise. Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 9 Evolution and enterprise architecture are very much related. From a cynical point of view, you could say that the forces of evolution have shaped most enterprise architectures. To quote one famous analyst2: “Most of you have an accidental architecture. I mean, I can only hope you didn’t deliberately design what you have in place.” Frank Buytendijk The effective organization is “garrulous clumsy garrulous, clumsy, superstitious, hypocritical, monstrous, octopoid, wandering and grouchy” Karl Weick
  11. 11. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business RESULTS ORIENTED APPROACH EA’s goal is to provide pragmatic, objective, unbiased and prescriptive feedback for companies looking to undertake transformational changes to business i.e. going from vision to reality. But despite the possible transformational benefits of EA outline herein, decision makers looking to adopt the practice have to remember that “Enterprise Architecture” is not a time bound project or initiative and hence not treat it as such. It’s almost by nature that companies have a tendency to get complex and loose However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results. Winston Churchill alignment with business objectives. This is the primary challenge faced by companies today and the situation is even amplified by the accelerating pace of technology change. The direct benefits of implementing an EA practice abound, but to be successful, Enterprise Architecture must be embraced by the enterprise as a journey undertaken with the business, and not a project that produces only technical artifacts or UML diagrams as it output. Also, it might be useful to mention that EA itself is a maturing field/discipline that unfortunately comes in too many flavors. Significant efforts are still needed to standardize the discipline of EA for the specific needs of individual businesses. (See the effort conducted by "LEADing Practice"vii, The Federation of Enterprise Architecture Professionals (FEAPO)viii, et al.). Because of this potential diversity in the implementation of EA, decision makers must approach the EA journey with a sense of cautious optimism – investing generously and demanding results even more generously. There are lots of choices to choose from, but the EA journey they choose to embark on must engage the enterprise in a way that is sufficiently rich and expressive enough to make the transition from the vision to reality as easy as possible. When successfully applied, EA has the capacity to reverse the fortunes of a struggling team(s), prevent decision deadlock, extract results from a bunch of touchy superstars within business teams, and fight constructively with top-management colleagues, all in an effort to present business and IT leaders with signature-ready recommendations for adjusting policies and steering decision making towards the evolution of a desired future state. This is the Holy Grail of enterprise performance and this is what Transformational EA is about. Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 10 Results
  12. 12. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 11 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Schekkerman, Jaap. Enterprise Architecture Good Practices Guide: How to Manage the Enterprise Architecture Practice. Victoria, BC: Trafford Pub., 2008. Print.
  13. 13. About NextGen NextGen Global Solutions, LLC. (NGG: IT) is an information technology consulting, research and advisory company. We deliver the technology-related insight necessary for our clients to make the right decisions, every day. From CIOs and senior IT leaders, to business leaders, Engineering and Service professionals. Information is power in this digital age, and we try to research and provide the resources and solutions that would help decision makers run, grow and transform their organizations.  Get a Different Perspective Are your competitors talking about you in their boardrooms? Does your strategy guide how you allocate resources? Can every employee articulate your strategy and are they empowered to execute on it? At NGG, we see strategy as much more than a plan. We work with companies in every industry to develop strategies that deliver results. We conduct surveys, interviews, and observations for comprehensive needs analysis. Track Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to ensure the success of your Business Programs by making appropriate adjustments  X-Ray your Business Potentials New technologies create new opportunities. But having too many choices makes prioritizing them difficult. At NGG, we partner with our clients to produce the broad IT transformations that are necessary to extend IT’s capabilities and create an organization that is better able to respond to new opportunities. Create comprehensive Road-maps to efficiently align your Business Goals and Objectives with your Business and Technology Capabilities. And help monitor your projects implementation process from start to finish.  Because the Bottom-line Matters Focusing on the core customer base enables a company to cut through product complexity and other nuances. If you know exactly what your primary customers most want—if you know what their sweet spot is—you can concentrate on giving them exactly that. At NGG, we help our clients follow the time honored principle: Delight the few to attract the many. By focusing on their core customers, customers can tailor offerings that are exactly what the core customers want, and hence are likely to appeal to large numbers of other customers. Visit nggsolutions.com Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential
  14. 14. NextGen Global Solutions ® We Share in Your Vision | RUN • GROW • TRANSFORM • Your Business i Adaptive Enterprise: http://www.adaptive.com/products/adaptive-enterprise-architecture-manager/ ii Bernard, Scott A. An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture. [Bloomington, IN]: AuthorHouse, 2005. Print. (Pg. 30) iii Living and Leading in a VUCA world. http://www.thunderbird.edu/article/living-and-leading-vuca-world iv More about the Cynefin Framework can be read at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin v More details about Thorngates postulate is available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorngate's_postulate_of_commensurate_complexity vi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_complexity vii http://www.leadingpractice.com/frameworks/ viii http://www.feapo.org/ Property of NextGen Global Solutions © 2015 — www.nggsolutions.com — Proprietary and Confidential P a g e | 1

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