harvard universityfinancial reportfiscal year 2011
2	   message from the president                                        table of contents	 3	   financial overview	 8	   me...
Message from the President                             I write to report Harvard University’s financial results       As w...
Financial OverviewFrom the Vice President for Finance and the TreasurerIn its fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, the Univers...
operating revenue                     Total operating revenue increased 1%, to $3.8 billion.                  In light of ...
Student revenue increased 4%, from $712 million in             budgetary growth, causing benefits as a percentagefiscal 20...
balance sheet                     Investments                                                     December 2008 for operat...
Harvard Innovation Lab on Western Avenue; regulatory        with a continued commitment to prudent expenseapproval of Tata...
Message from the CEO of Harvard Management Company                                  The return on the Harvard endowment fo...
This performance is notable when we remember that                                Over the last decade the Harvard endowmen...
discussion of fiscal year 2011                                  As a measure of the strength of the endowment’s return    ...
started investing in timberland properties in the 1990s      see tangible positive results from this shift in culture.and ...
outlook                              Since the end of the fiscal year the markets have been         One thing we know for ...
Report of Independent Auditors                                                                                            ...
balance sheets                       with summarized financial information as of June 30, 2010                            ...
statements of changes in net assets with general operating account detail with summarized financial information for the ye...
statements of changes in net assets of the endowment                       ­                       with summarized financi...
statements of cash flows                                                                                              	   ...
1. university organization                                Harvard University (the “University”) is a private, not-for-prof...
Revenues from sources other than contributions are                     mobile liability, property damage, and workers’ com...
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
Harvard 2011fullreport
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Harvard 2011fullreport

  1. 1. harvard universityfinancial reportfiscal year 2011
  2. 2. 2 message from the president table of contents 3 financial overview 8 message from the ceo of harvard management company 3 1 report of independent auditors 4 1 financial statements 8 1 notes to financial statements
  3. 3. Message from the President I write to report Harvard University’s financial results As we celebrate Harvard’s 375th year, we need to envi- for fiscal 2011. sion what we want the institution to look like when it turns 400. The changing shape of knowledge is rede- The year ended June 30, 2011, saw the completion fining disciplinary identities and boundaries, making of the second year of sharp reductions in endowment the greater collaboration among Harvard schools and distributions but also important investments in the programs an imperative. Changing financial realities University’s future as we prepared to celebrate Harvard’s require an ongoing examination of our funding modelmessage from the president 375th anniversary. We sustained our strong commitment with its reliance on government support, endowment to financial aid for low- and middle-income families to returns, and tuition – all of which are expected to be ensure that we continue to bring the very best students either declining or constrained in the years ahead. to Harvard, regardless of their economic circumstances. We continued to expand Harvard’s international engage- We must balance the need to position ourselves in ment and we launched planning and construction of relationship to longer-term change with the imperative the Harvard Innovation Lab to catalyze entrepreneurial to take necessary shorter-term actions to strengthen opportunities for students and faculty across the University institutional structures and academic programs. The and members of the broader community. We vigorously self-scrutiny prompted by the 2008 financial downturn 2 pursued initiatives in science and engineering, and in has resulted in a number of important transformations interdisciplinary domains such as global health and energy at Harvard, changes that have brought greater inte-harvard university and the environment, while celebrating the dedication of gration and effectiveness to our activities in both the the Mahindra Humanities Center and bringing the arts academic and administrative realms. Building “one that thrive across campus ever closer to the classroom university,” integrating programs and activities to build experience. We also pushed ahead with the first stage of a whole greater than its parts, remains among our most renewal of our undergraduate houses, re-oriented long- important priorities. term planning for Harvard’s future in Allston, and started developing priorities for our coming University campaign. Helping to imagine the world anew remains at the heart of what we do and I am grateful for the contributions of This year also saw strengthening of the University’s gov- everyone in the Harvard community who has helped ernance with the historic reconfiguration and expansion make the significant progress of this past academic of the Corporation including the appointment of three year possible. new members, Lawrence S. Bacow, Susan L. Graham, and Joseph J. O’Donnell. We welcomed a new provost, Sincerely, Alan Garber, to help lead our academic endeavors. And the endowment portfolio had a strong year under the leadership of CEO and President Jane Mendillo, earning an investment return of 21.4 % with a year-end value of Drew Gilpin Faust $32.0 billion. president The result of all of this activity is a renewed sense of October 28, 2011 momentum for the University and optimism about the opportunities before us. But we must not lose sight of the fact that we operate in an environment of national and international uncertainty, one which challenges us to manage the tension between prudence and ambi- tion, between appropriate caution and necessary action in the face of a changing competitive landscape for higher education.
  4. 4. Financial OverviewFrom the Vice President for Finance and the TreasurerIn its fiscal year ended June 30, 2011, the University continued to strengthen its balance sheet, maintain andselectively invest in key academic and research programs, and thoughtfully manage expenses. While theUniversity’s operating deficit increased, the reserves we have built over time give us flexibility in fundingdeficits as we move through a considered process of change. In this climate of considerable economic volatility financial overviewand significant uncertainty, we recognize the University’s responsibility to continue to find more efficient andeffective ways of doing business.The University is focusing attention on initiatives to quickly as practicable, but with sufficient care and dili-prudently manage or reduce costs, and to explore the gence to maintain and enhance the University’s excel-potential of generating additional revenue. We expect lence. The University’s reserve position affords us thethat these efforts, guided by the leadership of President ability to emphasize quality over speed as we evaluate 3Faust, our new Provost Alan Garber, Executive Vice opportunities to reduce expenses and increase revenuePresident Katie Lapp, and the University’s Corporation – although we will not be satisfied relying on reserves harvard universityand its new Finance Committee, will bring revenue for an indefinite period.and expense into balance, and position Harvard well toaddress future financial management challenges and In light of the operating deficit and continuing budget-opportunities. ary uncertainties, the University is pursuing a number of strategies that will help to reduce ongoing costs andThe University’s operating deficit increased from enable high-priority programmatic reinvestment in$0.9 million in fiscal 2010 to $130.0 million in fiscal the years ahead. For example, the University is imple-2011. Note that investment gains and losses (including menting a new enterprise procurement system thatgains and losses associated with the endowment) are will enable us to aggregate more of our purchasing andnot included in the University’s operating result but thereby gain leverage with vendors. We also are in theare reflected on its balance sheet. Notwithstanding the early stages of reorganizing the University’s librariesfiscal 2011 deficit, the University’s net assets increased and consolidating many of our information technologyby $5.3 billion, from $31.7 billion at June 30, 2010 to activities (including the merger of the University’s two$37.0 billion at June 30, 2011. largest IT organizations in the central administration and the Faculty of Arts and Sciences). Our goal in eachThe fiscal 2011 operating deficit was not unexpected. of these endeavors is to consider aggregations of activi-In the wake of the global financial crisis, Harvard com- ties that can be more efficiently done at scale, withoutmitted to adapting to new financial circumstances as compromising service level requirements.summary of financial resultsIn millions of dollars 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007Total revenue $ 3,777.7 $ 3,739.0 $ 3,807.4 $ 3,482.3 $ 3,210.5Total expenses 3,907.6 3,739.9 3,762.1 3,464.9 3,170.7 Total gifts 639.1 597.0 597.1 690.1 615.0Total investments 39,192.9 33,933.7 31,480.3 43,804.3 41,832.9Fixed assets, net 5,647.1 5,500.6 5,393.5 4,951.3 4,524.2Bonds and notes payable 6,335.7 6,284.2 5,980.5 4,089.9 3,847.0 Net assets–General Operating Account 4,500.4 3,747.9 3,580.3 6,327.0 5,988.4Net assets–endowment funds 32,012.7 27,565.0 26,138.2 37,174.8 35,362.3
  5. 5. operating revenue Total operating revenue increased 1%, to $3.8 billion. In light of positive investment results in fiscal 2010 Sponsored revenue increased due to incremental and 2011, the University is planning to resume posi- activity on awards made to the University under the tive growth in the distribution in both fiscal 2012 and American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (arra). fiscal 2013 while maintaining a payout rate within the This increase, combined with continued growth in net targeted range. student income and a return to strong positive growth in current use giving, offset a significant decline in The University’s sponsored funding increased by 10%, endowment returns made available for operations. from $777 million in fiscal 2010 to $852 million in fis- cal 2011. The federal government provided $686 million As part of absorbing the endowment’s fiscal 2009 in sponsored funding, or more than 80% of the total. market value decline into operations, the University’s As of June 30, 2011, Harvard had received 310 arrafinancial overview total distribution from the endowment declined by awards, totaling $240 million, of which $86 million was 10%, from $1.3 billion in fiscal 2010 to $1.2 billion in spent in fiscal 2011, compared to $48 million in fiscal fiscal 2011. In the aggregate, Harvard’s payout rate (i.e., 2010. The University expects to deploy the substantial the percentage of the endowment withdrawn annually remainder of arra funds over the next two years. for operations and for one-time or time-limited strate- gic purposes) was 5.3% in fiscal 2011, in line with the While Harvard’s research enterprise is strong, we are University’s targeted payout rate range of 5.0-5.5%. This mindful of federal budget constraints, and the strong range is intended to balance the maintenance of the possibility that extramural government funding of 4 endowment’s purchasing power for future generations biomedical research will decline. Significantly reduced with the desire to pursue nearer-term opportunities. levels of support could have a material adverse effectharvard university over time on the University’s operating results. fiscal 2011 sources of operating revenue ­­­ 3% 2% 7% 7% 3% 8% 9% 15% 13% 18% 16% 18% 20% 6% 12% 4% 31% 5% 33% 14% 5% 22% 9% 2% 3% 6% 7% 1% 2% 4% 1% 23% 22% 27% 7% 39% 43% 18% 47% 76% 48% 32% 84% 20% 73% 41% 27% 32%52% 51% 16% 6% 38% 32% 35% 33% 7% 25% 22% 20% 19% 19% 12% University Radcliffe Divinity Faculty Design Law Engineering Kennedy Medicine Dental Business Education Public of Arts & & Applied School Health Sciences Sciences
  6. 6. Student revenue increased 4%, from $712 million in budgetary growth, causing benefits as a percentagefiscal 2010 to $741 million in fiscal 2011, driven princi- of the University’s overall expenses to increase frompally by increases in revenue from continuing education 8% in fiscal 2001 to 12% in fiscal 2011. Similarly, asand executive education programs. Undergraduate net a percentage of salaries and wages, benefits expensestudent revenue (i.e., undergraduate tuition, fees, board has increased from 20% in 2001 to 32% in fiscal 2011.and lodging, less scholarships applied to student While the phenomenon of disproportionate growthincome) increased by only 2%, reflective of Harvard’s in benefits costs is not unique to Harvard, the steepcontinuing commitment to financial aid. More than trajectory of the past decade cannot be sustained. In60% of undergraduates received financial aid from the coming years, the University will both build on itsHarvard in fiscal 2011. These families paid an average past successes in improving the efficiency of benefitsof $11,500 for tuition and room and board, representing administration, and continue to review its benefits financial overviewa 77% discount. For the Class of 2015, Harvard received offerings to ensure that they are in the aggregate botha record 34,950 applicants, with a 6.2% admit rate competitive and affordable.and a 77% yield rate. Non-compensation expenses grew by $76 million, orCurrent use gifts increased by 12%, from $248 million 4%, from $1.9 billion in fiscal 2010 to $2.0 billion inin fiscal 2010 to $277 million in fiscal 2011. Total fiscal 2011. However, excluding interest expense andgiving, including gifts designated as endowment, non-compensation expenditures covered by arra andincreased 7% to $639 million (see Note 17 of the audited other sponsored funding, this category of expenditures 5financial statements). This level of giving represents grew by only 2%. This result is consistent with thethe third highest total in the University’s history. We University’s continued strong focus on expense man- harvard universityare extremely grateful for the generosity of our donor agement and oversight.community. Among the most notable gifts were thelargest gift dedicated to the study of humanities in theUniversity’s history, and the largest international gift fiscal 2011 operating expensesto the Harvard Business School to enable the construction ofa new executive education facility on the Allston campus. Other expenses 21% Scholarshipsoperating expenses & other student awards 3% 48% Salaries, wages, andOperating expenses totaled $3.9 billion, a 4% increase employee Supplies & 6% benefitscompared to fiscal 2010. equipment 7%Compensation expenses (i.e., salaries, wages and bene- Depreciationfits) represented approximately half of the University’s 7% Space & occupancy 8%total operating expenses in fiscal 2011. Compensation Interestincreased by 5%, or $92 million, from $1.8 billion infiscal 2010 to $1.9 billion in fiscal 2011.Salaries and wages increased by 4%, or $57 million,to $1.4 billion in fiscal 2011, due in part to theresumption of modest wage growth. Employee benefitexpenses grew 8%, or $35 million, to $461 million.This increase was driven by rising healthcare costs, andchanges in accounting assumptions used to estimatethe University’s projected future costs for participantsin defined benefit pension plans. Over the past 10years, benefits expense has increased at a compoundrate of 10%. This rate of growth has exceeded overall
  7. 7. balance sheet Investments December 2008 for operational flexibility during the In fiscal 2011, the endowment generated positive financial crisis. During fiscal 2011, the University also investment returns of 21.4%, and its value (after the made further progress to reduce the liquidity risk of its impact of endowment returns made available for oper- debt portfolio. Since 2008, Harvard has reduced the ations and the addition of new gifts to the endowment percentage of outstanding debt that can be put back to during the year) increased from $27.6 billion at the the University with short-term notice (typically after end of fiscal 2010 to $32.0 billion at the end of fiscal one day or one week), or that matures in less than one 2011. More information can be found in the Message year, from approximately 50% to 10%. from the ceo of Harvard Management Company, found on page 8 of this report. Interest expense increased 12%, from $266 million in fiscal 2010 to $299 million in fiscal 2011. The higherfinancial overview The University’s holdings of liquid investments (e.g., interest expense reflects two primary factors – (i) cash and treasuries) outside the General Investment average debt outstanding during the year was approxi- Account increased slightly, to $1.1 billion at June 30, mately 5% higher in fiscal 2011 (the $300 million 2011. The General Investment Account is managed early redemption occurred in June 2011), and (ii) the by Harvard Management Company (hmc) and includes University continued to shift its mix of fixed/floating the endowment as well as a portion of the University’s rate debt more heavily toward fixed. pooled operating funds. Over the past several years, the University has made substantial progress in The University continues to maintain its AAA/Aaa 6 developing integrated liquidity management strategies credit ratings with Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s and in coordinating the cash management activities Investors Service, both of which were affirmed in con-harvard university taking place at hmc and the University. nection with our most recent bond issue in November 2010. More detail on the bond issuance, and the fair value of the endowment as of june 30, 2011 University’s broader debt portfolio, can be found in In millions of dollars Note 12 of the audited financial statements. Other departments $2,729 Dental $190 Capital Expenditures University professorships $290 The University invested $314 million in capital projects Design $386 Education $482 during fiscal 2011. This enabled progress on several Radcliffe Institute $546 significant capital projects during fiscal 2011, including Divinity $556 continued work on the Harvard Art Museums’ renovation Engineering & Applied Sciences $875 and expansion of 32 Quincy Street; the Harvard Law Kennedy School $1,002 Faculty of Arts & Sciences $13,517 School’s construction of a new building at the northwest Public Health $1,124 corner of the Cambridge campus; and the renovation Law $1,652 of the Sherman Fairchild building to create new space for the University’s Department of Stem Cell and President’s funds $2,093 Regenerative Biology. Business $2,744 Medicine In 2010, after completion of the below grade structure, $3,826 Harvard paused construction on the site of the planned Allston Science Complex. Nonetheless, over the past year, total fair value $32,012 Harvard has continued to develop Allston properties in Debt order to advance three objectives laid out by President The University had $6.3 billion of debt outstanding Faust in December of 2009: property stewardship and at June 30, 2011, reflecting no growth compared to community engagement; greening and land use planning; June 30, 2010. Debt raised by the University to fund and, as resources allow, campus development. Highlights capital projects was offset by the early redemption of of the past year include 13 new leases on Allston $300 million of taxable debt that had been issued in properties; design, permitting and construction of the
  8. 8. Harvard Innovation Lab on Western Avenue; regulatory with a continued commitment to prudent expenseapproval of Tata Hall, a $100 million project that management, including strategic cost reductionswill expand Harvard Business School’s capacity for where possible and investments to increase efficiency.executive education; the extension of the Ed Portal into We also recognize there are opportunities to achievenew space; and the opening of Library Park, a new two further diversification in our revenue base, and we areacre public park behind the Allston Honan Library. beginning the process of exploring those possibilities.In addition, an Allston Work Team, commissioned bythe President and comprised of Deans and key alumni, As always, the commitment and dedication of ourevaluated options and issued recommendations for students, faculty, staff, alumni and friends remainsnear-term development in Allston. President Faust and the most valuable asset of the University. We havethe Corporation recently adopted these recommenda- every confidence that this unparalleled community willtions, and will pursue them in two phases, starting this embrace the opportunities in front of us, and meet the financial overviewacademic year. interesting challenges we most surely will face along the way. To this community, we offer our thanks andLooking ahead, several new projects are slated for sincere appreciation.ground-breaking, including the Faculty of Arts andSciences’ renovation of Old Quincy – the first in aseries of projects intended to revitalize and strengthenthe undergraduate house system. Daniel S. Shore 7 vice president for finance andsummary chief financial officer harvard universityWe end fiscal year 2011 in a strong financial positionand with many initiatives underway that will serve tomake the University better able to deliver on preparingstudents for leadership and lives of meaning and value;advancing the course of knowledge and ideas; and serv- James F. Rothenberging society. Many of the efforts started in fiscal 2011 treasurercould require several years before yielding a significantfinancial impact. Our financial position gives us the October 28, 2011ability to undertake projects that are ambitious in scaleand complexity, recognizing that they will serve theUniversity best over the long term.Although our financial position is strong, we recognizethat our revenue sources are under pressure andthat the economic climate is marked by uncertainty.As a result, we look to fiscal year 2012 and beyond
  9. 9. Message from the CEO of Harvard Management Company The return on the Harvard endowment for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2011 was strong. The endowment portfolio earned an investment return of 21.4% and was valued at $32 billion at the end of the fiscal year. The portfolio’s performance was 120 basis points ahead of the 20.2% return on our Policy Portfolio benchmark.message from the ceo of hmc Adding value over our Policy Portfolio – beating the markets – is not easily done and is not expected every year, so we are gratified by this result. Many of the sectors in which we invest experienced We are committed to our stance as long-term inves- robust returns during the year ended June 30, and a tors, refining our edge and maintaining our discipline number of our strategies within those markets did quite through up and down markets. While there has been well. At Harvard Management Company (“hmc”) we some healing of the financial wounds inflicted during focus on actively managing the University’s endowment the crisis of 2008-2009, the portfolio and the University 8 to satisfy three primary objectives: growth, liquidity and are still feeling the aftermath of that difficult period. risk management. We are pleased to report that our The endowment value has not returned to its pre-crisisharvard university progress in fiscal year 2011 was significant along each level. Given the University’s high degree of dependence of these dimensions. Even with the extreme volatility on the endowment for its operations, we are ever-more that has gripped financial markets in the months since convinced that strengthening the portfolio for steady our fiscal year closed we are confident that our portfolio, growth over many years will yield the best long-term while impacted by adverse markets, is well positioned to results for Harvard. support Harvard’s mission. total value of the endowment1 historical context In billions of dollars Over the past two decades the average annual return on the endowment has been a robust 12.9%, beating both our Policy Portfolio benchmark and a simple 60/40 stock/bond portfolio by substantial margins. historical investment return annualized for periods greater than one year Policy 60/40 Portfolio Stock/bond Harvard1 Benchmark2 Portfolio3 1 year 21.4% 20.2% 19.5% 5 years 5.5 4.3 4.9 10 years 9.4 6.7 4.3 20 years 12.9 9.8 8.3 1 Total return is net of all internal and external management fees and expenses. 2 I ndividual benchmarks are representative of each asset class and are approved 1 by the Board of Directors of HMC. T he Harvard endowment is the most significant component of the University’s 3 SP 500 / CITI US BIG general investment account managed by HMC.
  10. 10. This performance is notable when we remember that Over the last decade the Harvard endowment has there were three very difficult periods in the financial outperformed its benchmark by 270 basis points markets during these twenty years: the collapse of per year, and has also outperformed a 60/40 stock/ Long Term Capital Management in 1998, the bursting bond portfolio by 510 basis points per year – adding of the tech bubble in 2000-2001, and the financial roughly $15 billion of value versus what would have crisis of 2008-2009. Despite these challenges, over this been earned by a more traditional portfolio. twenty-year period, performance across all asset classes has been strong in both nominal and relative terms. annualized twenty-year performance by asset class1 message from the ceo of hmc 9 harvard university annualized ten-year performance by asset class11 R eturns are calculated on a time-weighted basis with the exception of private equity and real assets, which are calculated on a dollar-weighted basis. Returns are net of all internal and external management fees and expenses.2 Individual benchmarks are representative of each asset class and are approved by the Board of Directors of HMC.3 Absolute return asset class includes high yield.4 Real assets consist of investments in liquid commodities, natural resources and real estate.
  11. 11. discussion of fiscal year 2011 As a measure of the strength of the endowment’s return versus our aggregate equities benchmark of 30.4% in fiscal year 2011, every asset class had a positive nomi- (as shown below). Emerging markets equities had a nal return, led by an outstanding 34.6% achieved for difficult time keeping up in the context of wide disper- our domestic equities portfolio (versus a benchmark of sions in returns from one country to another. Russia, 31.9%). The public and private equity markets were gen- for example, gained 47.3% during the year, while India erally robust over the period, although by the end of the was up only 8%, and China and Brazil fell between fiscal year the long upward climb in equity market val- these extremes. Although emerging economies broadly ues that started in March 2009 lost momentum. During showed signs of cooling during the second half of the the June 2011 quarter the sp 500 was up only 0.1%. fiscal year, with negative returns in many countriesmessage from the ceo of hmc during that time, our confidence in this area is still Our domestic equity strategies, both internal and high. The potential for significant long-term returns external, were largely successful in adding value over in emerging markets is great as they continue to grow their benchmarks. However, our overall public equi- and become even more major consumers and suppliers ties, including foreign and emerging markets, lagged to the rest of the world. the markets. Public equities in total were up 28.3%, one-year performance by asset class110harvard university 1 R eturns are calculated on a time-weighted basis with the exception of private equity and real assets, which are calculated on a dollar- weighted basis. Returns are net of all internal and external management fees and expenses. 2 Individual benchmarks are representative of each asset class and are approved by the Board of Directors of HMC. 3 Absolute return asset class includes high yield. 4 Real assets consist of investments in liquid commodities, natural resources and real estate. Outside of the public equity markets we also had very We also had significant gains in our natural resources significant positive nominal returns in private equity portfolio (reflected above under Real Assets). This (+26.2%), public commodities (+26.9%), and foreign portfolio, representing approximately 10% of the total bonds (+21.7%). Our entire fixed income team deliv- endowment, is comprised of hard assets (as opposed to ered excellent performance, with an average return securities): primarily timberland, but also agricultural across all market segments (U.S. treasuries, inflation- and other resource-bearing properties located on five linked bonds, and sovereign debt) of 9.1% versus 6.9% continents. Our team, built over the last decade, is widely for the aggregate fixed income benchmark. regarded as one of the world’s best in this sector. We
  12. 12. started investing in timberland properties in the 1990s see tangible positive results from this shift in culture.and as a result we have benefited from a meaningful Whether we are analyzing the pluses and minuses offirst mover advantage. The investment return on the hard asset investments outside of the U.S., or commod-natural resources portfolio last year was 18.8% and over ities exposure in liquid or illiquid markets, or real estatethe last ten years has been 12.8% annually. risks in the form of financial instruments versus bricks and mortar, we are gaining deeper insights by bringingAbsolute return, our portfolio of external hedge fund together people that work daily in public markets,managers with strategies that are less correlated to private markets, traditional assets, alternatives, deriva-public markets, returned approximately 11.6% for the tives and U.S. and foreign currency. While manyyear, beating its industry benchmark by about 200 large endowments might have access to some similar message from the ceo of hmcbasis points. We have restructured our absolute return resources through external managers and consultants,portfolio significantly over the last few years and are none have the benefit of such a diverse team of expertsnow happier with the mix of managers and strategies who walk in the door each morning, where they can beit contains: a variety of approaches to generating value called into an impromptu meeting or assigned to a newranging from purely opportunistic to long/short to cross-disciplinary investigation at a moment’s notice.unusual investments such as royalty streams. Whenpublic equity markets do not do as well as they did this On the subject of hiring, we have been fortunate dur-past fiscal year, we expect this segment of our portfolio ing the year and have made several important addi-to continue to produce stable risk-adjusted returns over tions to our team. We have a new internal group focus-the economic cycle. ing on credit markets, and a recent in-house addition 11 who is expert in trading Chinese equities. We have alsoOur real estate portfolio had a strong double-digit added active commodities trading to our internal man- harvard universityreturn in the fiscal year (+11%), although it lagged its agement capabilities. At the same time we have filled-industry benchmark. The real estate market has many out our real estate team and added significantly to ourcomponents, which generated a wide range of returns risk group and investment support organization.during this period and our portfolio has exposureacross the spectrum. Fully leased core properties were The hmc team overall is in great shape, with a stronghighly sought-after by investors, often from overseas, bench of talent across all key areas, and we are close toand prices for these properties were strong. We were where we need to be for the long term. We still plan toable to sell some of our portfolio properties in this cat- expand our internal team, consistent with our goal ofegory at excellent values. However, while prices in core judiciously shifting assets from external managers backreal estate were escalating rapidly, other types of real to our internal platform over the next several years.estate are recovering much more slowly following the Given the benefits of our hybrid model, including the2008-2009 crisis. Our recently expanded real estate alignment of interests, cost efficiency, and greaterteam is currently reshaping the portfolio to enhance its transparency we gain, it makes good sense for Harvardreturn/risk profile. The team has established a number to allocate a larger proportion of the total portfolio toof promising joint venture partnerships and is making internal management in the coming years. Even as weinvestments in inefficient pockets of the global real add to internally managed assets, our externally man-estate market. aged portfolio will continue to be important for the investment activities that we either cannot or prefer not to pursue from the internal side. It also gives usorganization and talent tremendous geographic reach and breadth.This year has been an active and productive one acrossour organization. One of my goals as ceo of hmc isto encourage greater interchange among the talentedindividuals in our company, believing that we will ben-efit from a higher degree of cross-fertilization in ourwork. Through changes to our organizational structureand greater use of integrated teams, we have begun to
  13. 13. outlook Since the end of the fiscal year the markets have been One thing we know for certain is that change in the exceptionally volatile, driven by concern and uncertainty investment world is inevitable. At our company we have related to the debt ceiling debate, the fate of the euro stressed a culture of learning and continuous improvement zone, the sp downgrade of the U.S. Treasury securities, across all parts of the organization and the portfolio. and indications of slowing growth in economies at Although current markets are certainly difficult, and home and abroad. The impact of these issues on our future returns may be uncertain, we remain focused portfolio is unavoidable. The good news is that we on our mission and are confident that hmc will deliver have gained flexibility through the restructuring of the strong long-term returns for Harvard University. portfolio in recent years which allows us to take somemessage from the ceo of hmc advantage of declining valuations under the right cir- Thank you for your support. cumstances. At the same time, our team is more global in its perspective than ever before and the critical role of risk management, within hmc and between hmc and the University, is much improved. Jane L. Mendillo President and Chief Executive Officer October 28 , 201112harvard university the policy portfolio and long-term Fiscal year expected returns Domestic equities 1995 38% 2005 15% 2012 12% The Policy Portfolio – that is, the mix of asset classes Foreign equities 15 10 12 that we and the hmc Board determine is best equipped Emerging markets 5 5 12 Private equities 12 13 12 to meet Harvard’s needs over the long term – provides Total equities 70 43 48 hmc with a guide as to the actual allocation of the Absolute return 0 12 16 investment portfolio and also serves as a measuring stick against which we judge the success of our active Commodities 6 13 14 management strategies. Each year we develop and Real estate 7 10 9 Total real assets 13 23 23 review a long-term expected return for each of our asset classes which informs our thinking and debate Domestic bonds 15 11 4 Foreign bonds 5 5 3 around the construction of the Policy Portfolio. High yield 2 5 2 Inflation-indexed bonds 0 6 4 In fiscal year 2011 the group within hmc responsible Total fixed income 22 27 13 for arriving at the asset-class-by-asset-class expected Cash -5 -5 0 returns was led by one of our internal equity portfolio TOTAL 100% 100% 100% managers. An internal team of risk, analytics and investment professionals worked with portfolio managers within hmc, as well as with our Board and our Chief Risk Officer, to develop a rigorous framework for projecting future capital markets returns. This cross-disciplinary work was instrumental in driving our discussion with the Board this year about the “right” target mix of assets for Harvard – and therefore the incremental evolution of our Policy Portfolio.
  14. 14. Report of Independent Auditors report of independent auditorsTo the Board of Overseers of Harvard College:In our opinion, the accompanying Balance Sheet and the related Statements of Changes inNet Assets with General Operating Account Detail, Changes in Net Assets of the Endowment,and Cash Flows, present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of HarvardUniversity (the “University”) at June 30, 2011, and the changes in its net assets of the GeneralOperating Account and endowment funds and its cash flows for the year then ended in 13conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.These financial statements are the responsibility of the University’s management. Our harvard universityresponsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit.The prior year summarized comparative information has been derived from the University’sfiscal 2010 financial statements, and in our report dated October 15, 2010, we expressed anunqualified opinion on those financial statements. We conducted our audit of these statementsin accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America.Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assuranceabout whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includesexamining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financialstatements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made bymanagement, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe thatour audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.As discussed in Notes 2 and 3, the University adopted new guidance related to the presentationof non-controlling interests in consolidated entities.October 28, 2011PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 125 High Street, Boston, MA 02110T: (617) 530 5000, F: (617) 530 5001, www.pwc.com/usPricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 125 High Street, Boston, MA 02110T: (617) 530 5000, F: (617) 530 5001, www.pwc.com/us
  15. 15. balance sheets with summarized financial information as of June 30, 2010 June 30 In thousands of dollars 2011 2010 ASSETS: Cash $ 142,503 $ 31,629 Receivables, net (Note 6) 259,953 242,474 Prepayments and deferred charges 163,886 165,511 Notes receivable, net (Note 7) 363,356 364,309 Pledges receivable, net (Note 8) 758,441 772,212 Fixed assets, net (Note 9) 5,647,077 5,500,585 Interests in trusts held by others (Note 4) 351,408 297,629 Investment portfolio, at fair value (Notes 3 and 4) 46,760,472 36,701,525 Securities pledged to counterparties, at fair value (Notes 3 and 4) 6,768,202 4,158,201 TOTAL ASSETS 61,215,298 48,234,075financial statements LIABILITIES: Accounts payable 344,732 336,007 Deposits and other liabilities 679,326 679,382 Securities lending and other liabilities associated with the investment portfolio (Notes 3, 4 and 12) 14,335,814 6,926,031 Liabilities due under split interest agreements (Note 11) 771,568 705,601 Bonds and notes payable (Note 12) 6,335,709 6,284,197 Accrued retirement obligations (Note 13) 817,885 909,193 Government loan advances (Note 7) 66,987 61,396 TOTAL LIABILITIES 23,352,021 15,901,80714 NET ASSETS, attributable to non-controlling interests in the pooled general investment account (Note 3) 832,339 597,335 NET ASSETS, attributable to the University 37,030,938 31,734,933harvard university TOTAL LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS $ 61,215,298 $ 48,234,075 emporarily Permanently T June 30 Unrestricted restricted restricted 2011 2010 NET ASSETS, attributable to the University: General Operating Account (Note 14) $ 3,163,225 $ 1,241,098 $ 96,097 $ 4,500,420 $ 3,747,931 Endowment (Note 10) 5,595,780 21,208,693 5,208,256 32,012,729 27,565,029 Split interest agreements (Note 11) 73,973 443,816 517,789 421,973 TOTAL NET ASSETS, attributable to the University $ 8,759,005 $ 22,523,764 $ 5,748,169 $ 37,030,938 $ 31,734,933 The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.
  16. 16. statements of changes in net assets with general operating account detail with summarized financial information for the year ended June 30, 2010 For the year ended Temporarily Permanently June 30In thousands of dollars Unrestricted restricted restricted 2011 2010OPERATING REVENUE:Student income: Undergraduate program $ 254,095 $ 254,095 $ 245,885 Graduate and professional degree programs 411,152 411,152 394,917 Board and lodging 149,972 149,972 147,735 Continuing education and executive programs 260,390 260,390 242,212 Scholarships applied to student income (Note 15) (335,036) (335,036) (318,911)Total student income 740,573 0 0 740,573 711,838Sponsored support (Note 16): Federal government - direct costs 509,958 509,958 463,009 financial statements Federal government - indirect costs 176,270 176,270 157,516 Non-federal sponsors - direct costs 60,173 $ 84,871 145,044 136,712 Non-federal sponsors - indirect costs 14,745 5,810 20,555 19,540Total sponsored support 761,146 90,681 0 851,827 776,777Gifts for current use (Note 17) 88,388 188,526 276,914 247,899Investment income: Endowment returns made available for operations (Note 10) 217,890 974,140 1,192,030 1,320,574 goa returns made available for operations 148,178 148,178 157,089 Other investment income 10,682 10,942 21,624 15,844Total investment income 376,750 985,082 0 1,361,832 1,493,507 15Other income (Note 18) 546,600 546,600 508,987 harvard universityNet assets released from restrictions 1,266,650 (1,266,650) 0 0TOTAL OPERATING REVENUE 3,780,107 (2,361) 3,777,746 3,739,008OPERATING EXPENSES:Salaries and wages 1,420,023 1,420,023 1,363,348Employee benefits (Note 13) 461,010 461,010 426,124Interest (Note 12) 298,843 298,843 266,021Depreciation (Note 9) 281,027 281,027 278,360Space and occupancy 271,853 271,853 278,327Supplies and equipment 233,655 233,655 217,749Scholarships and other student awards (Note 15) 116,510 116,510 115,870Other expenses (Note 19) 824,647 824,647 794,148TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES 3,907,568 0 0 3,907,568 3,739,947NET OPERATING DEFICIT (127,461) (2,361) 0 (129,822) (((939)NON-OPERATING ACTIVITIES:Income from GOA investments 20,946 20,946 36,607Realized and unrealized appreciation/(depreciation), net (Note 3) 649,799 649,799 205,019GOA returns made available for operations (148,178) (148,178) (157,089)Change in pledge balances (Note 8) 36,616 36,616 27,743Change in interests in trusts held by others 6,120 6,120 (1,135)Capital gifts for loan funds and facilities (Note 17) 32,135 $­­ 852 32,987 6,733Change in retirement obligations (Note 13) 172,482 ­­ 172,482 (107,714)Other changes (51,364) (51,364) (8,756)Transfers between GOA and endowment (14,437) 168,264 (5,024) 148,803 155,681Transfers between GOA and split interest agreements 11,559 2,541 14,100 11,489Non-operating net assets released from restrictions 163,838 (166,347) 2,509 0 0TOTAL NON-OPERATING ACTIVITIES 793,086 88,347 878) 882,311 168,578GENERAL OPERATING ACCOUNT NET CHANGE DURING THE YEAR 665,625 85,986 878 752,489 167,639Endowment net change during the year 868,004 3,312,654 267,042 4,447,700 1,426,790Split interest agreement net change during the year (Note 11) 35,719 60,097 95,816 218NET CHANGE DURING THE YEAR, attributable to the University 1,533,629 3,434,359 328,017 5,296,005 1,594,647NET ASSETS, attributable to non-controlling interests in the pooled general investment account, change during the year 235,004 235,004 38,171NET CHANGE DURING THE YEAR 1,768,633 3,434,359 328,017 5,531,009 1,632,818Net assets, beginning of year 7,822,711 19,089,405 5,420,152 32,332,268 30,699,450NET ASSETS, end of year $ 9,591,344 $ 22,523,764 $ 5,748,169 $ 37,863,277 $ 32,332,268The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.
  17. 17. statements of changes in net assets of the endowment ­ with summarized financial information for the year ended June 30, 2010 For the year ended Temporarily Permanently June 30 In thousands of dollars Unrestricted restricted restricted 2011 2010 Investment return (Note 3): Income from general investments $ 29,542 $ 131,664 161,206 $ 182,402 $ Realized and unrealized appreciation/(depreciation), net 966,696 4,372,482 5,339,178 2,447,868 Total investment return 996,238 4,504,146 0 5,500,384 2,630,270 Endowment returns made available for operations (217,890) (974,140) 0 (1,192,030) (1,320,574) Net investment return 778,348 3,530,006 0 4,308,354 1,309,696 Gifts for capital (Note 17) 3,862 19,440 $ 189,062 212,364 240,793 Transfers between endowment and the goa (Note 10) (168,264) 14,437 5,024 (148,803) (155,681) Capitalization of split interest agreements (Note 11) 2,696 53,304 56,000 83,746financial statements Change in pledge balances (Note 8) (6,157) (43,377) (49,534) (39,151) Change in interests in trusts held by others (Note 10) 1,061 46,599 47,660 22,193 Other changes 21,649 10 21,659 (34,806) Net assets released from restrictions 71,357 (87,777) 16,420 0 0 NET CHANGE DURING THE YEAR 868,004 3,312,654 267,042 4,447,700 1,426,790 Net assets of the endowment, beginning of year 4,727,776 17,896,039 4,941,214 27,565,029 26,138,239 NET ASSETS OF THE ENDOWMENT, end of year $ 5,595,780 $ 21,208,693 $ 5,208,256 $ 32,012,729 $ 27,565,029 The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.16harvard university
  18. 18. statements of cash flows For the year ended June 30In thousands of dollars 2011 2010CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: Change in net assets $ 5,531,009 $ 1,632,818Adjustments to reconcile change in net assets to net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities: Change in net assets, attributable to non-controlling interests in the pooled general investment account (235,004) (38,171) Depreciation 281,027 278,360 Change in fair value of interest rate exchange agreements (330,270) 52,710 Change in interests in trusts held by others (53,779) (21,058) Change in liabilities due under split interest agreements 65,967 8,614 Realized and unrealized (gain)/loss on investments, net (6,175,282) (2,847,547) Gifts of securities (53,717) (74,919) Gifts restricted for capital purposes (235,636) (213,029) Loss on redemption of debt 32,190 0 financial statements Loss on disposal of assets 35,023 3,810 Accrued retirement obligations (91,308) 169,077Changes in operating assets and liabilities: Receivables, net (17,479) 1,970 Prepayments and deferred charges 1,625 (14,314) Pledges receivable, net 13,771 13,078 Accounts payable (38,747) (34,181) Deposits and other liabilities (56) (237)NET CASH USED IN OPERATING ACTIVITIES (1,270,666) (1,083,019)CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES: Loans made to students, faculty, and staff (45,987) (42,821) 17 Payments received on student, faculty, and staff loans 37,470 35,344 Change in other notes receivable 9,470 613 harvard university Proceeds from the sales of gifts of securities 53,717 74,919 Proceeds from the sales and maturities of investments 72,153,105 55,986,287 Purchases of investments (69,662,919) (53,499,938) Additions to fixed assets (445,936) (429,995)NET CASH PROVIDED BY INVESTING ACTIVITIES 2,098,920 2,124,409CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES: Change in overdrafts included in accounts payable 30,866 (5,034) Proceeds from the issuance of debt 1,065,587 753,742 Debt repayments (1,046,265) (449,996) Gifts restricted for capital purposes 235,636 213,029 Change associated with securities lending agreements (1,008,795) (1,547,540) Change in government loan advances 5,591 (8,144)NET CASH USED IN FINANCING ACTIVITIES (717,380) (1,043,943)NET CHANGE IN CASH 110,874 (2,553)Cash, beginning of year 31,629 34,182CASH, end of year $ 142,503 $ 31,629Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information: Accounts payable related to fixed asset additions $ 62,049 $ 45,443 Cash paid for interest $ 295,616 $ 274,742The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.
  19. 19. 1. university organization Harvard University (the “University”) is a private, not-for-profit Harvard College (the “Corporation”), a governing board institution of higher education with approximately 7,300 of the University, has oversight responsibility for all of the undergraduate and 13,900 graduate students. Established in University’s financial affairs. The Corporation delegates 1636, the University includes the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, substantial authority to the Schools and departments for the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the Division the management of their resources and operations. of Continuing Education, nine graduate and professional Schools, the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, a variety The University includes Harvard Management Company of research museums and institutes, and an extensive library (hmc), a wholly owned subsidiary founded in 1974 to system to support the teaching and research activities manage the University’s investment assets. hmc is governednotes to financial statements of the Harvard community. The President and Fellows of by a Board of Directors that is appointed by the Corporation. 2. summary of significant accounting policies Basis of presentation Net asset classifications The consolidated financial statements present the activities For the purposes of financial reporting, the University of Harvard University as a whole, including significant classifies resources into three net asset categories pursuant affiliated organizations controlled by the University. to any donor-imposed restrictions and applicable law.18 Accordingly, the net assets of the University are classified The financial statements include certain prior year summarized in the accompanying financial statements in the categoriesharvard university comparative information in total, not by net asset classification. that follow: This information is not presented in sufficient detail to conform with generally accepted accounting principles (gaap). unrestricted net assets are not subject to donor-imposed Accordingly, such information should be read in conjunction restrictions. Funds invested in fixed assets and unrestricted with the University’s financial statements for the year ended endowment funds comprise 83% of the University’s June 30, 2010, from which the summarized information unrestricted net assets as of June 30, 2011. In addition, this is derived. category includes unrestricted gifts and endowment income balances, University-designated loan funds, and other Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform unrestricted current funds. to current year presentation. The reclassification included moving certain costs for items not yet in operation from the temporarily restricted net assets are subject to legal or operating section of the Statement of Changes in Net Assets with donor-imposed stipulations that will be satisfied either by General Operating Account Detail, which is consistent with the actions of the University, the passage of time, or both. These current year presentation. This reclassification reduced the net assets include gifts donated for a particular purpose, prior year operating deficit by $3.8 million. Reclassifications amounts subject to time restrictions such as funds pledged also increased the prior year cash used by operations and for future payment, or amounts subject to legal restrictions decreased cash provided by investing by $3.8 million. such as portions of otherwise unrestricted capital appreciation and income, which must be reported as temporarily restricted Funds transferred to the University on behalf of specific net assets until appropriated for spending in accordance beneficiaries (agency funds) are recorded as assets and with Massachusetts law. liabilities in the Balance Sheets and are not included in the Statements of Changes in Net Assets with General Operating permanently restricted net assets are subject to Account Detail. donor-imposed stipulations that they be invested to provide a perpetual source of income to the University. Generally, donors of these assets require the University to maintain and invest the original contribution in perpetuity, but permit the use of some or all investment returns for general or specific purposes.
  20. 20. Revenues from sources other than contributions are mobile liability, property damage, and workers’ compensation;generally reported as increases in unrestricted net assets. these programs are supplemented with commercial excessExpenses are reported as decreases in unrestricted net assets. insurance above the University’s self insured limit. In addition,Investment returns earned by restricted donor funds are the University is self insured for unemployment, the primaryinitially classified as temporarily restricted net assets and then senior health plan, and all health and dental plans for activereclassified to unrestricted net assets when expenses employees. The University’s claims liabilities are recognizedare incurred for their intended purpose. as incurred, including claims that have been incurred but not reported, and are included in operating expenses.Unconditional pledges are reported as increases in theappropriate categories of net assets in accordance with donor Tax-exempt statusrestrictions. Gains and losses on investments are reported The University is a tax-exempt organization under Section notes to financial statementsas increases or decreases in unrestricted net assets, unless 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.their use is restricted by donor stipulations or by law.Expirations of temporary restrictions on net assets are reported Use of estimatesas reclassifications from temporarily restricted to unrestricted The preparation of financial statements in accordance withnet assets and appear as “Net assets released from restrictions” gaap in the United States of America requires managementand “Non-operating net assets released from restrictions” in to make estimates and assumptions that affect reportedthe Statements of Changes in Net Assets. amounts and disclosures. Actual results could differ from those estimates.Net operating surplus/(deficit)Revenues earned, expenses incurred, and returns made New accounting pronouncementsavailable for operations for the purpose of teaching, conducting Effective July 1, 2010, the University adopted asu 2010-06, 19research, and the other programs and services of the Improving Disclosures about Fair Value Measurements. asu harvard universityUniversity are the components of “Net operating deficit” 2010-06 requires additional disclosures for significant transfersin the Statements of Changes in Net Assets with General in and out of Fair Value Levels 1 and 2 and the presentationOperating Account Detail. of gross trading activity within the Level 3 rollforward. Further, asu 2010-06 clarifies existing disclosures to include fair valueCollections measurement disclosures for each class of assets and liabilitiesThe University’s vast array of museums and libraries houses as well as to require additional disclosures about inputs andpriceless works of art, historical treasures, literary works, and valuation techniques utilized to measure fair value for Levels 2artifacts. These collections are protected and preserved for and 3. The effects of adopting this amendment are addressedpublic exhibition, education, research, and the furtherance in Notes 3 and 4.of public service. They are neither disposed of for financialgain nor encumbered in any manner. Accordingly, such Effective July 1, 2010, the University adopted asu 2010-20,collections are not recorded for financial statement purposes. Disclosures about the Credit Quality of Financing Receivables and the Allowance for Credit Losses. asu 2010-20 requiresInsurance programs additional disclosures surrounding credit losses on longThe University, together with the Harvard-affiliated teaching term receivables. The effects of adopting this amendmenthospitals, has formed a captive insurance company, Controlled are addressed in Note 7.Risk Insurance Company (crico), to provide limitedprofessional liability, general liability, and medical malpractice Effective July 1, 2010, the University retroactively adoptedinsurance for its shareholders. The University self insures a asu 2010-7 Not-for-Profit Entities Mergers and Acquisitions. Whileportion of its professional liability and general liability programs the University was not a party to any mergers or acquisitions, theand maintains a reserve for incurred claims, including those guidance also impacts the financial statement treatment ofrelated to Harvard Medical School activities occurring away non-controlling interests in consolidated entities. This guidancefrom the affiliated teaching hospitals. The crico provided requires the University to report non-controlling interests inmalpractice coverage applies with no deductible for medical consolidated entities as a separate component of net assetsprofessionals practicing within Harvard’s University Health on the Statement of Financial Position and the change in netServices department, the School of Dental Medicine, and assets attributable to the non-controlling interests separatelythe School of Public Health. The University also maintains within the Statements of Changes in Net Assets. The effects ofreserves for the self-insured portion of claims related to auto- adopting this amendment are addressed in Note 3.

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